Index

A

Abatement strategies

monitoring and modeling, 197-236

source reduction and control, 269-310

understanding, 195-310

water quality goals, 237-268

Adriatic Sea, 88

AFOs. See Animal feeding operations

AGNPS. See Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model

Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model (AGNPS), 377

Agricultural production systems changes under way in, 161

Agriculture-dominated watersheds, 211-212

Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act. See Clean Air Act

Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, 27, 109, 112

Algal beds

degradation of, 98-101

Algal bloom. See Harmful algal bloom (HAB)

Allochthonous organic matter inputs influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 175

American Society of Civil Engineers, 300, 302

Urban Water Resources Research Council of, 303

Ammonium sulfate, 134

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), 26, 29, 95

Anaerobic digestion

of liquid wastes, 280

Animal feeding operations (AFOs), 124-125

Anoxia

shifts in community structure caused by, 89-90

ANSWERS. See Areal, Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation

Apalachicola estuary, 66

Areal, Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation (ANSWERS), 377-378

ASP. See Amnesic shellfish poisoning

Assessments

need to conduct, 10, 59

Atmospheric nitrogen, 35-36, 53



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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution Index A Abatement strategies monitoring and modeling, 197-236 source reduction and control, 269-310 understanding, 195-310 water quality goals, 237-268 Adriatic Sea, 88 AFOs. See Animal feeding operations AGNPS. See Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution model (AGNPS), 377 Agricultural production systems changes under way in, 161 Agriculture-dominated watersheds, 211-212 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act. See Clean Air Act Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, 27, 109, 112 Algal beds degradation of, 98-101 Algal bloom. See Harmful algal bloom (HAB) Allochthonous organic matter inputs influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 175 American Society of Civil Engineers, 300, 302 Urban Water Resources Research Council of, 303 Ammonium sulfate, 134 Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), 26, 29, 95 Anaerobic digestion of liquid wastes, 280 Animal feeding operations (AFOs), 124-125 Anoxia shifts in community structure caused by, 89-90 ANSWERS. See Areal, Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation Apalachicola estuary, 66 Areal, Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation (ANSWERS), 377-378 ASP. See Amnesic shellfish poisoning Assessments need to conduct, 10, 59 Atmospheric nitrogen, 35-36, 53

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution B Baltic Sea, 32, 79-81 Barbados, 103 BASINS. See Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources Beaches importance of, 15 “Beneficiary pays” principle, 251-252 Benthic filter feeders, 305-306 Best management practices (BMPs), 57, 59, 256, 272, 274-275, 277, 282-288, 300, 302, 309 Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS), 378 Biogeochemical models CENTURY, 231 Biogeochemical processes, 74 Biological oxygen demand (BOD), 296 Biological treatment options in situ, 304-306 “Blue-green algae,” 78 BMPs. See Best management practices BOD. See Biological oxygen demand Bottom-dwelling plants, 100 C C-GOOS. See Coastal Component of the Global Ocean Observing System CAFE. See Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency standards CASTNET. See Clean Air Status and Trends Network CCMP. See Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan CE-QUAL-W2 model, 386 CENR. See Committee on Environment and Natural Resources CENTURY model biogeochemical, 231 Chaetomorpha, 26 Chattonella, 98 CH3D-ICM model, 387-388 Chemical, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems (CREAMS), 379 Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT), 296 Cherry Creek Basin, 264 Chesapeake Bay, 6, 27, 39, 76, 88, 103, 106, 109-110, 120, 122, 128-130, 152-157, 230, 305 Chesapeake Bay Program, 49, 219-220, 304, 361 Choosing targets, 239-240 Circulation enhancement, 304 CISNet. See Coastal Intensive Site Network Cladophora, 26 Classification scheme Hansen and Rattray, 179-180 Clean Air Act, 7, 9, 16-18, 37, 53, 56, 61, 161, 289, 293, 309, 356 amendments to, 263, 291, 307, 360 Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), 363 Clean Water Act, 7, 9, 16-17, 52-53, 212, 242, 252, 293-294, 309, 356-358, 360, 362 Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP), 9, 51-53, 55, 358, 367 Clean Water State Revolving Funds loans, 362 CNSPCP. See Coastal Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program Coastal Component of the Global Ocean Observing System (C-GOOS), 365-366 Coastal eutrophication management strategies addressing, 368 models for, 384-391 Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet), 365 Coastal marine ecosystems evidence for nitrogen limitation in, 67-72 importance of silica and iron in, 81-83 mechanisms that lead to nitrogen limitation in, 72-81 Coastal models for monitoring and modeling, 227-230 Coastal Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program (CNSPCP), 52, 357-358 Coastal Research and Monitoring Strategy, 52, 367 Coastal Services Center, 367-368 Coastal system types Plankton Dominated Drowned River Valley Estuary (DRVE), 166 Salt Marsh Dominated Estuary (SME), 166 Seagrass Dominated Estuary (SGE), 166

