DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids

A Report of the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds,

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and

Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

Food and Nutrition Board

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids A Report of the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033; Health Canada; the Institute of Medicine; the Dietary Reference Intakes Private Foundation Fund, including the Dannon Institute and the International Life Sciences Institute; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors' Fund. Contributors to the Fund include Roche Vitamins Inc.; Mead Johnson Nutrition Group; Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc.; Kemin Foods, Inc.; M&M Mars; Weider Nutrition Group; Nabisco Foods Group; U.S. Borax; and Natural Source Vitamin E Association. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the funders. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids : a report of the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommitties on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Use of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-06949-1 (case) – ISBN 0-309-06935-1 (paper) 1. Antioxidants. 2. Reference values (Medicine). 3. Vitamin C. 4. Vitamin E. 5. Carotenoids. I. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. [DNLM: 1. Nutritional Requirements. 2. Ascorbic Acid. 3. Carotenoids. 4. Reference Values. 5. Selenium. 6. Vitamin E. QU 145 D56566 2000] QP801.A66 D53 2000 612.3′9–dc21 00-035521 This report is available for sale from the National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP's on-line bookstore at http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at http://www.iom.edu. Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” —Goethe INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Shaping the Future for Health

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids PANEL ON DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS NORMAN I. KRINSKY (Chair), Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts GARY R. BEECHER, U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland RAYMOND F. BURK, Clinical Nutrition Unit, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee ALVIN C. CHAN, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR., Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ROBERT A. JACOB, U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, University of California, Davis ISHWARLAL JIALAL, Department of Pathology and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas LAURENCE N. KOLONEL, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JAMES R. MARSHALL, Cancer Prevention and Control, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson SUSAN TAYLOR MAYNE, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ROSS L. PRENTICE, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington KATHLEEN B. SCHWARZ, Division of Pediatric GI/Nutrition, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland DANIEL STEINBERG, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California, San Diego MARET G. TRABER, Department of Nutrition and Food Management, Oregon State University, Corvallis Food and Nutrition Board Liaison CHARLES H. HENNEKENS, Boca Raton, Florida Federal Project Steering Committee Liaison LTC KARL FRIEDL, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, Frederick, Maryland Staff SANDRA A. SCHLICKER, Study Director ELISABETH A. REESE, Research Associate ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate MICHELE R. RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids SUBCOMMITTEE ON UPPER REFERENCE LEVELS OF NUTRIENTS IAN C. MUNRO (Chair), CanTox, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada GEORGE C. BECKING, Phoenix OHC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada RENATE D. KIMBROUGH, Independent Consultant, Washington, D.C. RITA B. MESSING, Division of Environmental Health, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul SANFORD A. MILLER, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio SUZANNE P. MURPHY, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu HARRIS PASTIDES, School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, The Life Sciences Consultancy LLC, Washington, D.C. IRWIN H. ROSENBERG, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts STEVE L. TAYLOR, Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln JOHN A. THOMAS, Retired, San Antonio, Texas GARY M. WILLIAMS, Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla Staff SANDRA A. SCHLICKER, Study Director ELISABETH A. REESE, Research Associate MICHELE R. RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERPRETATION AND USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES SUZANNE P. MURPHY (Chair), Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu LENORE ARAB, Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill SUSAN I. BARR, Department of Nutrition, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada SUSAN T. BORRA, International Food Information Council, Washington, D.C. ALICIA L. CARRIQUIRY, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames BARBARA L. DEVANEY, Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, New Jersey JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts JEAN-PIERRE HABICHT, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York HARRIET V. KUHNLEIN, Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada Consultant GEORGE BEATON, GHB Consulting, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada Staff MARY I. POOS, Study Director ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate MICHELE R. RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES VERNON R. YOUNG (Chair), Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign LINDSAY H. ALLEN, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts JOHN D. FERNSTROM, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas CHARLES H. HENNEKENS, Boca Raton, Florida SANFORD A. MILLER, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio WILLIAM M. RAND, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts U.S. Government Liaison ELIZABETH CASTRO, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. Canadian Government Liaison PETER W.F. FISCHER, Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Study Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD CUTBERTO GARZA (Chair), Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York LARRY R. BEUCHAT, Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, University of Georgia, Griffin BENJAMIN CABALLERO, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland FERGUS M. CLYDESDALE, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas ALFRED H. MERRILL, JR., Department of Biochemistry, Emory Center for Nutrition and Health Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia LYNN PARKER, Child Nutrition Programs and Nutrition Policy, Food Research and Action Center, Washington, D.C. ROSS L. PRENTICE, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington A. CATHARINE ROSS, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBERT M. RUSSELL, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts ROBERT E. SMITH, R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania STEVE L. TAYLOR, Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant GARY WALKER, Financial Associate

