Index

A

Abetalipoproteinemia, 202

Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale score, 223

Absorption of nutrients.
See also Bioavailability of nutrients;

Malabsorption syndromes

aging and, 31, 147-148, 238, 305

alpha-tocopherol, 196-198, 238, 251

carotenoids, 326, 328, 330, 354, 355, 356

food matrix and, 355

form of nutrient and, 191, 355

iron, 129, 158, 159, 161

selenium, 285-286, 306

vitamin C, 99-100, 103, 108, 128, 140, 147-148, 155, 157

vitamin E (all forms), 191, 193, 196, 243

Adequate intakes (AIs).

See also individual nutrients

defined, 3, 4, 7, 22, 25

extrapolation from other age groups, 26, 65-66, 138

methods used to set, 6-11, 22, 63-66

RDA compared, 4, 25-26

uses, 4, 15, 25, 383, 386, 391, 392, 398

Adolescents, ages 14 through 18 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

Puberty, pubertal development;

individual nutrients

EARs, 65-66

growth factors, 66

Kashin-Beck disease, 287

lactation, 151-152, 163-164, 240-241, 258-259, 307-308, 315

pregnancy, 149-150, 163-164, 239-240, 258-259, 306-307, 315

RDAs, 66

reference weights and heights, 32-33

special considerations, 358

ULs, 14

Adults, 19 through 50 years.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

circulating lipid levels, 234-235

depletion/repletion studies, 143-145, 233-234, 236

EARs, 31

peak bone mass, 30-31

PUFA intake, 235

reference weights and heights, 32

supplement use, 70

ULs, 14

Adults, 51+ years.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual nutrients

absorption of nutrients, 31, 147-148



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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Index A Abetalipoproteinemia, 202 Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale score, 223 Absorption of nutrients. See also Bioavailability of nutrients; Malabsorption syndromes aging and, 31, 147-148, 238, 305 alpha-tocopherol, 196-198, 238, 251 carotenoids, 326, 328, 330, 354, 355, 356 food matrix and, 355 form of nutrient and, 191, 355 iron, 129, 158, 159, 161 selenium, 285-286, 306 vitamin C, 99-100, 103, 108, 128, 140, 147-148, 155, 157 vitamin E (all forms), 191, 193, 196, 243 Adequate intakes (AIs). See also individual nutrients defined, 3, 4, 7, 22, 25 extrapolation from other age groups, 26, 65-66, 138 methods used to set, 6-11, 22, 63-66 RDA compared, 4, 25-26 uses, 4, 15, 25, 383, 386, 391, 392, 398 Adolescents, ages 14 through 18 years. See also Life-stage groups; Puberty, pubertal development; individual nutrients EARs, 65-66 growth factors, 66 Kashin-Beck disease, 287 lactation, 151-152, 163-164, 240-241, 258-259, 307-308, 315 pregnancy, 149-150, 163-164, 239-240, 258-259, 306-307, 315 RDAs, 66 reference weights and heights, 32-33 special considerations, 358 ULs, 14 Adults, 19 through 50 years. See also Life-stage groups; individual nutrients circulating lipid levels, 234-235 depletion/repletion studies, 143-145, 233-234, 236 EARs, 31 peak bone mass, 30-31 PUFA intake, 235 reference weights and heights, 32 supplement use, 70 ULs, 14 Adults, 51+ years. See also Life-stage groups; individual nutrients absorption of nutrients, 31, 147-148

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids age-related macular degeneration, 49, 348-350 asthma, 126 cardiovascular disease, 47-49, 121-122, 211-217, 241-242, 346-348 cataracts, 49, 125-126, 221, 350 EARs, 31 immune function, 51, 117-119, 220-221, 338 institutionalized, 147 lean body mass, 148 oxidative stress in, 51, 148, 242 supplement use, 51, 70 ULs, 14 Advanced glycosylation end products, 50-51 Adverse effects, 3, 4-6 alpha-tocopherol, 249, 251-255 carotenoids, 366-368 defined, 73 evidence of, 85 knowledge gaps, 406 nutrient-nutrient interactions, 74 selenium, 311-313 vitamin C, 155-161 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) carotenoids and, 18-19, 49, 348-350 smoking and, 18, 49 Aging. See also Life-stage groups; individual life stages and absorption of nutrients, 31, 147-148, 238, 305 alpha-tocopherol and, 51, 235 carotenoids and, 330 food consumption and, 51 and immune function, 51, 220 oxidative stress and, 44, 51 and serum cholesterol, 235 Alcohol and drug abuse, 101, 150, 330, 360, 368 Aldosterone, 99 Allergic response to nutrients, 160, 161, 368 Alpha-1-antiprotease, 108, 140 Alpha-carotene, 325, 329, 330, 332-333, 342, 343, 347, 348, 349, 350-351, 356, 358, 360-365, 366, 371, 450-451 Alpha-tocopherol, 186-283. See also Vitamin E absorption, 196-198, 238, 251 adolescents, 230-231, 239-241, 258, 259, 260-261 adults (19-50 years), 228-229, 231-237, 239-241, 255-257, 258, 259, 397 adults (51+ years), 220, 238-239, 241-242, 249, 259-260 adverse effects, 249, 251-255, 396 AIs, 8-9, 65, 226-230, 393, 394, 507 animal studies, 197, 203, 212, 216, 221, 252, 254, 255 antioxidant activity, 195, 224-225 and ataxia, 199, 202-203, 204-209 bioavailability, 224, 238, 243, 251 body pool, 209-210, 225 body size and composition and, 242 and cancer, 196, 213-214, 218-220, 241 and cardiovascular disease, 36-41, 203, 206-207, 211-217, 225, 238, 241-242, 248, 252, 261 and cataracts, 221 and central nervous system disorders, 221-223, 252 children, 202, 230-231, 258, 260-261 and cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203 and circulating lipoproteins, 193, 197, 199, 216, 234-235, 261 critical endpoint, 254 deficiency, 186, 199, 202-203, 204-209, 210-211, 220, 221, 231, 235, 239, 240 defined, 187, 192, 468 depletion/repletion studies, 203, 232, 233-234, 236 and diabetes mellitus, 217-218 and DNA damage and repair, 208 dose-response assessment for ULs, 255-259 EARs, 2, 8-9, 10-11, 194, 230-237, 238, 239, 240, 393, 394 excretion, 200, 208-209 exposure assessment, 259-260 factors affecting requirements, 224-226 fetal, 239, 243, 394 food sources, 224, 243, 244, 245, 248, 250, 396 in fortified foods, 190-191, 194, 243, 394 functions, 12, 43, 186, 195-196 gender and, 2, 231, 237, 245, 249 hazard identification, 249, 251-255 hemorrhagic toxicity, 13, 252, 253-254, 255-256 in human milk, 226, 227, 228-229, 240 and hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis, 12, 43, 203, 210-211, 231, 232-233, 234, 235, 402

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids and immune function, 51, 219, 220-221 indicators of adequacy, 8-9, 203, 208-224 infants, 65, 226-230, 239, 240, 253-254, 258, 259, 386, 392 intakes, 16, 230, 243-249, 250, 395-397, 424-425 interaction with drugs, 252, 259 interaction with other antioxidants, 195, 290 interaction with other nutrients, 36-41, 98-99, 102, 109, 128, 129, 213, 221, 222, 224-225, 232, 252, 254-255, 259 international comparisons, 204-209, 212-214, 216 international units converted to, 192, 244-245, 395, 396, 397 intervention trials, 2, 36-41, 213-217, 219-220, 221, 223-224, 226, 238, 241-242, 252, 254, 261-262, 367, 405 kinetic modeling, 209-210 laboratory values, 67 lactation and, 67, 228-229, 240-241, 258, 259 and LDLs, 211-212, 217, 226 by life-stage group, 8-9, 14, 226-243, 255-258, 422-427, 436-437, 444-445 and lipid peroxidation, 12, 43, 45, 195, 203, 211, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 243, 261 metabolism, 199-200, 208-210, 261 methodological considerations, 65, 67, 68-69 method used to set AIs, 226-230 and neuropathy, 202, 204-207, 218, 220, 221, 231, 232 NOAEL/LOAEL, 255-257 observational epidemiological studies, 212-213, 219, 221 and oxidative stress, 44-45, 51, 52, 203, 211, 217-218, 221, 222, 223, 242, 261 physical exercise and, 242 plasma concentrations, 197, 210, 232-237, 251, 444-445 platelet effects, 196, 211, 212, 218, 253 preferential secretion by liver, 197-199, 243 pregnancy and, 67, 239-240, 258, 259 and PUFAs, 195, 215, 225-226, 235, 248 RDAs, 2, 8-9, 12, 231, 237, 238-241, 248, 393, 394, 507 research recommendations, 20, 260-262 and retinopathy, 202, 208-209, 259 risk characterization, 260 serum concentrations, 236, 444-445 and skeletal myopathy, 202 smokers, 36-37, 213-214, 216, 219, 238, 242-243, 252 special considerations, 241-243, 259 storage, 201-202 supplement use, 70, 190-191, 194, 244-245, 249, 251, 258-260, 394-395, 396, 397 synthetic, 190-191, 192, 193, 244-245, 393-397 transport, 196-199 ULs, 13, 14, 249, 251-260, 396-397 uncertainty assessment, 91, 256-257 and vasodilation, 196, 210 vitamin C and, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 128, 129, 213, 224-225 Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, 36-37, 49, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345, 366-368, 369, 406 Alpha-tocopherol equivalents conversion to alpha-tocopherol intakes, 16, 244, 394-395, 397 intakes, 230, 243, 244, 245-248, 422-423, 426-427, 436-437 usefulness of, 394 Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) form of vitamin E and affinity of, 193, 195, 197-198, 243, 262 function, 186, 197-198 genetic defects, 199, 202, 204-209 Alzheimer's disease, 19, 50, 222, 252 American Academy of Pediatrics, 28, 29, 65, 74, 259 Amino acids. See also individual amino acids biosynthesis, 96 Aminotransferases, 163 Amyloid beta-peptide, 222 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 19, 50 Anemia, hemolytic, 239, 259, 355 Angina, 47, 341, 347 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 38-39 Animal studies alpha-tocopherol, 51, 59, 91, 197, 203, 212, 216, 251, 252, 254, 255, 396 of cardiovascular disease, 48-49, 212, 216 carotenoids, 59