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution Coastal waters determining status of, 44 nutrient over-enrichment in, 14-16 productivity of, 2-3 sources of nutrient inputs to, 113-162 Coastal Zone Management Act, 7, 9, 16, 18, 53, 356-358 reauthorization amendments to, 52 Coastal Zone Management Programs, 358 Columbia River, 180 Combating nutrient over-enrichment, 37-62 Command-and-control regulations, 258-260 Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR), 51, 54, 188, 210 Draft Coastal Research and Monitoring Strategy, 59 Environmental Monitoring Team of, 188 Committee on the Causes and Management of Coastal Eutrophication, 16, 79, 188 “Compensating surplus.” See Willingness to pay Complexity levels of, 229-230 Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP), 360 Concentration measurements limits of, 248 Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, 53 Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), 252, 256-257, 288 Controlling costs of monitoring and modeling, 213-214 Controlling the right nutrients, 31-36 Copper, 91 Coral reef destruction, 30-31, 101-103 Coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis, 30 Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) standards, 290, 292-293 Corpus Christi Bay, 87 CREAMS. See Chemical, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems Criteria establishing, 240-242 Crop rotation, 281 “Crown-of-Thorns” starfish, 31 CRP. See Conservation Reserve Program CWAP. See Clean Water Action Plan Cyanobacteria, 78 D Danish Nationwide Monitoring Program, 204-205 Data assimilation, 200 Data sets electronic storage and management of, 202 Databases need to develop, 56 DCP. See Dissolved concentration potential “Dead Zone” in the Gulf of Mexico, 1, 25, 39, 87 Denitrification, 140-141 influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 171 Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), 26, 29, 95 Dictyosphaeria cavernosa, 102 Dilution influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 165 Dilution capacity, 184-186 Dissolved concentration potential (DCP), 182-183, 186-187, 191 updating measures of, 191 Dissolved organic matter (DOM), 91-92 Distributed Routing, Rainfall, Runoff Model-Quality (DR3M-QUAL), 380 DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy DOM. See Dissolved organic matter Dose-Response Curves, 166 Draft Coastal Research and Monitoring Strategy, 59 DR3M-QUAL. See Distributed Routing, Rainfall, Runoff Model-Quality DSP. See Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning Dutch coastal waters, 92 DYNHYD5, 386 E ECOM/*EM model, 387 Economic impacts challenge of estimating, 111-112 types of, 104-111