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Preface This report is one of a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine working in cooperation with scientists from Canada. The report establishes a set of reference values for vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium to replace previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for the United States and Canada and examines data about β-carotene and the other carotenoids (α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin). Evidence has been reviewed regarding the impact of these compounds on chronic disease along with their roles related to deficiency states. Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the various questions that needed to be dealt with in order to develop reference values for these nutrients and food components. Thus, scientific judgment was required in setting the reference values. The reasoning used is described for each nutrient in Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7 through Chapter 8. These compounds, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, β-carotene and other carotenoids, have been termed “dietary antioxidants” somewhat loosely by many. There has been intense interest by the public and the media in the possibility that increased intakes of dietary antioxidants protect against chronic disease. Many research programs are under way in this area.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids ommended intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and the carotenoids and ways to achieve those intakes. The process for establishing DRIs is an iterative process and is thus evolving as the conceptual framework is applied to new nutrients and food components. With more experience, the proposed models for establishing reference intakes for use with nutrients and food components that play a role in health will be refined. Also, as new information or new methods of analysis are adopted, these reference values undoubtedly will be reassessed. Because the project is ongoing as indicated above, many comments were solicited and have been received on the two reports previously published (Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride and Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline). Refinements have been included in the general discussion regarding approaches used (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3 through Chapter 4) and in the discussion of uses of DRIs (Chapter 9 in this report). For example, it is now clearly stated that animal data can be used as the critical adverse effect in setting a UL for a nutrient. Among the comments received to date have been requests for additional guidance in the practical application of DRIs. The Uses Subcommittee, conceptually included since the beginning of the DRI process, was formed subsequent to the release of the first two reports. Although their activities will involve reports specifically addressing the rationale for using DRIs for assessing intake and planning, in this report Chapter 9 addresses some of the major issues that relate to the anticipated uses and applications of reference values. This report reflects the work of the Food and Nutrition Board's DRI Committee, its expert Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, UL Subcommittee, and Uses Subcommittee. It is important to acknowledge the support of the government of Canada and Canadian scientists in this initiative, which represents a pioneering first step in the standardization of nutrient reference intakes at least within a major part of one continent. A brief description of the overall project of the DRI Committee and of the panel's task are given in Appendix A. It is hoped that the critical, comprehensive analyses of available information and of knowledge gaps in this initial series of reports will greatly assist the private sector, foundations, universities, government laboratories, and other institutions with the development of a productive research agenda for the next decade.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids The DRI Committee, the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, the UL Subcommittee, and the Uses Subcommittee wish to extend sincere thanks to the many experts who have assisted with this report by giving presentations, providing written materials, participating in discussions, analyzing data, and other means. Many, but far from all, of these people are named in Appendix B. Special thanks go to staff at the National Center for Health Statistics, the Food Surveys Research Group of the Agricultural Research Service, and the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University for extensive analyses of survey data. The respective chairs and members of the panel and subcommittees have performed their work under great time pressure. Their dedication made the completion of this report possible. All gave of their time willingly and without financial reward; both the science and practice of nutrition are major beneficiaries. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the panel and subcommittee members and the Institute of Medicine in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the final report is the responsibility of the Institute of Medicine and the study panel and not the responsibility of the reviewers. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The panel wishes to thank the following individuals, who are neither officials nor employees of the Institute of Medicine, for their participation in the review of this report: Bruce N. Ames, Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley; Dennis M. Bier, M.D., Baylor College of Medicine; James R. Coughlin, Ph.D., Coughlin & Associates; Barry Halliwell, D.Sc., University of London, Kings College; John E. Halver, Ph.D., University of Washington; Richard J. Havel, M.D., University of California at San Francisco; Orville Levander, Ph.D., U.S. Department of Agriculture; Stanley D. Omaye, Ph.D., University of Nevada; Helmut Sies, M.D., Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf; Thressa C. Stadtman, Ph.D., National Institutes of Health; and Walter Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., Harvard School of Public Health. The DRI Committee wishes to acknowledge, in particular, the commitment shown by Norman Krinsky, chair of the panel, who steered this difficult project through what at times seemed to some

