I

Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members

LENORE ARAB, Ph.D., is a professor of epidemiology and nutrition in the Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Schools of Medicine and Public Health. Dr. Arab' s main research interests are anticarcinogens in foods, heterocyclic amines, breast cancer incidence and survival, the relationship of diet to athersclerosis, antioxidant nutrients in various diseases, iron nutriture, and multi-media approaches to dietary assessment. She has published over 140 original papers as well as numerous book chapters and monographs. Dr. Arab serves as a nutrition advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO) and is the founding director of the WHO Collaborating Center for Nutritional Epidemiology in Berlin. She is the North American Editor of the journal Public Health Nutrition and sits on the editorial boards of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition in Clinical Care, and Nutrition and Cancer: An International Journal. She is the program director for nutritional epidemiology and leader of a training program and NCI-sponsored training grant in that field. Dr. Arab received her M.Sc. from Harvard School of Public Health and her Ph.D. in nutrition from Justus Liebig University in Giessen, Germany.

SUSAN I. BARR, Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition at the University of British Columbia. She received a Ph.D. in human nutrition from the University of Minnesota and is a registered dietitian in Canada. Her research interests focus on the associations among nutrition, physical activity and bone health in women, and she has authored



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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids I Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members LENORE ARAB, Ph.D., is a professor of epidemiology and nutrition in the Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Schools of Medicine and Public Health. Dr. Arab' s main research interests are anticarcinogens in foods, heterocyclic amines, breast cancer incidence and survival, the relationship of diet to athersclerosis, antioxidant nutrients in various diseases, iron nutriture, and multi-media approaches to dietary assessment. She has published over 140 original papers as well as numerous book chapters and monographs. Dr. Arab serves as a nutrition advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO) and is the founding director of the WHO Collaborating Center for Nutritional Epidemiology in Berlin. She is the North American Editor of the journal Public Health Nutrition and sits on the editorial boards of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition in Clinical Care, and Nutrition and Cancer: An International Journal. She is the program director for nutritional epidemiology and leader of a training program and NCI-sponsored training grant in that field. Dr. Arab received her M.Sc. from Harvard School of Public Health and her Ph.D. in nutrition from Justus Liebig University in Giessen, Germany. SUSAN I. BARR, Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition at the University of British Columbia. She received a Ph.D. in human nutrition from the University of Minnesota and is a registered dietitian in Canada. Her research interests focus on the associations among nutrition, physical activity and bone health in women, and she has authored

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids over 65 publications. Dr. Barr has served as vice president of the Canadian Dietetic Association (now Dietitians of Canada) and is a Fellow of both the Dietitians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine. She is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada and the Medical Advisory Board of the Milk Processors Education Program. GEORGE C. BECKING, Ph.D., is an associate with Phoenix OHC, Inc., Kingston, Canada, specializing in toxicology and risk assessment related to human health effects of chemicals. Previously, hex was a scientist with the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, working in the International Programme on Chemical Safety, and a Research Scientist and Scientific Manager at Health Canada. At WHO, his responsibilities included the evaluation of human health risks from a wide range of chemicals including the essential metals copper and zinc. At Health Canada, Dr. Becking worked as a research scientist with a major focus on the effects of nutrition on the metabolism and toxicity of chemicals. Dr. Becking earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He has published over 60 papers and book chapters in the fields of biochemistry, toxicology, and risk assessment methodology. GARY R. BEECHER, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Currently, Dr. Beecher is a research chemist in the Food Composition Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center. He has over 30 years of professional research experience in analytical chemistry of biological and food systems. Dr. Beecher's recent work has been on investigating the relationship of dietary and plasma carotenoids. He is involved in developing methods for the measurement of flavonoids and the analysis of foods for these constituents. Dr. Beecher was the co-chair of the Symposium on Healthy Diets and Food Trade: The Role of Food Composition Data at the International Congress of Nutrition in July 1997. SUSAN T. BORRA, R.D., is Senior Vice-President and Director of Nutrition at the International Food Information Council. Ms. Borra is responsible for directing communications programs, executing public affairs strategies, and managing nutrition and food safety issues. Additionally, she oversees the development of consumer education materials and nutrition, food safety, and health programs. Ms. Borra is a member of the American Dietetic Association and is immediate past chair of the American Dietetic Association Founda-