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution EFDC. See Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model Elba watershed, 6 EMAP. See Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Embayments, 73 Enrichment. See Over-enrichment Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model, 388 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 209, 363-364 Environmental Monitoring Team, 188 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7-8, 16-17, 52-53, 56, 61, 108, 156, 212, 226, 234, 246, 255 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) of, 209, 363-364 Great Waters program of, 53, 360-361 National Estuary Program (NEP) of, 45, 191, 210, 359-360, 368-370 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) of, 202, 226, 235, 247, 295, 298, 357 Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) of, 225, 383 Pollution Prevention Grants Program of, 361 statistical method of, 383 Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), 288, 362 EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency EQIP. See Environmental Quality Incentives Program “Equivalent surplus.” See Willingness to accept Estuaries nitrogen and phosphorus in, 66-67 productivity of, 2 sources of nutrient inputs to, 113-162 Estuarine conditions developing quantitative measures of, 208-210 Estuarine export potential (EXP), 182-184, 186-187, 191 updating measures of, 191 Estuarine models, 384-391 for monitoring and modeling, 227-230 European Community limits, 276 European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, 219 EUTRO5 model, 385, 387 Eutrophication controlled by nitrogen, 68-70 defined, 1-2, 24 spatial coherence scales of, 199 Eutrophication reduction policies, 250 Executive Office Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR), 51, 54 EXP. See Estuarine export potential Expanding monitoring and modeling need for, 7-8 Experimental Lakes Area, 68, 78 F Federal actions need to exert leadership, 8-9, 56-57 recommendations for, 51-62 Federal monitoring and assessment programs, 362-368 Federal programs need to identify and correct overlaps and gaps in, 9, 51, 53-55 representative, 357-362 Fees, 261-262 Findings. See Recommendations Finger canals, 305 Fjords, 73 Florida Bay, 88 Florida Keys, 88, 102 Flushing influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 165-167, 170 Framework for Integrating the Nation’s Environmental Monitoring and Research Networks and Programs, 366-367 G German coastal waters, 92 GLEAMS. See Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems Global Positioning System technology, 214

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution “Gold Book” criteria, 242 GOMP. See Gulf of Mexico Program GPP. See Gross Primary Productivity Great Barrier Reef, 102 Great Waters program, 53, 360-361 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), 168-169 Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), 372, 379 Gulf Coast of Florida, 107 Gulf of Mexico, 88, 108, 111 “Dead Zone” in, 1, 25, 39, 87 Gulf of Mexico Program (GOMP), 361 H HAB. See Harmful algal bloom Habitat measurements information from, 216 Hansen and Rattray classification scheme, 179-180 Harmful algal bloom (HAB), 26, 28-31, 52, 84-85, 93-98, 306-307 controlling with natural parasite, 307 effect of, 2 expansion of, 29 Hedonic pricing models, 108 Himmerfjärden estuary, 70-71, 194 HSPF. See Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Hudson River estuary water residence time in, 168-169 Hydrologic Engineering Center of, 234 Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), 372, 379 Hypoxia, 86-89 shifts in community structure caused by, 89-90 Hypsography influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 170 I Important nutrients identifying, 65-83 Index sites, 58 proposal to select and use, 188 Industrial waste treated, 295, 297 Inland Sea of Japan, 96-97 “Insurance” fertilization, 277 Integrated Coastal Monitoring Program for the Gulf of Mexico, 365 International Council of Scientific Unions, 141 International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, 141 International SCOPE Nitrogen Project, 121-122, 141-142, 145-146, 150-153, 224, 227 Iron affect on phytoplankton, 82 importance in coastal systems, 81-83 K Kaneohe Bay, 102 Kattegat, 204-205 Kissimmee River, 303-304 L Lagoons, 73 Laholm Bay, 32, 70, 72 Lake Champlain, 286 Lake Okeechobee, 303 Lakes nitrogen and phosphorus in, 66-67 LaPlatte River watershed, 286-287 Light extinction influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 171 Lingulodinium machaerophorum, 93-94 Little Washita River watershed, 285-286 Livestock. See Animal feeding operations (AFOs) Load maintenance strategies identifying most effective, 50 Loadings investigating, 46-48, 111 Local managers need to support initiatives from, 61-62 recommended approach for, 42-50 results of questionnaire, 356-375 Long Island Sound, 39, 87, 120, 223-224, 264 Long Term Ecological Research Network, 366

