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Related Reports from the National Academies

America's Children: Health Insurance and Access to Care (1998)

Committee on Children, Health Insurance, and Access to Care

America's Children is a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between health insurance and access to care. The book addresses three broad questions: How is children's health care currently financed? Does insurance equal access to care? How should the nation address the health needs of this vulnerable population?

Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance (1999)

Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families

This book presents detailed analyses of more than a dozen existing datasets that constitute a large share of the national system for monitoring the health and well-being of the U.S. population, focusing specifically on the circumstances, health, and development of children in immigrant families and the delivery of health and social services to these children and their families. The papers in this book helped inform the work of the Committee on Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families. The committee's final report is titled From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families.



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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development A Related Reports from the National Academies America's Children: Health Insurance and Access to Care (1998) Committee on Children, Health Insurance, and Access to Care America's Children is a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between health insurance and access to care. The book addresses three broad questions: How is children's health care currently financed? Does insurance equal access to care? How should the nation address the health needs of this vulnerable population? Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance (1999) Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families This book presents detailed analyses of more than a dozen existing datasets that constitute a large share of the national system for monitoring the health and well-being of the U.S. population, focusing specifically on the circumstances, health, and development of children in immigrant families and the delivery of health and social services to these children and their families. The papers in this book helped inform the work of the Committee on Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families. The committee's final report is titled From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families.

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Development During Middle Childhood: The Years from Six to Twelve (1984) Panel to Review the Status of Basic Research on School-Age Children, Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy This report reviews the research and examines the physical health and cognitive development of 6- to 12-year-old children as well as their surroundings, including school and home environment, ecocultural setting, and family and peer relationships. In addition, it makes recommendations for expanding and improving research aimed at understanding the nature and processes of development in the early school years. Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention (1991) Committee on a National Agenda for the Prevention of Disabilities Disability in America presents a five-prong strategy for reducing the incidence and prevalence of disability as well as its personal, social, and economic consequences. Although the preferred goal is to avoid potentially disabling conditions, the report focuses on the need to prevent or reverse the progression that leads to disability and reduced quality of life in persons with potentially disabling conditions. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers (2000) Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy This report focuses on educational programs provided outside of the home for children aged 2-5 (e.g., Head Start, preschool, child care centers). It emphasizes that care and education of children go hand in hand, and cannot, and should not, be thought of as two separate entities. The committee makes recommendations for the professional development of teachers, the development of teaching materials that reflect research-based understandings of children's learning, the development of public policies that support the provision of quality preschool experiences, efforts to make more recent understanding of development in the preschool years common public knowledge, and future research needs in these areas. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform (1997) Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities Educating One and All addresses how to reconcile common learning for all students with education for the 10 percent of school-age children who have disabilities and qualify for special education. The report discusses the history of special education, the recent reform movement, curricula, and assessment systems and makes recommendations concerning standards-based reform and policies and practices to make reform consistent with the requirements of special education.

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Emergency Medical Services for Children (1993) Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services This report explores why emergency care for children—from infants through adolescents—must differ from that for adults. This comprehensive overview of emergency medical services for children describes what seriously ill or injured children generally experience in today's emergency medical services systems and provides a realistic plan of action for integrating them into emergency programs and into broader aspects of health care for children. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment (1996) Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome This volume discusses fetal alcohol syndrome and other possibly alcohol-related effects from two broad perspectives: (1) diagnosis and surveillance and (2) prevention and treatment. The report examines fundamental concepts for setting diagnostic criteria in general, reviews and updates the diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome and related conditions, explores research findings and problems associated with epidemiology and surveillance, and describes an integrated multidisciplinary approach to research on prevention and treatment. From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families (1998) Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families From Generation to Generation explores what is known about the development of children and youth from numerous countries of origin. Describing the status of immigrant children and youth as “severely understudied,” the report both draws on and supplements existing research to characterize the current status and outlook of immigrant children. The report also makes recommendations for improved research and data collection designed to advance knowledge about these children and, as a result, their visibility in current policy debates. Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths (1994) Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths Growing Up Tobacco Free explains nicotine's effects and the process of addiction and documents the search for an effective approach to preventing the use of cigarettes, chewing and spitting tobacco, and snuff by children and youths. The report examines the results of recent initiatives to limit young people 's access to tobacco and discusses approaches to controls or