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids tion. In addition, she is active in the American Heart Association and the Society for Nutrition Education. She has a bachelor's degree in nutrition and dietetics from the University of Maryland and is a registered dietitian. RAYMOND F. BURK, M.D., is Director of the Clinical Nutrition Research Unit and professor of medicine and pathology at Vanderbilt University. It was also at Vanderbilt that Dr. Burk received his M.D. Dr. Burk has been involved in research on the nutritional and metabolic significance of selenium for many years. He has participated in five workshops sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and has been a member of three World Health Organization task groups on selenium. He was awarded the Lederle Award in Human Nutrition in 1988 and the Osborne and Mendel Award in 1993. He sits on the editorial boards of Hepatology and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ALICIA L. CARRIQUIRY, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University. She has a Ph.D. in statistics and animal science from Iowa State. Since 1990, Dr. Carriquiry has been a consultant for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Information Service. She has also done consulting for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Pork Producers Council, and is an affiliate for the Law and Economics Consulting Group. At present, Dr. Carriquiry is investigating the statistical issues associated with the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and she has recently completed reports on improving the USDA 's food intake surveys and methods to estimate adjusted intake, and biochemical measurement distributions for NHANES III. Dr. Carriquiry is the President Elect of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, a fellow of the American Statistical Association, and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. She is editor of Statistical Science, and serves on the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the National Institute of Statistical Science and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Her research interests include nutrition and dietary assessment, Bayesian methods and applications, mixed models and variance component estimation, environmental statistics, stochastic volatility, and linear and nonlinear filtering. ALVIN C. CHAN, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, at the University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Dr. Chan received both

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of Minnesota. His primary research interest is to elucidate the function of vitamin E in the turnover of arachidonic acid and membrane phospholipids, the role of vitamin E in free radical formation during oxidative stress, and the relationship of antioxidants to atherogenesis. Dr. Chan has spoken at numerous national and international conferences and has authored four book chapters and over 40 recent publications relating to vitamin E function and interaction with other antioxidants. He served as consultant for Health and Welfare Canada in the review of Canada's Nutrition Recommendations in 1990. He has been on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition from 1995–present. BARBARA L. DEVANEY, Ph.D., is a senior fellow at Mathematica Policy Research Inc. where she has specialized in designing and conducting program evaluations. She recently completed a study that produced a comprehensive and rigorous evaluation design for evaluating the impacts of a Universal-Free School Breakfast Program on dietary and educational outcomes of children. She currently is completing an evaluation of the effects of an infant mortality demonstration program, Healthy Start, and is involved in a study examining the impacts of child WIC participation on health care utilization and costs. She also is a co-investigator of a large national evaluation of abstinence education programs funded under the welfare reform legislation. Dr. Devaney was a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Scientific Evaluation of WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria. She received her Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan. JOHANNA T. DWYER, D.Sc., R.D., is director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center and professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Community Health at the Tufts Medical School and School of Nutrition Science and Policy in Boston. She is also senior scientist at the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Dr. Dwyer 's work centers on life-cycle related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a long-standing interest in vegetarian and other alternative lifestyles. Dr. Dwyer is currently the editor of Nutrition Today and on the editorial boards of Family Economics and Nutrition Reviews. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and completed

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University. She is a member of the Food and Nutrition Board and its Standing Committee on Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, and is past president of the American Society for Nutrition Sciences, past secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and a past president of the Society for Nutrition Education. JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR., Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and in Internal Medicine at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research interests are the effects of food processing upon nutrient retention, the metabolic roles of vitamin A and carotenoids, and the bioavailability of minerals from foods. His research regarding soy protein has extended into studies on the impact of non-nutrient components of foods such as phytoestrogens on chronic disease. He is vice-chair of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and a former member of the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on Opportunities in the Nutrition and Food Sciences; the Committee on the Nutrition Components of Food Labeling; and the Subcommittee on Bioavailability of Nutrients of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture. Dr. Erdman presently serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of the Mars Nutrition Research Council and the United Soybean Board. JEAN-PIERRE HABICHT, M.D., Ph.D., is professor of nutritional epidemiology in the Division of Nutrition Sciences at Cornell University. His professional experience includes serving as special assistant to the director of the Division of Health Examination Statistics at the National Center for Health Statistics, World Health Organization (WHO) medical officer at the Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama, and professor of maternal and child health at the University of San Carlos in Guatemala. Currently, Dr. Habicht serves as an advisor to United Nations (UN) and government health and nutrition agencies. He is a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Nutrition, WHO, and is past chairman of the United Nations' Advisory Group on Nutrition. He has consulted to the UN's World Food Program and is involved in research with the UN High Commission for Refugees about the adequacy of food rations in refugee camps. Dr. Habicht has served on numerous Institute of Medicine committees advising the U.S. Agency for International Development about issues in international nutrition. He served as a member of