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution M Maintenance steps, 49-50 Management strategies, 373-375 addressing coastal eutrophication, 368 Managers challenge to, 14, 236 need to provide information to, 8, 60 results of questionnaire, 356-375 Managing Troubled Waters, 201 Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas, 31 Mandatory nutrient management, 259 Manokin River, 25 Manure management, 278-280 Margin of safety, 243 Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory (MERL), 68-69, 167, 214, 221 Marketable permits, 263-265, 307-308 Mediterranean estuaries, 179 MERL. See Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory Metadatabase need to develop, 56 Metals bioavailability of, 91 Microalgae, 26 MIKE3 model, 387 Mississippi Basin, 25, 122 Mississippi River, 25, 82, 88, 122, 157-158 Modeling estuarine and coastal models, 227-230 introduction to, 214-225 other relevant models, 230-233 recommendations for, 233-236 watershed management models, 225-227 Models coastal eutrophication, 384-391 creating proprietary, 234 estuarine, 384-391 need to improve, 9-10, 60 process, 377-382 reviews, 376-391 selecting, 233-234 spreadsheet, 382 statistical, 382-384 watershed, 376 Molybdenum required for nitrogen fixation, 80 Monitoring calibration in, 198n controlling costs of, 213-214 developing quantitative measures of estuarine conditions, 208-210 developing quantitative measures of watershed conditions, 210-213 elements of an effective program for, 202-208 introduction to, 201-202 need to expand capability for, 7-8, 57-59 recommendations for, 233-236 using volunteer observers in, 215-216 Moral persuasion, 255-256 Mud Hollow Brook watershed, 287 Municipal waste treated, 293-295 N NADP. See National Atmospheric Deposition Program Narragansett Bay, 32, 69, 76-77, 157, 214 National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 293 National Animal Feeding Operations Strategy, 53 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), 46, 53, 363 National Coastal Monitoring Center, 364 National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment, 4-5, 10, 21-22, 38-40, 44, 50, 59, 183, 186-187, 208, 368 National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR), 191, 358-360 National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS), 210 System-Wide Monitoring Program (SWMP) of, 364 National Estuary Program (NEP), 45, 191, 210, 359-360, 368-370 National Harmful Algal Bloom Research and Monitoring Strategy, 52 National information clearinghouse need to develop, 55-56 National Nutrient Management Strategy, 38-39, 42, 51, 55, 57, 59, 62 National Ocean Service, 182-184, 187 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) , 16, 46-47, 50, 57, 61, 104, 111, 153-154, 165, 170, 182-183, 274 Coastal Services Center of, 367-368

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment of, 4-5, 10, 21-22, 38, 40, 44, 50, 59, 183, 186-187, 208, 368 National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) of, 191, 358-360 National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) of, 210 National Ocean Service of, 182-184, 187 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 202, 226, 235, 247, 295, 298, 357 National Research Council (NRC), 16, 35, 45, 86, 95, 115, 201, 224, 243, 273 Committee on the Causes and Management of Coastal Eutrophication, 16, 79, 188 National Resources Conservation Service, 370 National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), 54 National Science Foundation (NSF), 7, 16, 61, 189-190 National Strategy for the Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria, 367 National Trends Network, 363 National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA), 363 National Wetlands Inventory classification, 178-179 Nationwide Coastal Environmental Quality Monitoring Network, 364 Nationwide strategy needed to address nutrient over-enrichment, developing, 38-42 Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP), 225, 383 Natural Resource Conservation Service of, 213 NAWQA. See National Water Quality Assessment NEP. See National Estuary Program NERR. See National Estuarine Research Reserve NERRS. See National Estuarine Research Reserve System Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), 26, 29, 95 Nitrogen, 274-276 animal feeding on, 272-273 atmospheric, 35-36, 135-139 decomposition rate of organic, 278 in estuaries and lakes, 66-67 export from agricultural systems, 133-135 reason for focusing on, 31-32, 34 reducing off-farm inputs of, 273-274 retention in forests, 137-138 Nitrogen fertilizer fate of in North America, 115-117 production of, 114 Nitrogen limitation evidence for, in coastal marine ecosystems, 67-72 mechanisms that lead to, in coastal marine ecosystems, 72-81 Nitrogen Saturation Experiment, 139 NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nonpoint Source Implementation Grants, 362 North Sea, 219 NPDES. See National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPSM-HSPF model, 378 NRC. See National Research Council NSF. See National Science Foundation NSP. See Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NSTC. See National Science and Technology Council NURP. See Nationwide Urban Runoff Program Nutrient inputs methodologies for determining, 151-153 rate of change in, 157-160 sources to estuaries and coastal waters, 113-162 spatial and temporal distribution of, 171, 175 Nutrient load influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 165 Nutrient over-enrichment in coastal waters, 14-16 combating, 37-62 developing a nationwide strategy to address, 38-42 problem of, 2-4, 20-36 understanding, 13-36 Nutrient over-enrichment effects, 20, 23, 84-112 ecological, 85-103 economic, 103-112