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids extrapolation of data from, 91, 257, 301 for hazard identification, 84-85, 86 methodological considerations, 58-59 relevance of, 86 selenium, 287, 290 uncertainties in, 459 vitamin C, 103, 120, 131, 140 Anticoagulants, 252, 253, 259 Antioxidants. See Dietary antioxidants Aquocobalamin, 158 Arachidonic acid cascade, 196 Asbestos workers, 36-37, 367, 371 Ascorbic acid. See Vitamin C Aspirin, 150 Asthma, 126 Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency, 199, 202-203, 204-209 Atherogenesis, 47, 48, 50, 121-122, 212, 218, 225 Atherosclerosis, 18, 36-37, 48, 103, 109, 122, 203, 213, 340-341, 347-348 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 122 Athletes, 117, 153, 242, 403 Attention-deficit disorder, 163 B Balance studies, 59 Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging, 125 Basel Prospective Study, 121, 342, 343, 346-347 Benign breast disease, 219 Benzo[α]pyrene, 360 Beta-carotene, 325-382. See also Carotenoids absorption, 326-328, 355 adolescents, 358 adverse effects, 366-368, 405, 406 and alcohol consumption, 360, 361, 368 antioxidant activity, 36-37, 43-45, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-111, 325, 331-333, 334-337 bioavailability, 328, 331, 354-355, 356, 357, 369-371 blood concentrations, 330, 332-333, 353, 369, 372, 448-449 body stores, 329-330 and cancer, 36-41, 213-214, 290, 330, 339, 343, 344, 345-346, 366-368, 369-371, 405, 406 and cardiovascular disease, 36-41, 336-337, 346-347 carotenodermia, 366, 368, 369 and cystic fibrosis, 331, 336-337 depletion/repletion studies, 331, 332, 334-337, 371, 403 and DNA damage and repair, 109, 110-111, 331-332 erythropoietic protoporphyria, 366, 371 excretion, 328-329 and eye diseases, 49, 348, 349, 350-351 food sources, 331, 332, 334, 353, 355-356, 360-363, 398-399 and immune function, 338 infants, 361, 362-365 intakes, 361, 364-366, 369 interaction with drugs, 357 interaction with other nutrients, 36-41, 102, 109, 110-111, 290, 357-358 international comparisons, 334-337 intervention trials, 36-41, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345, 366-368, 369, 372, 405 by life-stage group and, 358-360, 448-449 and lipid peroxidation, 332, 334-337 and oxidative stress, 332 provitamin A activity, 12-14, 36-37, 325, 356, 366, 367 research recommendations, 2, 20, 371-372 smokers, 36-39, 330, 331, 334-337, 345, 347, 359, 366-368, 372, 405, 406 supplement use, 325-326, 355, 357, 366 transport, 329 ULs, 5-6, 13-14, 27, 368-369 vitamin C and, 102, 109, 110-111 Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, 36-37 Beta-cryptoxanthin, 13, 44, 325, 330, 332-333, 345, 348, 349, 350-351, 358, 360-365, 366, 452-453 Beta-glucuronidase, 106-107, 116 Bioavailability of nutrients alpha-tocopherol, 224, 243, 251, 394 carotenoids, 328, 331, 344, 354-357, 369-371, 403 defined, 463 dietary fat and, 68, 224, 248, 356

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids drug interactions and, 357 food matrix and, 354, 355-356, 404 form of intake and, 83, 251, 354 form of nutrient and, 193, 194-195, 357, 369-371 in infant formulas, 29, 64 iron in, 129 nutrient-nutrient interactions and, 83, 357-358 nutritional status of individuals and, 83, 356 processing of foods and, 29, 354, 356 and risk assessment, 82-83 selenium, 291-292, 306, 307, 399 vitamin C, 99, 128 vitamin E (all forms), 16, 193, 194-195, 224, 243 Biomarkers of cancer, 113-116 of DNA damage, 45, 46-47, 109-111, 116 of lipid peroxidation, 45, 104-105, 116, 132, 151, 203, 211 Bladder cancer, 106-107, 113, 116 Bleomycin, 112, 114-115 Blood coagulation, 99, 101 Body Mass Index, 32, 33, 330 Body pools alpha-tocopherol, 201-202, 225 carotenoids, 329-330, 351-353 kinetic modeling of, 209-210, 403 selenium, 286, 313 vitamin C, 100, 103, 132, 140, 142, 145, 152-153, 166, 225, 403 vitamin E (all forms), 210 Body size considerations, 133, 146, 242 Body water considerations, 133, 138, 146 Body weight. See also Reference body weight ratio method reference weights, 31-33 Bone formation and growth, 98, 101, 202 Boston Nutritional Status Survey of the Elderly, 154, 155, 242, 249 Breast cancer, 123, 219 Breast Cancer Serum Bank cohort study, 219 Breastfeeding. See Human milk; Lactation Breath ethane, 132, 150-151, 203, 211, 231 Breath pentane, 334-337 C Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study, 36-37, 214-215, 241 Canada antioxidant intervention trials, 38-39 cancer, 124 cardiovascular disease, 38-39 dietary intakes, 16, 154, 284, 309, 438-439 Food Guide for Healthy Eating, 351-352 Recommended Nutrient Intakes, 28, 383, 410 reference weights and heights, 32, 33 selenium, 284, 293 vitamin C, 69, 124, 154 Canadian Paediatric Society, 28, 29, 63-65 Cancer. See also individual sites alpha-tocopherol and, 36-37, 196, 213-214, 218-220, 241, 290, 366, 367 antioxidant intervention trials, 36-41, 218-219, 339, 357-358 biomarkers, 113-116 carotenoids, 14, 36-41, 213-214, 290, 326, 330, 333, 339, 340-341, 342-346, 351, 352, 357, 360, 366-372, 405, 406 DNA damage and, 218-219 gap junctional communication and, 333, 338 mortality, 14, 339 oxidative stress and, 17, 46-47, 218-219 selenium and, 36-41, 290-291, 319, 367 vitamin C and, 36-37, 40-41, 106-107, 113-116, 123-125, 127, 128, 160 Cardiomyopathy, 159, 206-207, 287, 288 Cardiovascular disease. See also Coronary artery disease; Coronary heart disease alpha-tocopherol and, 18, 36-41, 48-49, 187, 203, 206-207, 211-217, 225, 238, 241-242, 248, 252, 261, 406 animal studies, 48-49, 212, 216 carotenoids and, 18, 36-41, 326, 331, 336-337, 339, 340-341, 346-348, 351, 371 diabetes mellitus and, 50 intervention trials, 48, 213-216 iron and, 159