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids the IOM's Food and Nutrition Board (1981–1984) and as a member and past chair of the Committee on International Nutrition Programs. Dr. Habicht chaired the National Research Council 's Coordinating Committee on Evaluation of Food Consumption Surveys, which produced the 1986 NRC report, Nutrient Adequacy: Assessment Using Food Consumption Surveys. ROBERT A. JACOB, Ph.D., F.A.C.N., obtained a Ph.D. degree in 1970 in inorganic and analytical chemistry from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Currently, Dr. Jacob is a research chemist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Western Human Nutrition Research Center (WHNRC) in Davis, California. Dr. Jacob has been engaged in nutritional biochemistry research for 23 years, 20 years as a chemist or research chemist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service. His area of research has been the metabolism and nutritional requirements for vitamins and trace minerals, and biochemical assessment of nutritional status. At WHNRC, his primary focus has been on requirements for vitamin C, folic acid, and niacin and the role of diet in antioxidant protection. He has published over 110 related articles in scientific journals and textbooks. ISHWARLAL JIALAL, M.D., Ph.D., is Professor of Internal Medicine and Pathology, Director of the Division of Clinical Biochemistry and Human Metabolism, Co-director of the Lipid Clinic, and Attending Physician, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. He also holds the C. Vincent Prothro Chair in Human Nutrition Research. To date Dr. Jialal has published over 216 original papers and invited reviews in the areas of nutrition, atherolsclerosis, metabolism, and endocrinology. He has received numerous awards for his work including the AHA Young Investigator Award; Fellow, Council of Arteriosclerosis, AHA; George Grannis Award, National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry; the VERIS Award for nutrition research; the Outstanding Clinical Chemist Award from the Texas Section, American Association of Clinical Chemistry and the International Hermes Prize for Vitamin Research, The Bennie Zak Award for Outstanding Research, Lipids and Lipoproteins Division, AACC. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. from the University of Natal Medical School, Natal, South Africa. Presently, his major research interests are atherosclerosis, antioxidants, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. RENATE D. KIMBROUGH, M.D., presently works as an independent consultant. From 1991 to 1999 she served as senior medical

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids associate at the Institute for Evaluating Health Risks (IEHR). She earned her M.D. from the University of Goettingen in Germany. At the IEHR, Dr. Kimbrough conducted several studies and consulted on a variety of matters involving environmental contamination and human health effects. Dr. Kimbrough has served previously as the Director for Health and Risk Capabilities and as Advisor on Medical Toxicology and Risk Evaluation for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Office of the Administrator and as medical toxicologist for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She has over 130 scientific publications in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment. Dr. Kimbrough is certified as a diplomate for the American Board of Toxicology and an honorary fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. In 1991, she received the American Conference on Governmental Industrial Hygienists' Herbert E. Stokinger Award for outstanding achievement in industrial toxicology. She also has served on the Scientific Advisory Board, United States Air Force, and the American Board of Toxicology. LAURENCE N. KOLONEL, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is Deputy Center Director and Director of the Cancer Etiology Program at the Cancer Research Center of the University of Hawaii. Dr. Kolonel is a former member of the Food and Nutrition Board and has served on the Committee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer; the Committee on Diet and Health; and the Committee on Comparative Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Carcinogens. Dr. Kolonel recently served on the National Cancer Institute Subcommittee on Prevention and Control, is on the advisory board of the Center for Communications, Health and the Environment, and is associate editor of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention and Cancer Research. Recently, Dr. Kolonel has published on the relationship of dietary intake and racial variations to prostate and other types of cancer. Dr. Kolonel received his M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of California at Berkeley and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. NORMAN I. KRINSKY, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Southern California. He is currently a professor in the Department of Biochemistry at Tufts University School of Medicine and a scientist at the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University. Dr. Krinsky is a member of the Advisory Committee of the International Antioxidant Research Centre at King's College in London. He is also the president of the New England Free Radical/Oxygen Society. Currently, Dr. Krinsky' s research is directed at ex-

