Duration of Treatment (y)

Daily Dose

Primary Disease Outcome



50 mg β-carotene, 600 IU α-tocopherol, 500 mg vitamin C (alternate days)


No results yet


600 IU α-tocopherol, 100 mg aspirin (alternate days)

MI, stroke, or CVD death

No results yet


50 mg β-carotene, 400 IU α-tocopherol (alternate days), 500 mg vitamin C, multivitamin (centrum silver)

CVD, cancer, eye diseases

No results yet


6 mg β-carotene, 30 mg α-tocopherol, 120 mg vitamin C, 100 µg selenium, 20 mg zinc

Cancer, ischemic heart disease

No results yet

e U.K. = United Kingdom.

f MI = myocardial infarction.

g PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid.

h ACE = angiotension-converting enzyme.

i NR = not reported.

although not all, of the properties of β-carotene, additional carotenoids (α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin) were added as related nutrients that would be investigated. In addition, because of the important role that selenium plays as a cofactor for oxidant defense enzymes, it was also included as a related nutrient.

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