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids LDLs and, 47-48, 50, 211-212 lipid peroxidation and, 225 mortality, 339 observational studies, 212-213 oxidative stress and, 18, 47-49, 50, 101-102, 225 RNA/ROS and, 216 selenium and, 40-41, 287, 288 smokers, 37-39, 48-49, 103, 106-107, 216, 238, 252, 347 vitamin C and, 18, 38-41, 101-102, 106-107, 109, 121-122, 127, 128, 346-347 women, 38-41, 121, 122, 212, 347 Carnitine biosynthesis iron and, 120 vitamin C and, 95, 96, 99, 120, 153, 166 Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), 36, 345, 367, 368, 369 Carotenodermia, 366, 368, 464 Carotenoids, 325-382. See also Beta-carotene; other individual carotenoids absorption, 326, 328, 330, 354, 355, 356 adolescents, 355, 358 adults (19-50 years), 330-331, 334-337, 339-345, 364-365 adults (51+ years), 336-337, 338, 340-341, 347, 348-351 adverse effects, 366-368, 405, 406 and age-related macular degeneration, 18-19, 49, 326, 340-341, 348-350, 371, 403 aging and, 330 alcohol consumption and, 330, 360, 361, 368 allergic reactions, 368 antioxidant activity, 36-37, 43-45, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-111, 325, 326, 331-333, 334-337 bioavailability, 328, 331, 344, 354-357, 369-371 blood concentrations, 329-330, 332-333, 338, 346, 351-353, 358, 368, 448-457 body mass index and, 330 body stores, 329-330, 351-353 and cancer, 36-41, 213-214, 290, 326, 330, 333, 339, 340-341, 342-346, 351, 352, 357, 360, 366-372, 405, 406 and cardiovascular disease, 18, 36-41, 326, 331, 336-337, 340-341, 346-348, 351, 371 and cataracts, 18, 326, 340-341, 350-351 children, 338, 355, 356, 358, 368 cholesterol and, 330 and cystic fibrosis, 331, 336-337 depletion/repletion studies, 331, 332, 334-337, 371, 403 dietary fat and, 356 and DNA damage and repair, 109, 110-111, 331-332, 336-337 dose-response assessment for ULs, 368-369 DRIs, 12-13, 16, 325 excretion, 328-329 exposure assessment, 369 fat substitutes and, 357 food sources, 325, 331, 332, 334, 342, 344-345, 346, 349-350, 351-352, 353, 354, 355-356, 360-363, 368, 371, 398-399 functions, 12, 43, 325, 326 and gap junctional communication, 333, 338 gender and, 330, 351, 364-365 hazard identification, 366-368 health effects, 326, 338-351, 403-404 in human milk, 361, 362-366 and immune function, 326, 338 indicators of adequacy, 325, 331-353 infants, 361, 362-366, 368 intakes, 361, 364-366, 369 interactions with drugs, 357 interactions with other nutrients, 36-41, 102, 109, 110-111, 290, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 338, 343, 352, 355, 356, 357-358, 366, 367 international comparisons, 334-337 intervention trials, 2, 14, 36-41, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345-346, 353, 366-368, 369, 372, 405 lactation, 355, 362, 363 by life-stage group and, 358-360, 448-457 and lipid peroxidation, 332, 334-337 lipoproteins and, 329, 330, 332, 334-337

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids metabolism, 328-329 methodological issues, 16, 68-69, 339, 359, 404 and mortality from chronic disease, 14, 339-342, 351 nonprovitamin A, 326, 327, 346, 351 observational epidemiological studies, 338-339, 342-345, 346-347 and oxidative stress, 332 provitamin A activity, 12-14, 36-37, 43-44, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 338, 343, 352, 355, 356, 366, 367, 371, 372, 403, 467 research recommendations, 2, 20, 371-372, 403-404 risk characterization, 369-371 smokers, 18, 36-39, 49, 330, 331, 334-337, 344, 345, 347, 351, 359, 366-371, 372, 405, 406 special considerations, 358-360 structure, 326, 327 supplement use, 325-326, 355, 357, 366 transport, 329 ULs, 5-6, 13-14, 27, 366-371, 407 Catalase, 45 Cataracts, 18, 49, 340-341 alpha-tocopherol and, 18, 49, 221 carotenoids and, 18, 326, 340-341, 350-351 oxidative stress and, 18, 49, 350 smoking and, 351 vitamin C and, 18, 98, 125-126, 127 Catecholamines, 96, 127, 222-223 Central nervous system disorders, 19, 50, 127, 221-223 Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, 129, 160 Cervical cancer, 17, 123, 340-341, 345, 346 Children, ages 1 through 13 years. See also Life-stage groups; individual nutrients abetalipoproteinemia, 202 AIs, 65-66 anemia, 355 attention-deficit disorder, 163 cardiomyopathy, 287, 288, 292 cholestasis, 235 common colds, 163 cystic fibrosis, 202, 210-211, 336-337 EARs, 30, 33, 65-66 growth factors, 66 Keshan disease, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302 reference weights and heights, 31-32 supplement use, 163, 260 ULs, 14, 33 vitamin A deficiency, 338, 356 Cholestasis, 235 Cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203 Cholesterol aging and, 235 carotenoids and, 330 dietary, 99, 248 LDL, 47, 330 serum, 235 vitamin C and, 99 Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study, 213 Cholestyramine, 357 Chromosomal damage and aberrations, 109, 110-111, 112, 114-115 Chronic cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 126, 127 Chylomicron secretion, 196-197, 224, 330 Circulating lipid levels, 234-235 Cobalamins, vitamin C and, 158 Cognitive function, 19, 50, 127 Collagen metabolism iron and, 118-119 vitamin C and, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 118-119, 166 Colorectal cancer, 36-37, 113, 116, 123-124 Colorectal polyps, 113, 114-115, 219-220 Common cold, 117, 126-127 Complementary DNA (cDNA), 197 Conjugated dienes, 104-105, 203 Connective tissue synthesis, 98, 101 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) alpha-tocopherol, 68, 240, 245, 247, 248, 396, 436-437 carotenoids, 361, 364 design, 69 vitamin C, 135, 138, 432-435 Copper infants, 129, 159-160 and LDL oxidation, 211 metabolism, 129 and oxidative stress, 203 vitamin C and, 96, 97-98, 128, 129, 156, 159-160, 161 Coronary artery disease, 106-107, 121, 122, 241, 248, 336-337

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Coronary heart disease, 18, 49, 121, 122, 212, 214-215, 238, 241, 261, 341, 347, 351 Corticosteroids, 99 Coxsackie B3 virus, 287 Cretinism, 287 Critical endpoints, identification of, 88-89, 254, 313 CSFII. See Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals Cyclooxygenase-1, 196, 212, 223 Cystic fibrosis, 202, 210–211, 331, 336–337 D Data and database issues alpha-tocopherol, 232, 243-248, 255, 393-396 for dose-response assessment for ULs, 88-89, 161, 255, 313, 315 food compostion data, 16, 19, 67-68, 309, 360-361, 393-394, 396-397, 398, 399 nutrient intakes, 16, 68, 69-70, 194-195, 243, 309, 385 quality and completeness of data, 8-9, 61-62, 67-68, 87, 309, 385, 390 selenium, 309, 310, 398-399 supplement use, 70 types of data used, 58-63 vitamin C, 139-140, 143, 161 vitamin E. See Alpha-tocopherol Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) absorption and transport, 99 chemical structure, 96, 97 in smokers, 130 Delayed dermal sensitivity, 117, 118-119, 220 Dental enamel erosion, 156, 160, 161 Depletion/repletion studies alpha-tocopherol, 203, 232, 233-234, 236, 402 carotenoids, 331, 332, 334-337, 371 limitations of, 59, 402-403 vitamin C, 108, 117, 140, 143-145, 402-403 Diabetes mellitus alpha-tocopherol and, 217-218 cardiovascular complications, 50 LDLs and, 50 oxidative stress and, 19, 50-51, 217-218 and platelet hyperactivity, 218 type I, 106-107 type II, 50, 106-107 Diabetic neuropathy, 218 Diacylglycerol, 196 Diarrhea. See Osmotic diarrhea Dietary antioxidants alpha-tocopherol activity, 43, 44-45, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 186, 195, 224-225 carotenoid activity, 36-37, 43-45, 98-99, 325, 326, 331-333, 334-337 criteria for, 43-44 defined, 17, 42 and immune function, 407 interaction among, 195, 224-225, 290, 332, 367, 404 intervention trials, 36-41, 50, 219-220, 339, 348-350, 357-358 mechanisms of action, 44-46 selenoprotein activity, 43, 44-45, 284, 285 supplement efficacy, 45, 48, 49 vitamin C activity, 43, 44-45, 96, 98-99, 101-109, 116, 124-125, 139-143, 146, 154, 166 Dietary intakes. See also Canada; Food sources of nutrients; Nutrient intakes; Supplements; individual nutrients data and database issues, 16, 68, 69-70, 194-195, 243, 309, 385 day-to-day variation, 69, 385 infants, 28, 65, 135, 138, 230, 307 measurement errors, 68, 69, 313, 359, 385-386 research recommendations, 165-166, 406 self-reported, 60, 68, 385, 396 smokers, 130, 359, 360 survey data, 245-247 underreporting of, 16, 60, 68, 69, 186, 232, 240, 247-248, 385, 390, 393, 395-396 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) applicable population, 22 categories, 2, 3, 22-27; See also Adequate Intakes; Estimated Average Requirements; Recommended Dietary Allowances; Tolerable Upper Intake Levels criteria for, 6-11, 12-13, 42