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids amining the metabolism of carotenoids to retinoids and retinoic acid, the role of carotenoids in human vision, and the function of antioxidants. HARRIET V. KUHNLEIN, Ph.D., R.D., is professor of human nutrition at McGill University and founding director of the Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment. She is a registered dietitian in Canada, and holds a Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from the University of California at Berkeley. The focus of Dr. Kuhnlein's research is on the nutrition, food patterns, and environment of indigenous peoples. Specifically, her work examines the traditional foods of indigenous peoples, nutrient and contaminant levels in indigenous food systems, and nutrition promotion programs for indigenous peoples. She has published numerous articles on these subjects. Dr. Kuhnlein is a member of both the American and Canadian Societies of Nutritional Sciences, the Society for International Nutrition Research, the Canadian Dietetic Association, and the Society for Nutrition Education. She serves on the Advisory Council of the Herb Research Foundation, and is a former co-chair of the Committee on Nutrition and Anthropology of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Kuhnlein is a member of the editorial boards of Ecology of Food and Nutrition, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, and Journal of Ethnobiology. JAMES R. MARSHALL, Ph.D., is a professor of public health and associate director of Cancer Prevention and Control at the Arizona Cancer Center. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California at Los Angeles. Dr. Marshall is currently involved in a colon cancer prevention program project and is principal investigator for a collaborative project to assemble a multi-state registry of familial colon cancer. Additionally, Dr. Marshall is involved in research focused on diet in the epidemiology of prostate cancer. His work on measurement error in epidemiology has emphasized the use of nutrient indices. He has been the invited speaker at the American Cancer Society Workshop on Nutrition and Cancer, the American Dietetic Association, and the Second International Conference on Dietary Assessment Methods. SUSAN TAYLOR MAYNE, Ph.D., is an associate professor in chronic disease epidemiology at Yale University School of Medicine and associate director of the Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center for which she leads the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Pro-

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids gram. The primary focus of Dr. Mayne's research is in the area of nutrition and cancer prevention. Currently, she directs a large cancer prevention clinical trial to determine whether supplemental β-carotene reduces the incidence of cancer. Additionally, she participated in the working group on carotenoids and cancer of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Steering Committee of the Carotenoid/Vitamin A Research Interaction Group. She was chair of the Carotenoid Research Interaction Group Annual Conference at Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in 1996. Dr. Mayne has a Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry with minors in biochemistry and toxicology from Cornell University. RITA B. MESSING, Ph.D., received her Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Princeton University and did postdoctoral research in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Regulation. Dr. Messing has been in the Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School since 1981, and is currently an associate professor. Since 1990 her primary employment has been at the Minnesota Department of Health in Environmental Toxicology, where she supervises the Site Assessment and Consultation Unit, which conducts public health activities at hazardous waste sites and other sources of uncontrolled toxic releases. Dr. Messing has 70 publications in toxicology and risk assessment, neuropharmacology, psychobiology, and experimental psychology. She has taught at Rutgers University, Northeastern University, University of California at Irvine, and the University of Minnesota, and has had visiting appointments at Organon Pharmaceuticals in the Netherlands and the University of Paris. SANFORD A. MILLER, Ph.D., is dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He is the former director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration. Previously, he was professor of Nutritional Biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Miller has served on many national and international government and professional society advisory committees, including the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Expert Committee on GRAS Substances, the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Nutrition Board and its Food Forum, the Joint World Health Organization (WHO)/

