EAR (mg/d)a

RDA (mg/d)b

AI (mg/d)c

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

 

40

40

 

50

50

13

13

15

15

 

22

22

25

25

 

39

39

45

45

 

63

56

75

65

 

75

60

90

75

 

75

60

90

75

 

75

60

90

75

 

75

60

90

75

 
 

66

 

80

 
 

70

 

85

 
 

96

 

115

 
 

100

 

120

 

source of data. Life stage and gender were considered to the extent possible, but the data did not provide a basis for proposing different requirements for men and for nonpregnant and nonlactating women in different age groups for any of the nutrients except vitamin C.

Three of the categories of reference values (Estimated Average Requirement [EAR], Recommended Dietary Allowance [RDA], and Adequate Intake [AI]) are defined by specific criteria of nutrient adequacy; the fourth (Tolerable Upper Intake Level [UL]) is defined by a specific endpoint of adverse effect, when one is avail-



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