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids defined, 2-6, 21-22, 33 extrapolation from other age groups, 65-67, 91 framework, 384, 410-412 group applications, 14-16, 25, 387-391, 392-393, 398 individual applications, 4, 15, 22, 384-386, 392, 398 nutrient-specific considerations, 393-399 origin, 409-410 parameters for, 27-33; See also Life-stage groups; Reference weights and heights precision of values, 8-11 risk of inadequacy, 15-16 sources of data, 6-7; See also Methodological considerations uses, 4, 14-16, 383-399 DNA damage and repair adduct formation, 106-107, 116, 208 alpha-tocopherol and, 109, 110-113, 208 biomarkers of, 45, 46-47, 109-111, 116 and cancer, 46-47, 113-116, 218-219 carotenoids and, 109, 110-111, 331-332, 336-337, 360 ex vivo, 112-113, 114-115, 116, 130 in gastric mucosa, 106-107, 116 glutathione and, 109-110 ionizing radiation and, 46, 112, 130 iron and, 109, 160 lymphocytes, 110-111, 112, 114-115 oxidative stress and, 46-47, 109 repair enzymes, 106-107, 116 RNS and, 116 smoking and, 110-113, 130-131, 360 vitamin A and, 112-113 vitamin C and, 98, 109-115, 116, 130-131, 160 Dopamine, 222-223 Dopamine-β-hydroxylase, 96, 98 Dose-response assessment for ULs adolescents, 162-164, 258, 315-316 adults (19-50 years), 161-162, 255-257, 313-315 alpha-tocopherol, 255-259 carotenoids, 368-369 children, 162-164, 258, 315-316 components and process, 85, 88-92 critical endpoints, 88-89, 161, 254, 313 data selection, 88-89, 161, 255, 313, 315 defined, 77-78, 464 infants, 162, 258, 315-316 lactation, 164, 258, 315 NOAEL/LOAEL identification, 89-90, 161-162, 255-256, 314, 316 pregnancy, 163-164, 258, 315 selenium, 313-316 special considerations, 92, 164-165, 259 UL derivation from, 91-92, 162, 257, 315, 316 uncertainty assessment, 90-91, 162, 256-257, 315, 316 vitamin C, 161-165 vitamin E. See Alpha-tocopherol Down's syndrome, 222 Drinking water, 309-310, 311, 317, 399 Drug abuse. See Alcohol and drug abuse Drug interactions with alpha-tocopherol, 40-41, 252, 259 with carotenoids, 357 with vitamin C, 99, 150 Dyspepsia, 106-107, 116 E Elastin, 98 Elderly people. See Adults, 51+ years Embryogenesis, 285 Emotional stress, 153 Endothelial cells dysfunction, 103, 106-107, 131 monocyte adhesion to, 103 Endothelium-dependent vasodilation, 106-107, 131 Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, 103 Energy expenditures, 24-25 Energy intakes, 60, 68, 69, 247, 396 Energy status and antioxidant interactions, 224-225 and PUFA metabolism, 226 Epinephrine, 96 Erythrocyte glutathione, 128 hydrogen peroxide-induced lysis, 210-211, 231 vitamin C, 140 Erythropoietic protoporphyria, 366, 371 Esophageal cancer, 367 Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly , 122, 213

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). See also individual nutrients children, 30, 33, 65-66 coefficient of variation, 3, 24-25 criteria used to derive, 6-7, 8-11 defined, 3, 5, 23, 24 evidence considered, 10-11, 25 extrapolation to/from other age groups, 65-66 group applications, 15, 387-390, 392 knowledge gaps, 402-404 methods used to set, 25, 43, 65-66, 402-404 and RDA, 2-4, 23-25 reference weight and height and, 31-33 risk of inadequacy, 24 standard deviation, 3, 23-24 uses, 15, 23, 25, 383, 384-386, 387-390, 392-393 Ethane, 132, 150-151, 203, 211, 231 Ethical considerations, 84 European Commission Concerted Action on Fundamental Food, 42 Exposure duration of, 86 route of, 86, 256 Exposure assessment alpha-tocopherol, 259-260 carotenoids, 369 defined, 77, 78 process, 92 selenium, 317 supplements, 92 vitamin C, 165 Extrapolation of data from animal studies, 91, 257 body weight basis, 65-66, 138-139, 163-164, 230-231, 258-259, 299-300, 315-316 from one gender group to another, 146-147, 235, 237 from other age groups, 25, 26, 65-66, 138-139, 163-164, 166, 230, 231, 258-259, 299-300, 315-316 NOAEL from LOAEL, 162, 256-257 from subchronic to chronic intake, 257 Eye Disease Case-Control Study, 348 Eye diseases. See also Age-related macular degeneration; Cataracts alpha-tocopherol and, 18, 49, 221 antioxidant intervention trials, 40-41, 348-350 carotenoids and, 49, 348, 349, 350-351 vitamin C and, 18, 125-126 F Familial hypercholesterolemia, 47 Fat, dietary and alpha-tocopherol, 68, 225-226, 235, 248, 396 and carotenoid, 356 intakes, 16, 68, 69, 232, 247, 248, 261, 396 malabsorption syndromes, 202, 404 and MOPD, 349 Fat substitutes, 357 Fatty streak lesions, 47 F2-isoprostanes, 45, 48, 203, 217-218, 464 Ferritin, 159 Ferrous oxidation/xylenol orange (FOX) assay, 46 Fetal nutrition. See also Pregnancy alpha-tocopherol, 67, 239, 243, 258, 394 selenium, 67, 306, 315 vitamin C, 67, 149, 150, 163 Fibrillin, 98 Fibronectin, 98 Flavonoids, 98-99, 102, 128, 129, 225 Foam cells, 47-48 Food and Agriculture Organization, 22, 73-74, 79 Food and Drug Administration, 309 Food composition data analytical methods, 67 carotenoids, 360-361, 364-365, 369 quality and completeness of, 68-69, 309, 390, 393-394, 399 recommendations, 19, 396-397 selenium, 309, 398-399 vitamin C, 154, 390 vitamin E, 19, 68-69, 244-248, 393-394 Food matrix and bioavailability of nutrients, 250, 354, 355-356, 404 Food sources. See also Fortified foods alpha-tocopherol, 224, 243, 244, 245, 248, 250, 396 carotenoids, 325, 331, 332, 334, 342, 344-345, 346, 349-350, 351-352, 353, 354, 355-356, 360-363, 368, 371, 398-399

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids selenium, 286, 292, 298-299, 308, 309, 397 vitamin C, 101, 130, 154, 392 Formulas, infant AIs, 386, 391, 392 alpha-tocopherol, 230 bioavailability of nutrients, 29, 64 carotenoids, 361 DRIs, 28-29 selenium, 310, 399 vitamin C, 101, 135 Fortified foods. See also Formulas, infant alpha-tocopherol in, 12, 16, 190-191, 243, 394 selenium in, 286 ULs and, 5, 26, 74 Fruits and vegetables, 17, 18, 45, 47, 130, 133, 154, 245, 342, 344-345, 346, 351, 353, 355, 368, 371 Furunculosis, 117, 118-119 G Gastric cancer, 36-37, 106-107, 113, 114-115, 116, 124-125, 196, 290, 367 Gastric mucosa DNA damage, 106-107, 116 nitrotyrosine, 102, 106-107, 116 oxidant scavengers, 95, 102, 116, 124 Gastritis, 102, 106-107, 113, 116, 124-125 Gastrointestinal effects of vitamin C, 95, 100, 102, 106-107, 124-125, 156, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393 Gender. See also Men; Women; individual nutrients and cataracts, 351 dietary intakes, 15-16, 154, 165, 245-247, 259-260, 364-365 extrapolation of data on basis of, 146-147, 235, 237 and Keshan disease, 299, 304 and lean body mass, 2, 65, 146-147 and metabolism, 20, 133, 403, 407 reference weights and heights, 32 and relative body weight, 65-66, 138 and supplement use, 70, 260 Genetic defects, in alpha-TTP, 199, 202, 204-209 Genetic markers of disease susceptibility, 60 Geographic differences in nutrient intakes, 309, 311-312, 315, 316, 317, 318-319 Gingivitis, 120 GISSI Prevention Trial, 38-39, 215, 216, 217, 238, 241, 242, 252 Glial cells, 98 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 160-161, 164 Glutathione and asthma, 126 deficiency, 128 and DNA damage, 109-110 erythrocyte, 128 and oxidative stress, 128, 129, 224 reduced, 104-105, 128, 225 vitamin C and, 43, 96, 98, 99, 103, 105, 109-110, 126, 128, 129 Glutathione peroxidase activity, 12, 45, 284, 285, 286, 289-290, 293, 299, 301-302, 303, 304, 318 Growth factors, 66 Growth velocity, 28, 64 Gulonolactone oxidase, 95-96 Gun blue, 312, 465 H Hazard identification adverse effects, 85, 155-161, 249, 251-255, 311-313, 366-368 alpha-tocopherol, 249, 251-255 animal studies, 84-85, 86 carotenoids, 366-368 causality, 85-86 components of, 85-88 data quality and completeness and, 87 data sources, 84-85 defined, 77, 465 experimental data on nutrient toxicity and, 86 mechanisms of toxicity and, 87 pharmacokinetic and metabolic data and, 86-87 selenium, 311-313 sensitive subpopulations, 87-88 vitamin C, 155-161 Health Canada, 410, 438-439 Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study, 38-39, 216, 217, 241, 242, 252