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution Nutrients controlling the right, 31-36 identifying important, 65-83 O Operculodinium centrocarpum, 94 Oslo Fjord, 94, 157 Over-enrichment understanding nutrient, 13-36 Oxygen demand increased, 86-89 Ozone Transport Assessment Group, 292 P Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), 26, 29, 95 Partnership public-private, 254 Peridinium faeroense, 94 Permits marketable, 263-265 Pfiesteria, 26-28, 77, 98, 107 Phaeocystis, 96 Phosphorus, 277-278 animal feeding on, 272-273 biological removal of, 295 in estuaries and lakes, 66-67 export from agricultural systems, 130-133 reducing off-farm inputs of, 273-274 Photographs information from, 215 Physiographic setting influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 164-165 Phytoplankton affect of iron on, 82-83 Phytoplankton grazing influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 170-171 Phytoplankton turnover time influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 165-167, 170 Plankton community structure changes in, 90-93 Po River, 88 Pocomoke River, 25 Poisoning syndromes. See Amnesic shellfish poisoning; Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; Paralytic shellfish poisoning Policies eutrophication reduction, 250 “Polluter pays” principle, 251-252 Polluting parties, 251 Pollution control distributional impacts of, 251-252 dynamic adjustment to, 251 voluntary approaches to, 253-258 Pollution permits trading, 263-265 Pollution Prevention Grants Program, 361 Population density link to nitrogen export, 144 Porites porites, 103 Prevention steps, 49-50 Primary production base influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 165 Problem of nutrient over-enrichment, 20-36 understanding, 63-194 Process models, 377-382 Program coordination need for, 370 Programmatic approaches, 356-375 Property values, 106 Proprietary models creating, 234 PSP. See Paralytic shellfish poisoning Public-private partnership in Tampa Bay, 254 Puget Sound, 183 Q QUAL2E model, 385 R Recommendations, 37-62 for federal actions, 51-62 for local managers, 42-50 for monitoring and modeling, 233-236 Red tides, 15, 93, 97, 306 Redfield ratio, 78

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution Regional Monitoring Programs, 364 Related websites, 392-393 Remedial measures implementing, 283-285 Research need to expand and target, 10, 61 resources needed for, 44-50 Restoration steps, 45-49 Results of a managers questionnaire, 368-375 Rhine watershed, 6 Riparian area surveys information from, 216 Riparian zones effectiveness of, 281-282 Rivers, 73. See also individual rivers S Safe Drinking Water Act, 251 Safety margin of, 243 Salt Marsh Dominated Estuary (SME), 166 Sampling design, 203 San Francisco Bay system, 172-174 Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) International Nitrogen Project of, 121-122, 141-142, 145-146, 150-153, 224, 227 SCOPE. See Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment Seagrass degradation of, 98-101 Seagrass Dominated Estuary (SGE), 166 Seagrass models, 230-231 Sensitivity analysis, 218 Septic tanks, 297-298 Sewer overflow structural controls for, 301-302 Silica importance in coastal systems, 81-83 Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins (SWRRB), 379-380 Soil phosphorus thresholds, 212 Source reduction and control, 269-310 agricultural sources, 270-288 atmospheric sources, 288-293 next steps for, 308-310 other mitigation options, 302-308 urban sources, 293-302 Sources of nutrient inputs agricultural, 270-288 atmospheric, 288-293 changes in agricultural production and nonpoint source nutrient pollution, 124-139 disturbance, nonpoint nutrient fluxes, and baselines for nutrient exports from pristine systems, 121-123 to estuaries and coastal waters, 113-162 implications for achieving source reductions, 160-162 insights from the SPARROW model applied to the national scale, 147-150 nutrient budgets for specific estuaries and coastal waters, 150-156 nutrient fluxes to the coast, 141-147 oceanic waters as a nutrient source to estuaries and coastal waters, 156-160 processing of nitrogen and phosphorus in wetlands, streams, and rivers, 139-141 wastewater and nonpoint source inputs, 119-121 SPARROW. See Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watersheds Model Spatial distribution of nutrient inputs influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 171, 175 Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watersheds Model (SPARROW), 147-150, 152-154, 186-187, 227, 382-383 Special Water Quality Incentives, 288 Spreadsheet models, 382 Standards establishing, 240-242 Statistical approaches, 382-384 Storage, Treatment, Overflow Runoff Model (STORM), 380, 382 Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), 382 Stormwater control facilities, 301 regional, 302-303 Stratification influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 170 Streamgaging Network, 362-363 Structural controls for sewer overflow, 301-302

