TABLE S-2 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for α-Tocopherola by Life Stage Group

Life Stage Groupb

Criterion

0 through 6 mo

Human milk content

7 through 12 mo

Extrapolation from 0 to 6 mo

1 through 3 y

Extrapolation from adult

4 through 8 y

Extrapolation from adult

9 through 13 y

Extrapolation from adult

14 through 18 y

Extrapolation from adult

19 through 30 y

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis

31 through 50 y

Extrapolation of hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis from 19 through 30 y

51 through 70 y

Extrapolation of hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis from 19 through 30 y

>70 y

Extrapolation of hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis from 19 through 50 y

Pregnancy

 

≤18 y

Plasma concentration

19 through 50 y

Plasma concentration

Lactation

 

≤18 y

Human milk content + age specific requirement

19 through 50 y

Human milk content + age specific requirement

a α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. Does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. The 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol, as defined in this report, are the only forms of Vitamin E that have been shown to meet human requirements.

b All groups except Pregnancy and Lactation are males and females.

c EAR = Estimated Average Requirement. The intake that meets the estimated nutrient needs of half of the individuals in a group, men and women combined.

able. In all cases, data were examined closely to determine whether an antioxidant function or a reduction of risk of a chronic degenerative disease could be used as a criterion of adequacy. The quality of studies was examined by considering study design; methods used for measuring intake and indicators of adequacy; and biases, interactions, and confounding factors.

Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the various questions that confronted the panel. Therefore,



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