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids in smokers, 104-105, 130, 131, 132, 150-151, 153 vitamin C and, 45, 95, 98, 102, 104-105, 109, 116, 130, 131, 132, 146, 150-151, 153, 159 Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial, 347 Lipoprotein lipase, 330 Lipoproteins. See also High-denisty lipoproteins; Low-density lipoproteins alpha-tocopherol and, 193, 197, 199, 216, 234-235, 261, 405 carotenoids and, 329, 330 Liver fluke infection, 106-107 Liver necrosis, 287 Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) alpha-tocopherols and, 211, 217, 226 and cardiovascular disease, 47-48, 50, 211-212 carotenoids and, 329, 332, 334-337 copper and, 211 defined, 79, 466 and diabetes mellitus, 50 oxidation, 18, 47-48, 50, 211, 226, 405 smoking and, 130, 132, 153 vitamin C and, 98, 101-102, 104-105, 109, 132, 153 Low-fat diets, 226, 248, 356 Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL) alpha-tocopherol, 255-257 extrapolation of NOAEL from, 162, 256-257 identification of, 89-90, 161-162, 255-256, 314 instead of NOAEL, 91 selenium, 314, 318 sensitive subpopulations and, 92 vitamin C, 161-162, 163 Lung cancer beta-carotene and, 13-14, 340-341, 342-343, 345-346 smoking and, 36-39, 124, 213-214, 219, 360, 366-371, 372, 405, 406 Lung lesions, 254 oxidant scavengers, 95, 108 Lutein, 18, 44, 49, 329, 330, 332-333, 343, 348, 349, 350-351, 353, 355, 357, 358, 360-365, 366, 371, 454-455 Lycopene, 44, 329, 332-333, 344-345, 347, 349, 350, 353, 356, 357, 358, 360-365, 366, 368, 371, 456-457 Lycopenodermia, 368, 466 Lymphatic leukemia, 196 Lymphocytes DNA damage, 110-111, 112, 114-115 vitamin C in, 99-100 Lysine, 98, 118-119 M Macular Pigment Optical Density (MOPD), 349-350, 371 Major histocompatibility complex II, 338 Malabsorption syndromes, 202, 210-211, 404 Malnutrition, protein-energy, 202, 404 Malondialdehyde, 104-105, 116, 203, 334-335 Marathon runners, 117, 118-119 Margarine, plant sterol-enriched, 357 Men. See also Gender alcohol consumption, 361, 368 alpha-tocopherol, 49, 232-233, 235, 237, 245, 249, 260 carotenoids, 49, 338, 349, 351, 353, 359, 361, 368 cataracts, 49, 351 dietary intakes, 154, 165, 245 immune response, 338 Keshan disease, 301-302 kidney stone formation, 157 MOPD values, 349 smokers, 359 supplement use, 249, 260 vitamin C, 95, 117, 118-119, 121, 126, 133, 146, 148, 149, 154, 157, 165 Metabolism of nutrients aerobic, 46 alpha-tocopherol, 195, 199-200, 208-210, 261 basal rate considerations, 24-25 carotenoids, 328-329, 350 copper, 129 drug, 99 gender differences, 20, 133, 292, 403, 407 iron, 129

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids selenium, 285, 286, 299, 308 vitamin C, 12, 43, 95, 100, 108, 130, 133, 148, 152-153, 157, 158 Metalloenzyme reduction, 96, 97-98 Methionine, 284 Methionine sulfoxide, 45 Methodological considerations. See also Data and database issues; Extrapolation of data; Indicators of nutrient adequacy; Uncertainty AIs, 63-66 alpha-tocopherol, 59, 65, 67, 68-69 animal studies, 58-59, 459 carotenoids, 16, 68-69, 339, 359, 404 children, 65-66 data limitations, 62-63 depletion/repletion studies, 59, 402-403 dietary intakes, 68, 69, 313, 359, 385-386 EARs, 65-66, 402-404 epidemiological studies, 127-128 in extrapolation of data, 62, 65-66 human feeding studies, 59 infants, 63-65, 66 intervention trials, 58, 61 kinetic modeling of body pools, 209-210, 403 laboratory assays, 67, 160, 404 lactation, 67 measurement errors, 68, 69, 313, 359, 385-386 nutrient intake estimates, 67-69, 247, 339, 385, 404-405 observational studies, 59-61, 127-128 pathways to nutrient requirements, 63 pregnancy, 67 randomized clinical trials, 61 RDAs, 66 in risk assessment, 458-461 types of data used, 58-63 vitamin C, 67, 68-69, 127-128, 139-140 weighing the evidence, 61-62 Minnesota Cancer Prevention Research Unit, 353 Monocyte adhesion, 103 Monounsaturated fatty acids, 226 Mortality from chronic disease, 14, 339-342, 351 MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study, 38-39 Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 343 Multiple sclerosis, 50 Myelin, 98 Myeloperoxidase, 108, 109, 140 Myocardial infarction, 36-41, 47, 159, 214-215, 216, 238, 241, 312, 347 Myocarditis, 287 N National Cancer Institute, 154 Five-a-Day for Better Health Program, 351 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I), Epidemiological Follow-up Study, 122, 124, 126, 219 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II), 121, 152, 235, 248 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) anthropometric data, 31, 32-33 carotenoids, 330, 358, 361, 364, 369, 448-457 defined, 466 design, 69 energy intakes, 68, 69 fat intakes, 68, 69, 247, 396 selenium, 16, 69-70, 309, 310, 399, 428-431, 446-447 serum values of nutrients, 440-457 supplement data, 70 total intakes, 388, 389, 420-421, 426-427, 430-431 vitamin C, 15-16, 69-70, 133, 155, 165, 387-390, 391, 416-421, 440-443 vitamin E (all forms), 16, 68, 69-70, 210, 230, 233, 244, 245-246, 247, 248, 259-260, 394, 422-427, 444-445 National Health Interview Survey, 70, 249, 260, 310-311, 364-365 National Health Interview Survey Epidemiological Supplement, 249 National Nutrition Monitoring System, 383 Necrotizing enterocolitis, 253 Nervous system, 19, 50, 96, 98, 131, 153, 202 Neurodegenerative diseases alpha-tocopherol and, 19, 50, 186, 202, 204-207, 218, 220, 221, 222, 231, 232 iron and, 221 lipid peroxidation and, 221-223

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids oxidative stress and, 19, 50, 221-222 ROS and, 222-223 Neuroleptic drugs, 222-223 Neurons, 98, 131, 202 Neuropeptide biosynthesis, 98 Neurotransmitters, 95, 98, 153, 222-223 Neutrophils vitamin C in, 12, 43, 95, 98, 99-100, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144-146, 150, 385 New York State Cohort Study, 123, 124 Niacin, 225 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), 43, 96, 98, 224-225 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), 43, 96, 98, 224-225 Nitric oxide scavengers, 262 Nitric oxide synthesis, 103 Nitrosoproline, 106-107 Nitrotyrosine, 45, 102, 106-107, 116 No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) alpha-tocopherol, 255-257 defined, 79, 466 extrapolation from LOAEL, 162, 256-257 identification of, 89-90, 255-256, 316 LOAEL used instead of, 91 selenium, 314, 316 sensitive subpopulations and, 92 subchronic to predict chronic, 91 vitamin C, 163 Norepinephrine, 96, 98 Normative requirement, 22 Nurses Health Study, 123, 125-126, 212, 351 Nutrient intakes. See also Dietary intakes; Exposure assessment; individual nutrients Canadian, 69, 154, 309, 438-439 cooking losses, 154, 356 day-to-day variation adjustments, 69, 385, 387, 390 extrapolation from subchronic to chronic, 257 form of, 83 geographic differences in, 284, 288, 309, 311-312, 315, 316, 317, 318-319 interpretation of, 385-359 methodological considerations, 67-69, 247, 339, 385, 404-405 public health implications, 404-405 quality of data, 385, 390 from supplements, 70, 155, 244-245, 249, 366 total calculated, 388, 389 U.S., 70, 416-431, 432-437 Nutrient-nutrient interactions. See also specific entries under individual nutrients adverse, 74 and bioavailability of nutrients, 83, 357-358 energy status and, 224-225 research recommendations, 20, 407 risk assessment, 83 Nutrition Canada Survey, 32 Nutrition During Lactation report, 28, 29 Nutrition labels, 16, 68, 194, 243, 393-394, 396 Nutritional Factors in Eye Disease Study, 365 Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study, 38-39 O O6-alkyltransferase, 106-107, 116 Obese individuals, 60, 385 Observational studies alpha-tocopherol, 212-213, 219, 221 cancer, 219 of cardiovascular disease, 212-213 carotenoids, 338-339, 342-345, 346-347 hazard identification, 84 methodological issues, 59-61, 127-128 Oils, edible, 16, 68, 245, 246, 250, 396 Olestra, 357 Ophthalmoplegia, 202 Oropharyngeal cancers, 17, 341, 344, 346 Osmotic diarrhea, 13, 95, 100, 154, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393 Oxalate excretion, 156 Oxidant damage, 44-51 Oxidant scavengers, 95, 102, 108, 116, 124 Oxidative stress in adults (51+ years), 51, 148, 242 and age-related macular degeneration, 18-19, 49 aging and, 44, 51 alpha-tocopherol and, 44-45, 51, 52, 203, 211, 217-218, 221, 222, 223, 242, 261