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution Susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 163-194 additional questions about, 191-194 coastal classification, 176 geomorphic classification, 177 habitat classification, 178-181 hybrid classification, 181 hydrodynamic classification, 177-178 index of, 172-174 major factors influencing estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 164-176 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean Service classification schemes, 182-187 need to develop better classification scheme for, 59-608 next steps, 187-191 Suspended materials load influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 171 SWMM. See Storm Water Management Model SWMP. See System-Wide Monitoring Program SWRRB. See Simulator for Water Resources in Rural Basins System-Wide Monitoring Program (SWMP), 364-365 T Tampa Bay, 6, 120, 265 eutrophication reversal in, 192-194 public-private partnership in, 254 Targets choosing, 239-240 Taxes, 261-262 Temporal distribution of nutrient inputs influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 171, 175 Thalassia testudinum, 99 TMDLs. See Total maximum daily loads Tolo Harbor, 96 Tools and information existing, 44-50 Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, 357 Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), 45, 50, 56, 212, 241-244, 246-247 TOXIROUTE model, 378 Trading pollution permits, 263-265 Transport management, 280-283 Treated industrial waste, 295, 297 Treated municipal waste, 293-295 Tyrrell model, 79 U U.K. Nitrate Sensitive Areas Scheme, 281 Ulva, 26 Understanding abatement strategies, 195-310 United Nations’ Environmental Program, 141 Urban diffuse source discharges, 298-302 Urban Water Resources Research Council, 303 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center of, 234 National Resources Conservation Service of, 370 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 7-8, 16, 53, 212, 234 Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) of, 252, 256-257, 288 Natural Resource Conservation Service of, 213 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 255 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 178 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 7-8, 16, 46, 58-59, 153, 172, 186, 207, 234 regression models of, 383-384 Streamgaging Network of, 362-363 USDA. See U.S. Department of Agriculture USGS. See U.S. Geological Survey V Valuation techniques alternative, 105-111 Vibrios, 103 W WARMF. See Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework WASP. See Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution WASP5 model, 385-386 Wastewater treatment processes “polishing,” 300 removal capability percentages of, 296 Water Environment Federation, 300 Water Information Network, 53 Water Pollution Control Act. See Clean Water Act Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), 221 Water Quality Assessment Methodology (WQAM), 384 Water quality goals, 237-268 choosing a policy approach, 247-265 setting, 239-247 steps in developing effective, 265-268 Water Quality Improvement Act (WQIA), 259 Water residence time in Hudson River estuary, 168-169 influence on estuarine susceptibility to nutrient over-enrichment, 165-167, 170 Water samples information from, 215-216 Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF), 380 Watershed conditions developing quantitative measures of, 210-213 Watershed models, 225-227, 376 Watersheds agriculture-dominated, 211-212 hydrologic/hydraulic alterations in, 303-304 identifying, 283-285 targeting within, 285-286 Websites, 392-393 Wetlands, 300-301 Wetlands Reserve Program, 52, 288 Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program, 288 Willingness to accept (WTA), 104 Willingness to pay (WTP), 23, 104, 110 World Meteorological Organization, 141 WQAM. See Water Quality Assessment Methodology WQIA. See Water Quality Improvement Act WTA. See Willingness to accept WTP. See Willingness to pay Y Yards and Neighborhood Program, 255