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety (chairman), and the Steering Committees of several WHO/FAO panels. He also served as chair of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standards Issues. He is author or co-author of more than 200 original scientific publications. Dr. Miller received a B.S. in chemistry from the City College of New York, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Rutgers University in physiology and biochemistry. IAN C. MUNRO, Ph.D., is a consultant toxicologist and principal for CanTox, Inc., in Ontario, Canada. He is a leading authority on toxicology and has over 30 years experience in dealing with complex regulatory issues related to product safety. He has in excess of 150 scientific publications in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment. Dr. Munro formerly held senior positions at Health and Welfare Canada as director of the Bureau of Chemical Safety and director general of the Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch. He was responsible for research and standard setting activities related to microbial and chemical hazards in food and the nutritional quality of the Canadian food supply. He has contributed significantly to the development of risk assessment procedures in the field of public health, both nationally and internationally, through membership on various committees dealing with the regulatory aspects of risk assessment and risk management of public health hazards. Dr. Munro is a graduate of McGill University in biochemistry and nutrition and holds a Ph.D. from Queen's University in pharmacology and toxicology. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists, London, and a fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences. He also was a former director of the Canadian Centre for Toxicology at Guelph, Ontario. SUZANNE P. MURPHY, Ph.D., R.D., is a nutrition researcher (professor) at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. She received her B.S. in mathematics from Temple University and her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Murphy's research interests include dietary assessment methodology, development of food composition databases, and nutritional epidemiology. She is a member of the National Nutrition Monitoring Advisory Council and the Year 2000 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, and serves on editorial boards for the Journal of Nutrition, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Family Economics and Nutrition Review, and Nutrition Today. Dr. Murphy is a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutritional Sciences, American Public Health Association, American

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Society for Clinical Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education. She has over 50 publications on dietary assessment methodology and has lectured nationally and internationally on this subject. HARRIS PASTIDES, Ph.D., is dean of the University of South Carolina's School of Public Health and professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Previously, he was chair and a professor of epidemiology in the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology at the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Dr. Pastides is a consultant to the World Health Organization 's Program in Environmental Health and a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. He has published widely and is the co-author of several books. He was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow and visiting professor at the University of Athens Medical School in Greece from 1987–1988. Dr. Pastides earned his M.P.H. and his Ph.D. from Yale University; he has been a principal investigator or co-investigator on over 30 externally funded research grants, results of which have been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals. He previously served on the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Pediatric Respiratory Infections in Developing Nations. ROSS L. PRENTICE, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Public Health Science of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and professor of biostatistics, University of Washington. He has expertise in the areas of statistics, biostatistics, nutrition, health promotion and disease prevention, and epidemiology, and is principal investigator of the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Coordinating Center. Dr. Prentice received his Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Toronto. He currently serves as a member on the Food and Nutrition Board and is a member of the Institute of Medicine. JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, Ph.D., is the managing director of The Life Sciences Consultancy LLC. He is one of the founding principals of the ENVIRON Corporation, with internationally recognized expertise in assessing the risks to human health of exposure to toxic substances. He received his B.S. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Maryland. Dr. Rodricks is certified as a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. Before working as a consultant, he spent 15 years at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In his final 3 years at the FDA, he was Deputy Associate Commissioner for Science, with special responsibility for risk assessment. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Board on Toxicology and

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Environmental Health Hazards, and has also served on or chaired ten other NAS Committees. He has more than 100 scientific publications on food safety and risk assessment and has lectured nationally and internationally on these subjects. He is the author of Calculated Risks, a nontechnical introduction to toxicology and risk assessment. IRWIN H. ROSENBERG, M.D., is an internationally recognized leader in nutrition science who serves as professor of physiology, medicine and nutrition at Tufts University School of Medicine and School of Nutrition, as well as director, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University and dean for nutrition sciences, Tufts University. He is the first holder of the Jean Mayer Chair in Nutrition at Tufts. Prior to joining Tufts, Dr. Rosenberg held faculty positions at Harvard Medical School and the University of Chicago where he served as the first director of the Clinical Nutrition Research Center. As a clinical nutrition investigator, he has helped develop a nutritional focus within the field of gastroenterology with his primary research interest being in the area of folate metabolism. His research for the past decade has focused on nutrition and the aging process. Among his many honors are the Josiah Macy Faculty Award, Grace Goldsmith Award of the American College of Nutrition, Robert H. Herman Memorial Award of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition, the Jonathan B. Rhoads Award of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, and the 1994 W.O. Atwater Memorial Lectureship of the USDA. Dr. Rosenberg was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1994 and he recently received the Bristol Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Award for Distinguished Achievement in Nutrition Research, 1996. KATHLEEN B. SCHWARZ, M.D., is director of the Pediatric Liver Center and chief of the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition at Johns Hopkins University. She received her M.D. from Washington University School of Medicine and completed her residency in pediatrics at St. Louis Children's Hospital. She is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition and the Children's Liver Council of the American Liver Foundation. Dr. Schwarz has been involved in research on the effects of antioxidants in infants, children, and pregnant women. DANIEL STEINBERG, M.D., Ph.D., is a biochemist and clinician with the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. His research interests are in the area of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism associ-