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development bans on tobacco sales, price sensitivity among adolescents, and arguments for and against taxation as a prevention strategy for tobacco use. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (1999) Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning How People Learn examines the evidence from many branches of science that has significantly added to the understanding of what it means to know—from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb—and that calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in the current U.S. education system. This report addresses the implications of this evidence for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what children learn. Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children: A Research Agenda (1997) Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students This comprehensive volume provides perspective on the history of bilingual education in the United States; summarizes research on development of a second language, literacy, and content knowledge; reviews evaluation studies; explores what is known about effective schools and classrooms for these children; examines research on the education of teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students; critically reviews the system for the collection of education statistics as it relates to this student population; and recommends changes in the infrastructure that supports research on these students. Improving Student Learning: A Strategic Plan for Education Research and Its Utilization (1999) Committee on a Feasibility Study for a Strategic Education Research Program Improving Student Learning offers a long-range proposal for meeting the challenges of educating the nation's children. The report presents a strategic education research program that focuses on four key questions: How can advances in research on learning be incorporated into educational practice? How can student motivation to achieve in school be increased? How can schools become organizations capable of continuous improvement? How can the use of research knowledge be increased in schools?

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Learning from Experience: Evaluating Early Childhood Demonstration Programs (1982) Panel on Outcome Measurement in Early Childhood Demonstration Programs In response to a widely perceived need to review and reshape the evaluation of demonstration programs that offer educational, diagnostic, and other services to young children and their families, this report examines the objective of contemporary demonstration programs; appraises the measures currently available for assessing the achievement of those objectives, particularly in light of their relevance for public policy; and recommends new approaches to evaluation and outcome measurement. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations (1993) Committee on Measuring Lead in Critical Populations Because of growing evidence of lead toxicity at lower concentrations, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lowered its lead-exposure guideline to 10 µg/dl lead in blood from 25 µg/dl. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations addresses the public health concern about the logistics and feasibility of lead screening in infants and children at such low concentrations. This report presents guidelines for U.S. Public Health Service activities and state and local programs in monitoring lead. Nutrition During Lactation (1991) Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation Nutrition During Lactation presents relevant data and points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition of healthy mothers and the outcomes of lactation. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain; Part II: Nutrient Supplements (1990) Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation Part I of Nutrition During Pregnancy explores the issue of weight gain during pregnancy, places this in the context of the health of the infant and the mother, and calls for revisions in recommended weight gains for pregnant women. The report also presents specific target ranges for weight gain during pregnancy and guidelines for proper measurement. Part II examines the adequacy of diet in meeting nutrient needs during pregnancy, recommends specific amounts of vitamin and mineral supplements for special circumstances, and presents recommendations for research.

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Nutrition Services in Perinatal Care (1992) Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation This book focuses on nutrition services beginning in the preconception period and extending well beyond birth. It provides the rationale for recommended nutritional services; briefly describes the necessary elements of these services; and indicates the personnel, knowledge, skills, and specialized education or training that may be needed to deliver them. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Committee on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children explores whether regulations controlling pesticide use adequately protect infants and children, who may differ from adults in susceptibility and in dietary exposures to pesticide residues. The report covers the issues of susceptibility, exposure, toxicity, and assessing risk. Placing Children in Special Education: A Strategy for Equity (1982) Panel on Selection and Placement of Students in Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy This report addresses the issue of the overrepresentation of minorities and males in special education classes. From a thorough analysis of the data, this report concludes that there is a disproportion of nonwhite minorities and males in special education classes, and specifically in classes for educable, mentally retarded children. Placing Children in Special Education looks at the potentially problematic conditions underlying disproportion and makes recommendations that address the validity of referral and assessment procedures and the quality of instruction received in all classrooms. Prenatal Care: Reaching Mothers, Reaching Infants (1988) Committee to Study Outreach for Prenatal Care This report addresses the issue of why over one-fourth of all pregnant women in the United States do not begin prenatal care in the first 3 months of pregnancy, despite the existence of successful prenatal programs. Prenatal Care presents findings from a review of 30 prenatal care programs and analysis of surveys of mothers who did not seek prenatal care and offers specific recommendations for improving the nation's maternity system and increasing the use of prenatal care programs. Preventing Low Birthweight (1985) Committee to Study the Prevention of Low Birthweight Despite declines in infant mortality, the rates of low-birthweight deliveries in the United States continue to be high. Preventing Low Birthweight