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids like “dangerous and uncharted waters.” His ability to keep the effort and the various perspectives moving in a positive direction is very much appreciated. Thanks also are due to DRI Committee members Scott Grundy and John Fernstrom, in-depth internal reviewers for this report. Special thanks go to the staff of the Food and Nutrition Board and foremost to Sandra Schlicker, who was the study director for the panel and without whose assistance, both intellectual and managerial, this report would neither have been as polished nor as timely in its release. It is, of course, those at the Food and Nutrition Board who get much of the work completed and so the panel, subcommittees, and the Food and Nutrition Board wish to thank Allison Yates, Director of the Food and Nutrition Board, for constant assistance and it also recognizes, with appreciation, the contributions of Mary Poos, Elisabeth Reese, Alice Vorosmarti, Gail Spears, and Michele Ramsey. We also thank Florence Poillon and Sydne Newberry for editing the manuscript and Mike Edington and Claudia Carl for assistance with publication. Vernon Young Chair, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Cutberto Garza Chair, Food and Nutrition Board

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids Contents     SUMMARY   1      What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?,   2      Approach for Setting Dietary Reference Intakes,   6      Nutrient Functions and the Indicators Used to Estimate Requirements for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and the Carotenoids,   12      Criteria and Proposed Values for Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   13      Using Dietary Reference Intakes,   14      Definition of a Dietary Antioxidant,   17      Evidence of Oxidative Stress and the Risk of Chronic Degenerative Disease,   17      Recommendations,   19  1   INTRODUCTION TO DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES   21      What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?,   21      Categories of Dietary Reference Intakes,   22      Parameters for Dietary Reference Intakes,   27      Summary,   33      References,   33

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids  2   VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E, SELENIUM, AND β-CAROTENE AND OTHER CAROTENOIDS: OVERVIEW, ANTIOXIDANT DEFINITION, AND RELATIONSHIP TO CHRONIC DISEASE   35      Overview,   35      Definition and Criteria for a Dietary Antioxidant,   42      Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, and Chronic Disease,   44      Conclusions,   51      References,   52  3   VITAMIN C, VITAMIN E, SELENIUM, AND β-CAROTENE AND OTHER CAROTENOIDS: METHODS   58      Methodological Considerations,   58      Estimates of Laboratory Values,   67      Nutrient Intake Estimates,   67      Dietary Intakes in the United States and Canada,   69      Summary,   71      References,   71  4   A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS FOR NUTRIENTS   73      Background,   73      Model for Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   75      Risk Assessment and Food Safety,   75      Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients,   80      Steps in the Development of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   84      Intake Assessment,   92      Risk Characterization,   92      References,   94  5   VITAMIN C   95      Summary,   95      Background Information,   95      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin C,   101      Factors Affecting the Vitamin C Requirement,   128      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   134      Intake of Vitamin C,   154

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   155      Research Recommendations for Vitamin C,   165      References,   167  6   VITAMIN E   186      Summary,   186      Background Information,   187      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for α-Tocopherol,   203      Factors Affecting the Vitamin E Requirement,   224      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   226      Intake of Vitamin E,   243      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   249      Research Recommendations for Vitamin E,   260      References,   262  7   SELENIUM   284      Summary,   284      Background Information,   284      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Selenium,   287      Factors Affecting the Selenium Requirement,   291      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   292      Intake of Selenium,   308      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   311      Research Recommendations for Selenium,   318      References,   319  8   β-CAROTENE AND OTHER CAROTENOIDS   325      Summary,   325      Background Information,   326      Selection of Possible Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for β-Carotene and Other Carotenoids,   331      Factors Affecting Carotenoid Bioavailability,   354      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   358      Intake of Carotenoids,   360      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   366      Research Recommendations for β-Carotene and Other Carotenoids,   371      References,   372

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids  9   USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES   383      Overview,   383      Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Individuals,   384      Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups,   387      Planning Nutrient Intakes of Individuals,   392      Planning Nutrient Intakes of Groups,   392      Nutrient-Specific Considerations,   393      Summary,   399      References,   399  10   A RESEARCH AGENDA   401      Approach,   401      Major Knowledge Gaps,   402      The Research Agenda,   406     APPENDIXES    A   Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes,   409  B   Acknowledgments,   413  C   Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,   416  D   Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,   432  E   Canadian Dietary Intake Data, 1993, 1995,   438  F   Serum Values from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,   440  G   Options for Dealing with Uncertainties,   458  H   Glossary and Acronyms,   463  I   Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members,   469     INDEX   483     SUMMARY TABLE, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals   507

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FORVitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids

OCR for page R1
DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1