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids ated with disease, and his major focus in recent years has been the interaction of lipoproteins with cells and how this relates to atherogenesis. He holds an M.D. from Wayne University School of Medicine and a Ph.D. in biological chemistry from Harvard Medical School. He has served on numerous committees of the American Heart Association and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Section on Medical Physiology and Metabolism. STEVE L. TAYLOR, Ph.D., serves as professor and head of the Department of Food Science and Technology and director of the Food Processing Center at the University of Nebraska. He also maintains an active research program in the area of food allergies through the Food Allergy Research & Resource Program at the University of Nebraska. He received his B.S. and M.S. in food science and technology from Oregon State University and his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California at Davis. Dr. Taylor's primary research interests involve naturally occurring toxicants in foods, especially food allergens. His research involves the development of immunoassays for the detection of residues of allergenic foods contaminating other foods, the effect of processing on food allergens, and the assessment of the allergenicity of genetically engineered foods. Dr. Taylor has over 160 publications. He is a member of numerous professional associations including Institute of Food Technologists, American Chemical Society, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and Society of Toxicology. JOHN A. THOMAS, Ph.D., received his undergraduate degree at the University of Wisconsin and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Iowa. He has held professorships in departments of pharmacology and toxicology in several medical schools including Iowa, Virginia, and West Virginia. From 1973 to 1982 he served as Associate Dean of the School of Medicine at West Virginia University. In 1982 Dr. Thomas became Vice President for Corporate Research at Baxter Healthcare. Dr. Thomas served as vice president at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio from 1988–1998. Professor Thomas serves on several editorial boards of biomedical journals and serves as chairman of the Society of Toxicology Education Committee, chairman of the Expert Advisory Committee of the Canadian Network of Toxicology Centers, and vice president of the Academy of Toxicology. He is a diplomate, fellow, and member of the Board of Trustees in the Academy of Toxicological Sciences, and serves on many scientific boards and committees in the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry. He has been named the 1999 recipient of the Distinguished Service

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Award from the American College of Toxicology. He is the recipient of several national awards including the Merit Award from the Society of Toxicology, Certificate of Scientific Service (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), Distinguished Lecturer in Medical Sciences (American Medical Association), Distinguished Service Award from the Texas Society for Biomedical Research. He is an elected foreign member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Dr. Thomas is the author of over a dozen textbooks and research monographs and has published over 350 scientific articles. MARET G. TRABER, Ph.D., is principal investigator for the Linus Pauling Institute and an associate professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Management at the Oregon State University in Corvallis as well as an associate research biochemist in the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of California School of Medicine at Davis. Formerly she was associate research biochemist in the Departments of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Traber received her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley. Her research is focused on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and vitamin E deficiency in humans. Presently, Dr. Traber is principal investigator on a project examining the role of tocopherol transfer protein in vitamin E transport. She is the current chair of the Vitamin E Task Force of the Food and Nutrition Science Associations and is associate editor of Lipids. In 1993, Dr. Traber received the Henkel Vitamin E Research Information Award. GARY M. WILLIAMS, M.D., is professor in the Department of Pathology and Director of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology at New York Medical College. He also serves as head of the Program on Medicine, Food and Chemical Safety. Previously, Dr. Williams served as director of the Naylor Dana Institute and chief of the Division of Pathology and Toxicology at the American Health Foundation. He earned his M.D. from the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Williams received numerous honors including the Arnold J. Lehman Award of the Society of Toxicology and the Sheard-Sandford Award of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists. He has served on the editorial boards for many scientific reports and journals. He is the author or co-author of over 430 scientific publications. He previously served on the Committee on Research Opportunities and Priorities for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Committee on the Carcinogenecity of Cyclamates for the National Academy of Sciences.