age-related macular degeneration, 49, 348-350

asthma, 126

cardiovascular disease, 47-49, 121-122, 211-217, 241-242, 346-348

cataracts, 49, 125-126, 221, 350

EARs, 31

immune function, 51, 117-119, 220-221, 338

institutionalized, 147

lean body mass, 148

oxidative stress in, 51, 148, 242

supplement use, 51, 70

ULs, 14

Advanced glycosylation end products, 50-51

Adverse effects, 3, 4-6

alpha-tocopherol, 249, 251-255

carotenoids, 366-368

defined, 73

evidence of, 85

knowledge gaps, 406

nutrient-nutrient interactions, 74

selenium, 311-313

vitamin C, 155-161

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) carotenoids and, 18-19, 49, 348-350

smoking and, 18, 49

Aging.

See also Life-stage groups;

individual life stages

and absorption of nutrients, 31, 147-148, 238, 305

alpha-tocopherol and, 51, 235

carotenoids and, 330

food consumption and, 51

and immune function, 51, 220

oxidative stress and, 44, 51

and serum cholesterol, 235

Alcohol and drug abuse, 101, 150, 330, 360, 368

Aldosterone, 99

Allergic response to nutrients, 160, 161, 368

Alpha-1-antiprotease, 108, 140

Alpha-carotene, 325, 329, 330, 332-333, 342, 343, 347, 348, 349, 350-351, 356, 358, 360-365, 366, 371, 450-451

Alpha-tocopherol, 186-283.

See also Vitamin E

absorption, 196-198, 238, 251

adolescents, 230-231, 239-241, 258, 259, 260-261

adults (19-50 years), 228-229, 231-237, 239-241, 255-257, 258, 259, 397

adults (51+ years), 220, 238-239, 241-242, 249, 259-260

adverse effects, 249, 251-255, 396

AIs, 8-9, 65, 226-230, 393, 394, 507

animal studies, 197, 203, 212, 216, 221, 252, 254, 255

antioxidant activity, 195, 224-225

and ataxia, 199, 202-203, 204-209

bioavailability, 224, 238, 243, 251

body pool, 209-210, 225

body size and composition and, 242

and cancer, 196, 213-214, 218-220, 241

and cardiovascular disease, 36-41, 203, 206-207, 211-217, 225, 238, 241-242, 248, 252, 261

and cataracts, 221

and central nervous system disorders, 221-223, 252

children, 202, 230-231, 258, 260-261

and cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 202, 203

and circulating lipoproteins, 193, 197, 199, 216, 234-235, 261

critical endpoint, 254

deficiency, 186, 199, 202-203, 204-209, 210-211, 220, 221, 231, 235, 239, 240

defined, 187, 192, 468

depletion/repletion studies, 203, 232, 233-234, 236

and diabetes mellitus, 217-218

and DNA damage and repair, 208

dose-response assessment for ULs, 255-259

EARs, 2, 8-9, 10-11, 194, 230-237, 238, 239, 240, 393, 394

excretion, 200, 208-209

exposure assessment, 259-260

factors affecting requirements, 224-226

fetal, 239, 243, 394

food sources, 224, 243, 244, 245, 248, 250, 396

in fortified foods, 190-191, 194, 243, 394

functions, 12, 43, 186, 195-196

gender and, 2, 231, 237, 245, 249

hazard identification, 249, 251-255

hemorrhagic toxicity, 13, 252, 253-254, 255-256

in human milk, 226, 227, 228-229, 240

and hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis, 12, 43, 203, 210-211, 231, 232-233, 234, 235, 402



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