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids and asthma, 126 and cancer, 17, 46-47, 218-219 and cardiovascular disease, 18, 47-49, 50, 101-102, 225 carotenoids and, 332 and cataracts, 18, 49, 350 cholestatic liver disease and, 202, 203 copper and, 203 defined, 44, 466 and diabetes mellitus, 19, 50-51, 217-218 and DNA damage, 46-47, 109 glutathione and, 128, 129, 244 indicators of, 20, 45-52, 102, 103, 109, 126, 128, 203, 217, 223, 407 mechanisms in, 44-45, 46, 47, 50 and neurodegenerative disease, 19, 50, 221-222 physical exercise and, 242 protective enzymes, 45 selenium, 41, 43, 44-45, 52, 285 smoking and, 43, 48, 102, 130, 131, 132 vitamin C and, 12, 43, 95, 101-102, 109, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 148, 152, 162, 166 8-Oxy-7,8-dihydro-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 46, 110, 112, 466 Oxygen demand, 156, 161 Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, 46 Ozone, 108 P Pancreatic cancer, 124 Parkinson's disease, 19, 50, 221-222 Passive smokers, 132, 146, 153 Pauling, Linus, 126-127 Pectin, 357 Pentane, 203, 231, 334-337 Peptide hormones, amidation of, 96, 98 Peptidyl-glycine monoxygenase, 96 Periodontal health, 120, 156, 160, 161, 166 Peripheral artery disease, 216 Peroxynitrate, 45 Phospholipase A2, 196, 212, 223 Phospholipid transfer protein, 197 Photosensitivity disorders, 366 Physical exams, 164 Physical exercise, 153, 242 Physicians' Health Study I, 38-39, 345-346, 367 Physicians' Health Study II, 40-41, 252 Plant phenolic compounds, 225 Plasma concentration of nutrients. See individual nutrients Platelet effects, 196, 211, 212, 218, 253 Polyp Prevention Study, 36-37 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alpha-tocopherol and, 38-39, 195, 215, 225-226, 233, 235, 248 metabolism, 226 Pregnancy. See also Lactation; individual nutrients alcohol and drug abuse, 150 aspirin use, 150 derivation of DRIs for, 67 eclampsia, 149 lipid peroxidation and, 150-151 methodological considerations, 67 premature birth, 149 and smoking, 132, 149, 150-151 special considerations, 150-151 ULs, 82 Probucol, 357 Proline, 98, 99, 106-107, 118-119 Pro-oxidant effects of nutrients, 129, 156, 159-160, 161, 166 Prostacyclin, 196, 212, 223 Prostaglandin synthesis, 99 Prostate cancer, 213-214, 219, 220, 290-291, 344-345, 368, 371 Protein, dietary oxidation, 222 requirements for growth, 66 Protein-energy malnutrition, 202, 404 Protein kinase C inhibitors, 196, 211, 223 Proteoglycans, 98 Puberty. See also Adolescents pubertal development, 30, 33 Q Quercetin, 129 R Race/ethnicity and puberty onset, 30 and smoking, 132 and vitamin C, 132 Radiation, ionizing, 46, 112, 130

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Randomized clinical trials, 61 Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and cardiovascular disease, 216 and DNA damage, 116 measure of activity, 102, 106-107, 116 mechanism of action, 44 myeloperoxidase-derived, 109, 140 vitamin C and, 98, 102, 106-107, 109, 124, 140 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cardiovascular disease, 216 and gastric cancer, 106-107, 116, 124 and infectious and inflammatory stresses, 103 mechanism of action, 44 and neurodegenerative diseases, 222-223 smoking and, 131 sources of, 46 vitamin C and, 98, 102, 103, 106-107, 116, 124, 131 Recommendations. See also Research recommendations food composition data, 19, 396-397 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). See also individual nutrients AI compared, 4, 25-26, 138 children, 66 coefficient of variation, 66 criteria used to derive, 10-11 defined, 3, 5, 7, 22, 23, 24 EAR and, 2-4, 23-25 indicators of nutrient adequacy, 6-13 method used to set, 23-25, 66 uses, 4, 15, 23, 383, 391, 392 Recommended Dietary Allowances (reports), 21 Reference body weight ratio method, 65-66 alpha-tocopherol, 231 selenium, 299 vitamin C, 138 Reference weights and heights, 31-32 Renal disease/failure, 31, 50, 312 vitamin C and, 157, 160, 164 Reproductive disorders, 368 Requirement, defined, 21 Research recommendations adverse effects, 21, 406 alpha-tocopherol, 2, 20, 260-262, 406-407 approach to setting, 19-20, 401-402 carotenoids, 2, 20, 371-372, 403-404, 406-407 dietary intakes, 165-166, 406 kinetic modeling of body pools, 403 priorities, 20, 140, 406-407 selenium, 2, 20, 318-319, 406-407 vitamin C, 2, 20, 140, 165-166, 406-407 Respiratory burst, 108 Respiratory distress syndrome, 108, 312 Retinaldehyde binding protein, 197 Retinol/retinoic acid, 36-37, 328, 332, 355, 356, 367 Retinopathy, 50, 202, 208-209, 259, 368 Rheumatoid arthritis, 108 Riboflavin, 225 Risk assessment, defined, 75, 467 Risk assessment models. See also Dose-response assessment; Exposure assessment; Hazard identification; Risk characterization application to nutrients, 80-83 basic concepts, 13, 75-76 bioavailability considerations, 82-83 default options, 460 defined, 75, 467 and food safety, 75-80 inference options, 460 methodological considerations, 458-461 nutrient interactions, 83 process, 76-78 sensitivity of individuals, 82 special problems with nutrients, 80-81 thresholds, 78-80 uncertainties, 76, 79-80, 458-461 Risk characterization, 92-94 alpha-tocopherol, 260 carotenoids, 369-371 defined, 75, 77, 78, 467 process, 92-93 selenium, 13, 317-318 vitamin C, 165 Risk management, 76, 467 S Scurvy infants, 135, 159, 161, 162, 163-164, 166 rebound, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166 vitamin C deficiency and, 98, 100, 101, 119, 120, 135, 139, 145, 150, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Selenium, 284-324 absorption, 285-286, 306 adolescents, 287, 299-300, 306, 307, 308, 315-316 adults (19-50 years), 284, 300-305, 306-308, 313-315, 399 adults (51+ years), 70, 305-306 adverse effects, 284, 311-313, 399, 407 AIs, 10-11, 65, 292-299, 507 animal studies, 287, 290, 301, 302 bioavailability, 284, 291-292, 306, 307, 399 in blood, 288-289, 301-302, 310, 312, 313, 314, 318, 446-447 body stores, 286, 313 breath excretion, 313 and cancer, 36-41, 290-291, 319, 367 and cardiovascular disease, 40-41, 287, 288 children, 25, 65, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302, 315-316, 318, 403 critical endpoint, 313 deficiency, 43, 287, 298 dose-response assessment, 313-316 in drinking water, 309-310, 311, 317, 399 EARs, 10-11, 25, 299-304, 305, 306, 307 excretion, 285, 286-287, 291, 313 exposure assessment, 317 factors affecting requirements, 291-292 fetal, 67, 306 food sources, 286, 292, 298-299, 308, 309, 397 forms of, 285-286, 308, 312, 314, 468 in fortified foods, 286, 310, 399 functions, 43, 284, 285, 302 gender and, 292, 299, 403 geographic differences, 284, 309, 311-312, 315, 316, 317, 318-319 in hair and nails, 288, 313, 399 hazard identification, 311-313 in human milk, 292-298, 307, 315, 316, 386 indicators of adequacy, 10-11, 12, 43, 287-291, 301-302, 312-313, 318 infants, 65, 287, 292-299, 307, 315-316, 386, 392, 399 intakes, 16, 284, 308-311, 317, 397-399, 428-431 interaction with other nutrients, 36-37, 40-41, 285, 290, 367 intervention studies, 2, 36-41, 290, 303-304, 311, 318, 319, 367, 405 and Kashin-Beck disease, 12, 43, 287, 465 and Keshan disease, 12, 43, 287, 288, 292, 299-300, 301-302, 304, 403, 465 lactation, 67, 293, 294-297, 307-308, 315 by life-stage group, 10-11, 14, 292-308, 313-316, 428-431, 446-447 and lipid peroxidation, 287 metabolism, 285, 286, 299, 308 method used to set AI, 65, 292-298 NOAEL/LOAEL, 314, 316, 318 and oxidative stress, 41, 43, 44-45, 52, 285 pregnancy, 67, 287, 306-307, 315 radiolabeled, 291 RDAs, 2, 10-11, 12, 284, 300, 304-307, 308, 318, 507 research recommendations, 20, 318-319 smokers, 367 soil content, 16, 293, 298, 308, 397 supplements, 286, 292, 310-311, 312, 317, 399 and thyroid disorders, 287 ULs, 13, 14, 26-27, 284, 311-318, 391, 399 uncertainty assessment, 314, 315, 316 Selenocysteine, 284, 285, 286, 289, 291-292, 308, 399, 468 Selenomethionine, 284-285, 286, 289, 291, 303, 307, 308, 312, 313, 314, 399, 468 Selenophosphate synthetase, 285 Selenoprotein P, 289, 290, 301-302 Selenoproteins absorption, 285 antioxidant role, 41, 44-45, 284, 285 in blood, 288, 289-290, 303, 304, 310 defined, 285 functions, 12, 43, 285, 318 as indices of selenium status, 12, 43, 301-302, 312-313 sources, 284-285 synthesis, 286, 289, 291, 301 Selenosis, 284 acute, 312 biochemical indicators of, 312-313, 315

