and immune function, 51, 219, 220-221

indicators of adequacy, 8-9, 203, 208-224

infants, 65, 226-230, 239, 240, 253-254, 258, 259, 386, 392

intakes, 16, 230, 243-249, 250, 395-397, 424-425

interaction with drugs, 252, 259

interaction with other antioxidants, 195, 290

interaction with other nutrients, 36-41, 98-99, 102, 109, 128, 129, 213, 221, 222, 224-225, 232, 252, 254-255, 259

international comparisons, 204-209, 212-214, 216

international units converted to, 192, 244-245, 395, 396, 397

intervention trials, 2, 36-41, 213-217, 219-220, 221, 223-224, 226, 238, 241-242, 252, 254, 261-262, 367, 405

kinetic modeling, 209-210

laboratory values, 67

lactation and, 67, 228-229, 240-241, 258, 259

and LDLs, 211-212, 217, 226

by life-stage group, 8-9, 14, 226-243, 255-258, 422-427, 436-437, 444-445

and lipid peroxidation, 12, 43, 45, 195, 203, 211, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 243, 261

metabolism, 199-200, 208-210, 261

methodological considerations, 65, 67, 68-69

method used to set AIs, 226-230

and neuropathy, 202, 204-207, 218, 220, 221, 231, 232

NOAEL/LOAEL, 255-257

observational epidemiological studies, 212-213, 219, 221

and oxidative stress, 44-45, 51, 52, 203, 211, 217-218, 221, 222, 223, 242, 261

physical exercise and, 242

plasma concentrations, 197, 210, 232-237, 251, 444-445

platelet effects, 196, 211, 212, 218, 253

preferential secretion by liver, 197-199, 243

pregnancy and, 67, 239-240, 258, 259

and PUFAs, 195, 215, 225-226, 235, 248

RDAs, 2, 8-9, 12, 231, 237, 238-241, 248, 393, 394, 507

research recommendations, 20, 260-262

and retinopathy, 202, 208-209, 259

risk characterization, 260

serum concentrations, 236, 444-445

and skeletal myopathy, 202

smokers, 36-37, 213-214, 216, 219, 238, 242-243, 252

special considerations, 241-243, 259

storage, 201-202

supplement use, 70, 190-191, 194, 244-245, 249, 251, 258-260, 394-395, 396, 397

synthetic, 190-191, 192, 193, 244-245, 393-397

transport, 196-199

ULs, 13, 14, 249, 251-260, 396-397

uncertainty assessment, 91, 256-257

and vasodilation, 196, 210

vitamin C and, 98-99, 102, 109, 110-113, 128, 129, 213, 224-225

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, 36-37, 49, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 221, 238, 241, 242, 252, 254, 345, 366-368, 369, 406

Alpha-tocopherol equivalents

conversion to alpha-tocopherol intakes, 16, 244, 394-395, 397

intakes, 230, 243, 244, 245-248, 422-423, 426-427, 436-437

usefulness of, 394

Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP)

form of vitamin E and affinity of, 193, 195, 197-198, 243, 262

function, 186, 197-198

genetic defects, 199, 202, 204-209

Alzheimer's disease, 19, 50, 222, 252

American Academy of Pediatrics, 28, 29, 65, 74, 259

Amino acids.

See also individual amino acids

biosynthesis, 96

Aminotransferases, 163

Amyloid beta-peptide, 222

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 19, 50

Anemia, hemolytic, 239, 259, 355

Angina, 47, 341, 347

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 38-39

Animal studies

alpha-tocopherol, 51, 59, 91, 197, 203, 212, 216, 251, 252, 254, 255, 396

of cardiovascular disease, 48-49, 212, 216

carotenoids, 59



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