H

Glossary and Acronyms

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Action

Demonstrated effects in various biological systems that may or may not have physiological significance

ADD

Attention deficit disorder

AGE

Advanced glycosylation end product

AI

Adequate Intake

AMD

Age-related macular degeneration

APTT

Activated partial thromboplastin times

Association

Potential interactions derived from epidemiological studies of the relationship between specific nutrients and chronic disease

ATBC

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (Cancer Prevention Study)

AUC

Area under the curve

AVED

Ataxia and vitamin E deficiency

Bioavailability

Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in unspecified metabolic and/or physiological processes



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OCR for page 463
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids H Glossary and Acronyms AAP American Academy of Pediatrics ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme Action Demonstrated effects in various biological systems that may or may not have physiological significance ADD Attention deficit disorder AGE Advanced glycosylation end product AI Adequate Intake AMD Age-related macular degeneration APTT Activated partial thromboplastin times Association Potential interactions derived from epidemiological studies of the relationship between specific nutrients and chronic disease ATBC Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (Cancer Prevention Study) AUC Area under the curve AVED Ataxia and vitamin E deficiency Bioavailability Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in unspecified metabolic and/or physiological processes

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids BMI Body mass index CARET Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial Carotenodermia Yellow discoloration of the skin with elevated plasma carotene concentrations α-CEHC 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman γ-CEHC 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman CHAOS Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study CHD Coronary heart disease CLAS Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals—a survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture CV Coefficient of variation: mean ÷ standard deviation DDS Delayed dermal sensitivity DHA Dehydroascorbic acid DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Dose-response assessment Second step in a risk assessment, in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence or severity of the effect) is determined DRI Dietary Reference Intake DTH Delayed-type hypersensitivity EAR Estimated Average Requirement F2-isoprostane Indicator of oxidative lipid damage and free-radical generation FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Fore milk Human milk collected at the beginning of an infant feeding

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids FOX Ferrous oxidation/xylenol orange FNB Food and Nutrition Board FT3 Free triiodothyronine Function Role played by a nutrient in growth, development and maturation GSH Reduced glutathione GSHPx Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases GSSG Oxidized glutathione Gun blue Lubricant solution containing selenious acid, nitric acid, and copper nitrate H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide Hazard identification First step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient HDL High-density lipoprotein Hind milk Human milk collected at the end of an infant feeding HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HOCl Hypochlorous acid HOPE Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency ICAM-1 Intracellular cell adhesion molecule IOM Institute of Medicine Kashin-Beck disease Human cartilage disease found in some of the low-selenium intake areas in Asia Keshan disease Human cardiomyopathy that occurs only in selenium-deficient children LDL Low-density lipoprotein

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level—lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified LPL Lipoprotein lipase Lycopenodermia Deep orange discoloration of the skin resulting from high intakes of lycopene-rich food MHC Major histocompatibility complex MONICA Project Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease Project MPOD Macular pigment optical density MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acid NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADPH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NEC Necrotizing enterocolitis NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey—survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NHIS National Health Interview Survey NO Nitric oxide NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level—highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed NRC National Research Council ORAC Oxygen radical absorbance capacity Oxidative stress Imbalance between the production of various reactive species and the ability of the organism's natural protective mechanisms to cope with these reactive compounds and prevent adverse effects OxLDL Oxidized low-density lipoprotein 8-OxodG 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine—a product of oxidative DNA damage

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids PHS Physicians' Health Study Provitamin A carotenoids α-Carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid RBC Red blood cell RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance Risk assessment Organized framework for evaluating scientific information, which has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk Risk characterization Final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the risk assessment (hazard identification, dose-response, and estimates of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL Risk management Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control RNA Ribonucleic acid RNI Recommended Nutrient Intake RNS Reactive nitrogen species ROS Reactive oxygen species SD Standard deviation SE Standard error

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Selenite and selenate Inorganic selenium, the forms found in many dietary supplements Selenomethionine and selenocysteine Major dietary forms of selenium Selenosis Selenium toxicity characterized by hair loss and nail sloughing SEM Standard error of the mean SOD Superoxide dismutase TBARS Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a nonspecific measure of lipid peroxidation TD Tardive dyskinesia α-TE α-Tocopherol equivalent TEAC Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity α-Tocopherol The only form of vitamin E that is maintained in human plasma and thus it is the only form utilized to estimate the vitamin E requirement. TRAP Total radical-trapping antioxidant capability α-TTP α-Tocopherol transfer protein UF Uncertainty factor—number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL; the size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USP U.S. Pharmacopeia VCAM-1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule Vitamin E The 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) VLDL Very low density lipoproteins WHO World Health Organization