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development defines the significance of the problems, presents data on risk factors and etiology, and reviews state and national trends in the incidence of low birthweight among various groups. This report also describes the preventive approaches found most desirable, considers their costs, and discusses research needs. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (1998) Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children examines factors that put children at risk of poor reading. It explores in detail how literacy can be fostered from birth through kindergarten and the primary grades, including evaluation of philosophies, systems, and materials commonly used to teach reading. The report makes recommendations that address the identification of groups of children at risk, effective instruction for the preschool and early grades, effective approaches to dialects and bilingualism, the importance of these findings for the professional development of teachers, and gaps that remain in the understanding of how children learn to read. Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers (1998) Committee on Micronutrient Deficiencies This report examines key elements in the design and implementation of interventions designed to prevent micronutrient deficiencies. It also provides a conceptual framework that will allow funders to tailor programs to existing regional and country capabilities and to incorporate within these programs the capacity to address multiple prevention strategies and multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies also contains three background papers that address the prevention of deficiencies of iron, vitamin A, and iodine. Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States (1999) Committee on Perinatal Transmission of HIV The report evaluates the extent to which state efforts have been effective in reducing the transmission of HIV from pregnant mother to unborn child. Reducing the Odds recommends that HIV testing be a routine part of prenatal care and that health care providers notify women that this is part of the usual array of prenatal tests and that they have an opportunity to refuse the HIV test. This approach could help both reduce the number of pediatric AIDS cases and improve treatment for mothers with AIDS.

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbearing (1987) Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing Risking the Future reviews in detail the trends in and consequences of teenage sexual behavior and offers thoughtful insights on the issues of sexual initiation, contraception, pregnancy, abortion, adoption, and the well-being of adolescent families. The report provides a systematic assessment of the impact of various programmatic approaches, both preventive and ameliorative, in light of the growing scientific understanding of the topic. Schools and Health: Our Nation's Investment (1997) Committee on Comprehensive School Health Programs in Grades K-12 This report reviews information on Comprehensive School Health Programs for children in grades K-12, explores the needs of today's students, and examines how those needs can be met through program design and development. Schools and Health also gives broad recommendations for the programs, with suggestions and guidelines for national, state, and local actions. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success (1999) Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children Based on the extensive research synthesized in Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, this book identifies the most important questions and explores the authoritative answers on the topic of how children can grow into readers. Included are 55 activities to do with children to help them become successful readers, a list of recommended children's books, and a guide to CD-ROMs and websites. The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families (1995) Committee on Unintended Pregnancy The Best Intentions offers frank discussion, synthesis of data, and policy recommendations on family planning issues and sheds light on the questions and controversies surrounding unintended pregnancy. The report considers the effectiveness of over 20 pregnancy prevention programs and offers specific recommendations to put the United States on a par with other developed nations in terms of contraceptive attitudes and policies. In addition, it summarizes the health and social consequences of unintended pregnancies for men, women, and the children they bear and examines the variety of reasons unintended pregnancies occur.

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development The Children's Vaccine Initiative: Achieving the Vision (1993) Committee on the Children's Vaccine Initiative: Planning Alternative Strategies This report contains information on the nature and status of vaccine development and production efforts in the United States and abroad and recommends ways to enhance participation in the International Children's Vaccine Initiative. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect (1993) Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda on child abuse and neglect. The report presents an overview of three major areas that impact child abuse and neglect research, namely, definitions and scope; etiology, consequences, treatment, and prevention; and infrastructure and ethics. Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs (1998) Committee on the Assessment of Family Violence Interventions Violence in Families examines the successes and failures of family violence interventions used in three institutional sectors (social services, health, and law enforcement) to combat maltreatment of children, domestic violence, and abuse of the elderly. The report discusses how to measure program effectiveness and offers recommendations to guide services, programs, policy, and research on victim support and assistance, treatments and penalties for offenders, and law enforcement. Also included in Violence in Families is an analysis of more than 100 evaluation studies on the outcomes of different kinds of programs and services. Who Cares for America's Children? (1990) Panel on Child Care Policy Who Cares for America's Children? explores the critical need for a more coherent policy on child care, offers recommendations for the actions needed to develop such a policy, evaluates the factors in child care that are most important to children 's development, and examines ways of protecting children's physical well-being and fostering their development in child care settings. WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria: A Scientific Assessment (1996) Committee on Scientific Evaluation of WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria This report reviews the scientific basis for nutrition risk criteria used to establish eligibility for participation in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria also examines the specific segments of

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From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development the WIC population at risk for each criterion, identifies gaps in the scientific knowledge base, formulates recommendations regarding appropriate criteria, and when applicable, recommends values for determining who is at risk for each criterion. In addition, the report makes recommendations for program action and research to strengthen the validity of nutrition risk criteria used in the WIC program. Work and Family: Policies for a Changing Work Force (1991) Panel on Employer Policies and Working Families This report examines the changes in work and family structures that coincide with the dramatic increase in the number of dual-earner and single-adult families. It also discusses the effects of these changes on worker productivity and employer practices, and presents a wide range of approaches to easing the conflicts between work and family by exploring appropriate roles for business, labor, and government. Work and Family describes the advantages and disadvantages of being part of a working family and takes a critical look at the range of benefits provided, including existing and proposed employer programs for families.