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids chronic, 311-312 defined, 468 form of intake and, 312, 314 overt signs of, 315 risk characterization, 13, 317-318 Semen, 98 Sensitivity delayed dermal, 117, 118-119, 220 interindividual variability, 91, 82, 257 Sepsis, 253 Serum alpha-carotene, 450-451 alpha-tocopherol, 236, 444-445 beta-carotene, 448-449 beta-cryptoxanthin, 452-453 cholesterol, 235 lutein and zeaxanthin, 454-455 lycopene, 456-457 vitamin C, 121, 132, 133, 152, 153, 156, 440-443 vitamin E (all forms), 444-445 Sjögren's syndrome, 101 Skeletal myopathy, 202 Skin cancer, 36-39, 290, 339 Skin Cancer Prevention Study, 36-37 Smokers and smoking and alpha-tocopherol, 36-37, 213-214, 216, 219, 238, 242-243, 252, 367, 406 AMD, 18, 49 cardiovascular disease, 37-39, 48-49, 103, 106-107, 131, 216, 238, 252, 347 and carotenoids, 18, 36-39, 49, 330, 331, 334-337, 344, 345, 347, 351, 359, 366-371, 372, 405, 406 cataracts, 351 dietary intakes, 130, 359, 360 DNA damage, 110-113, 130-131, 360 endothelium dependent vasodilation, 106-107, 131 lactating, 132 LDLs, 130, 132, 153 lipid peroxidation, 104-105, 130, 131, 132, 150-151 lung cancer, 36-39, 124, 213-214, 219, 360, 366-371, 372, 405, 406 metabolism of nutrients, 43 organic free radicals per puff, 132 and oropharyngeal cancers, 344 oxidative stress, 43, 48, 102, 130, 131, 132 passive, 132, 146, 153 pregnant, 132, 149, 150-151 prostate cancer, 219 racial/ethnic differences, 132 research needs, 403 and ROS, 131 and selenium, 367 special considerations, 150-151, 152-153, 160-161, 164-165 and vitamin C, 12, 43, 95, 102, 103, 104-105, 108, 110-113, 124, 130-132, 146, 149, 150-151, 152-153, 242, 390, 393 Socioeconomic status, and nutrient status, 101, 136-137 Special considerations adolescents, 358 alcohol and drug abusers, 150, 360 alpha-tocopherol, 241-243, 259 body size and composition extremes, 242 cancer, 241 cardiovascular disease, 241-242 carotenoids, 358-360 drug interactions, 150, 259 emotional stress, 153 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 160-161, 164 hemochromatosis, 160, 164 identification of, 87-88 infants, 160, 259 and NOAEL/LOAEL, 92 passive smokers, 153 physical exercise, 153, 242 in pregnancy, 150 renal disorders, 160, 164 smokers, 150-151, 152-153, 242-243, 359-360 ULs, 87-88, 92, 164-165, 259 vitamin C, 150-151, 152-153, 160-161, 164-165 vitamin K deficiency, 259 Sperm, 8-oxodG, 109, 110-111 Spinocerebellar ataxia, 202 Steroid hormone biosynthesis, 96, 98, 99, 153 Stomach cancer. See Gastric cancer Stroke, 36-41, 121, 214, 216, 252, 254, 346-347, 406 Superoxide, 103, 140-141, 211, 223 Superoxide dismutase, 45, 222

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Supplements, dietary. See also individual nutrients bioavailability of nutrients, 191, 224, 251, 355, 357, 399 data sources on intake, 70 form of nutrient in, 192, 251, 286, 292, 312, 399 gender differences, 70, 246-247, 260 intakes from, 70, 155, 244-245, 249, 310-311 multivitamin, 244, 246-247, 310, 386, 395 quality of, 317 shelf life, 190-191 ULs and, 5, 26, 74, 155, 165, 249, 259, 310, 317, 396, 397 units, 191, 244-245, 394-397 usage, 70 SUVIMAX, 40-41 Systemic conditioning, 156, 158-159, 161 T Tardive dyskinesia (TD), 222-223 Teratogenicity of nutrients, 315 Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 45, 103, 104-105, 131, 203, 217, 334-335, 468 Thioredoxin reductases, 285 Thrombin, 211, 223 Thrombophlebitis, 253 Thromboxane, 217 Thyroid disorders, 287, 315 Tocopherol. See Alpha-tocopherol; Vitamin E Tocotrienols. See Vitamin E Toddlers, 29-30 Tolerable, defined, 26, 73 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. See also Dose-response assessment; Hazard identification; Risk assessment models; individual nutrients appropropriateness of intakes above, 13, 27, 74, 155, 165, 249, 260, 311, 317-318, 369-371 children, 33 critical endpoints, 88-89 defined, 3, 4, 5, 7-8, 26, 73, 91-92, 468 derivation of, 7-8, 13, 26, 75, 80-83, 91-92, 162, 257, 315, 316 development steps, 84-92 fortification of foods and, 5, 26, 74 by life-stage groups, 14 supplement use and, 5, 26-27, 80-81 uses, 5-6, 15, 74, 383, 386, 391, 392-393, 398 Total Antioxidant Capacity, 104-105 Total radical-trapping antioxidant capability (TRAP) assay, 45 Toxicity experimental data, 86 mechanism of action, 87 Triiodothyronine, 315 Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, 46 Tropical sprue, 220 Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, 338 Tyrosine metabolism, 45, 96 U Ubiquinols, 224 Uncertainty alpha-tocopherol, 91, 231-232, 256-257 assessment, 90-91, 162, 256-257, 315, 316 dose-response assessment for ULs, 88-92 in dietary assessment methods, 68, 248, 385, 396 extrapolation from experimental animals to humans, 76, 79, 91 factor, 79, 89, 90-91, 162, 256-257, 315, 468 in risk assessment, 76, 79-80, 458-461 selenium, 315, 316 sources of, 256, 314, 386 vitamin C data, 139-140, 162 United States Pharmacopeia, 191 Uric acid excretion, 156, 157 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 69, 135, 154, 343, 361 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 69 U.S. Dietary Guidelines, 351 U.S. Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 122, 290, 344, 347, 351 V Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), 196, 212, 223

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Vasodilation alpha-tocopherol and, 196, 210 endothelium-dependent, 106-107, 131 smoking and, 131 vitamin C and, 103, 106-107, 131 Vegans/vegetarians, 247, 297, 309 Vegetables. See Fruits and vegetables Very low density lipoproteins, 104-105, 197 Vitamin A carotenoids and, 12-14, 36-37, 43-44, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 338, 343, 352, 355, 356, 366, 367, 371, 372, 403, 467 children, 338, 356 deficiency, 43, 325, 338, 356, 371 and DNA damage and repair, 112-113 intakes, 352 and lactation, 355 vitamin C and, 112-113 Vitamin B12, 156, 158, 161 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 95-185. See also Dehydroascorbic acid absorption and transport, 99-100, 103, 108, 128, 140, 147-148, 155, 157 adolescents, 65, 138-139, 149-151, 162-163 adults (19-50 years), 12, 95, 121-122, 126, 139-147, 149-151, 154, 157, 161-162, 386, 387-390, 391, 392, 393, 438-439 adults (55+ years), 101, 118-119, 121, 133, 147-149, 154, 155, 157, 438-439 adverse effects, 13, 95, 100, 155-161, 386, 407 AIs, 6-7, 134-138, 507 and alcohol/drug abuse, 101, 150 allergic response, 160, 161 animal studies, 59, 103, 120, 131, 140 antioxidant role, 43, 44-45, 52, 95, 96, 98-99, 101-109, 116, 124-125, 139-143, 146, 154, 166 and asthma, 126 and attention-deficit disorder, 163 and beta-carotene, 102, 109, 110-111 bioavailability, 99, 128 and blood coagulation, 99, 101 body pool, 100, 103, 132, 140, 142, 145, 152-153, 166, 225, 403 and bone growth, 101 and cancer, 36-37, 40-41, 106-107, 113-116, 123-125, 127, 128, 160 and cardiovascular disease, 18, 38-41, 101-102, 103, 106-107, 109, 121-122, 127, 128, 131, 346-347 and carnitine biosynthesis, 95, 96, 99, 120, 153, 166 and cataracts, 18, 98, 125-126, 127 chemistry, 95-96, 97 children, 25, 65, 138-139, 161, 162-163, 166 and cholesterol, 99 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 126, 127 and cognitive function, 19, 50, 127 and collagen metabolism, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 118-119, 166 and common cold, 117, 126-127, 163 and connective tissue synthesis, 98, 101 and copper, 96, 97-98, 128, 129, 156, 159-160, 161 data selection, 161 deficiency effects, 98, 99, 101, 108, 119, 120, 145, 148, 149 and dental enamel erosion, 156, 160, 161 dependence, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166 depletion/repletion studies, 108, 117, 140, 143-145, 148, 402-403 and DNA damage and repair, 98, 106-107, 109-115, 116, 130-131, 160 dose-response assessment for ULs, 161-165 EARs, 6-7, 23, 45, 65, 139, 146-151, 390 emotional stress and, 153 and endothelial dysfunction, 103, 106-107, 131 erythrocyte, 140 excretion, 12, 43, 95, 100, 140, 142, 144, 147, 148, 151, 157, 158, 164 exposure assessment, 165 and factors affecting requirement, 128-133 fetal, 67, 149, 150, 163, 166 and flavonoids, 98-99, 102, 128, 129 food sources, 101, 130, 154, 392 functions, 12, 43, 95, 96-99, 165-166 gastrointestinal effects, 95, 100, 102, 106-107, 124-125, 156, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids gender and, 2, 12, 65, 95, 101, 121, 122, 124, 126, 133, 146-147, 154, 387-390 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 160-161, 164 and glutathione, 43, 96, 98, 99, 103, 105, 109-110, 126, 128, 129 hazard identification, 155-161 and hemostatic dysfunction, 131 and high-altitude resistance, 160 in human milk, 101, 132, 134-138, 151, 164, 386 and immune function, 108, 117-119, 127 indicators of adequacy, 6-7, 11, 101-128 infants, 65, 101, 129, 134-138, 159-160, 161, 162, 163-164, 386, 392 and inflammatory stress, 103, 108, 130 intakes, 15-16, 95, 135, 138, 154-155, 165-166, 387-390, 393, 416-421, 432-435, 438-439 interaction with drugs, 99, 150 interaction with other nutrients, 38-41, 96, 97-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 118-119, 120, 128-129, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 224-225, 285, 332 international comparisons, 121, 123, 124, 127, 135, 153 intervention trials, 38-39, 405 intracellular recycling, 108 and iron, 96, 97-98, 99, 109, 118-119, 120, 128, 129, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166 and kidney stone formation, 156, 157, 160, 161 laboratory values, 67 and lactation, 67, 134-135, 136-137, 151-152, 164 and LDLs, 98, 101-102, 104-105, 109, 132, 153 in leukocytes, 43, 95, 103, 108-109, 110-111, 130, 133, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150 by life-stage group, 6-7, 14, 134-153, 161-164, 416-421, 432-435, 440-443 and lipid peroxidation, 45, 95, 98, 102, 104-105, 109, 116, 130, 131, 132, 146, 150-151, 153, 159 in lymphocytes, 99-100 metabolism, 12, 43, 95, 100, 108, 130, 133, 148, 152-153, 157, 158 method used to set AIs, 134-138 method used to set EARs, 139-145, 147-148, 149-151 methodological issues, 67, 68-69, 127-128, 402-403 and nervous system, 19, 50, 96, 98, 131, 153 in neutrophils, 12, 43, 95, 98, 99-100, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 150, 385 NOAEL/LOAEL, 161-162, 163 and osmotic diarrhea, 13, 95, 100, 154, 161-162, 163, 166, 386, 393 and oxalate excretion, 156 and oxidative stress, 12, 43, 95, 101-102, 109, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 148, 152, 162, 166 and oxygen demand, 156, 161 passive smokers, 132, 146, 153 and periodontal health, 120, 156, 160, 161, 166 and physical exams, 164 and physical exercise, 153 plasma concentrations, 100, 101, 121, 123, 126, 127, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134-135, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 155, 158 and pregnancy, 67, 82, 132, 149-151, 159, 161, 163-164, 166 pro-oxidant effects, 129, 156, 159-160, 161, 166 race/ethnicity and, 132 RDAs, 2, 6-7, 12, 43, 95, 138, 139, 147, 149, 150, 151-152, 386, 392, 507 and renal disease, 157, 160, 164 research recommendations, 2, 20, 140, 165-166 and respiratory distress syndrome, 108 and rheumatoid arthritis, 108 risk characterization, 165 RNS/ROS and, 98, 102, 103, 106-107, 109, 116, 124, 131, 140 and scurvy, 98, 100, 101, 119, 120, 135, 139, 145, 150, 156, 158-159, 162, 163, 166 serum concentrations, 121, 132, 133, 152, 153, 156, 440-443 smokers, 12, 43, 95, 102, 103, 104-105, 108, 110-113, 124, 130-132, 146, 149, 150-151, 152-153, 242, 390, 393

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids socioeconomic status and, 101, 136-137 special considerations, 150-151, 152-153, 160-161, 164-165 and steroid hormone biosynthesis, 96, 98, 99, 153 supplements, 70, 155 systemic conditioning, 156, 158-159, 161 turnover, 43, 95, 130-131, 152-153, 158 ULs, 13, 14, 26-27, 82, 95, 155-165, 391, 393 uncertainties in data, 140, 162 and uric acid excretion, 156, 157 and vitamin A, 112-113 vitamin E and, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 128, 129, 213, 224-225 and vitamin B12, 156, 158, 161 Vitamin E (all forms), 186-293. See also Alpha-tocopherol absorption, 191, 193, 196, 243 affinity of alpha-TTP to forms of, 2, 12, 19, 193, 195, 197-198, 243, 262 bioavailability, 193, 194-195, 243, 404 body pools, 210 conversion factors, 244-245, 394-395 defined, 187, 393 food composition data, 68-69, 393-394 forms of, 2, 12, 16, 186, 187-190, 193, 194-195, 210, 243, 262, 393-394, 404, 406 in human milk, 227, 228-229 intakes, 68, 69-70, 186, 194, 232, 243, 393-394, 395-396, 404, 406, 422-423 interconversion of units, 191-192, 244, 246 serum values, 444-445 shelf life, 190-191 structure, 187-195 units of activity, 186, 190 n.1, 191-195 Vitamin K, 252, 254-255, 256, 259 W Warfarin therapy, 252 Weight. See Body weight; Reference weights and heights Western Electric cohort study, 121-122, 341 Women. See also Gender; Lactation; Pregnancy alpha-tocopherol, 40-41, 212, 219, 226, 237, 245, 246-247, 249, 259-260 aspirin, 40-41 breast cancer, 123, 219 cardiovascular disease, 38-41, 121, 122, 212, 347 carotenoids, 38-41, 330-331, 349, 351 cataracts, 126, 351 cervical cancer, 17, 123, 340-341, 345, 346 dietary intakes, 154, 165, 245 fish oil supplements, 226 Keshan disease, 292, 304 kidney stone formation, 157 MOPD values, 349 postmenopausal, 122, 123, 212, 219, 226, 259-260, 330-331, 347 selenium,292 supplement use, 249, 260 vitamin C, 40-41, 95, 118-119, 122, 123, 126, 133, 146-147, 149, 154, 157, 165, 386 Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, 40-41, 252 Women's Health Study, 40-41, 252 World Health Organization definition of adverse effect, 73 Monitoring Cardiovascular Project, Vitamin Substudy, 346 uncertainty factors, 79 X Xanthophylls, 329, 330 Z Zeaxanthin, 18, 44, 49, 329, 330, 348, 349, 350, 351, 358, 360-361, 364, 366, 371, 454-455 Zinc, 40-41