Click for next page ( 259


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 258
14 Requirements for rumen degradable protein (RDP), rumen undegradable protein (RUP), and total protein are dependent on animal factors, the concentration of available energy in the diet, and dry matter intake. The dietary requirement for minerals depends on animal factors and the bioavailability of the minerals which differs among foodstuffs and diets. Tables of nutrient requirements are included to provide users with general guidelines and to illustrate how dietary factors influence requirements of some nutrients. The computer model uses animal and dietary factors to estimate requirements and will produce the most accurate estimates of requirements for specific situations and specific diet formulations. Users are strongly encouraged to use model-generated requirements. LACTATING COWS Tables 14-1 through 14-6 show RDP, RUP, and total crude protein (CP) requirements for small and large breed lactating cows at different production levels as generated by the computer model. These tables also illustrate the effect of dietary energy concentration (Tables 14-2 vs.14- 3 and 14-5 vs.14-6) and the effect of intake (Tables 14-1 vs.14-2 and 14-4 vs.14-5) on protein requirements. Tables 14-7 through 14-9 provide estimates of nutrient require- ments of lactating (early and mid) and dry cows. These tables were also generated using the computer model, but the subcommittee has included its recommendations for certain nutrients that require special consideration, when using the model. Dietary requirements for minerals shown in Tables 14-7 through 14-9 are applicable only to the diets included in the tables. Different diets, because of differences in bioavailability of minerals may yield different dietary requirements for minerals. The values in the tables are the subcommittee's best estimates of requirements when cattle are fed specific dietary formulations under nonstressful environmental Nutrient Requirement Tables conditions. These tables (Tables 14-1 through 14-16) are intended as guides, and readers are encouraged to pay careful attention to footnotes in the tables. The computer model allows great flexibility in accounting for many dietary, environmental, and management factors that affect animal performance in contrast to the static numbers pre- sented in tables. H E I F E R S The equations outlined in Chapter 16 were used to develop tables containing guidelines for the nutrient requirements of dairy replacement heifers (Tables 14-12 through 14-16~. At a predicted DMI, the TDN concentra- tion needed to meet the requirements for maintenance and gain were determined. The requirements obtained with the computer program may differ slightly from those in Tables 14-12 through 14-15 because the model-pre- dicted supply of nutrients affects the calculation of some dietary requirements. These differences are due to varia- tion in RUP intestinal digestibility, predicted diet TDN, and mineral bioavailabilities as described below. These tables are guidelines only and the NRC computer program should be used to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of specific diets. These requirement tables were calculated to approximate the requirements obtained with the computer program when heifers are fed a typical diet at the model- predicted dry matter intake, using the following assumptions. a 1. The TDN used is the TDN discounted to account for depression in digestibility at intakes above maintenance. 2. DE (Meal) was assumed to equal 4.409 x TDN (kg). In the model, this value varies slightly among diets. 3. An RUP intestinal digestibility of 67 percent was assumed. This value ranges from 60 percent for diets based entirely on very mature forages fed to heifers with low requirements to approximately 75 percent for diets typi- 258

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 259 catty fed to animals with high requirements in which much of the supplemental protein comes from concentrates. Thus, the dietary RUP needed to meet the requirement for metabolizable protein should be increased approxi- mately 10 percent if most of the diet consists of mature forages and can be decreased 10 percent if the diet is based on combinations of forages and concentrates typically fed to animals with high requirements. 4. Body weights and daily gains in the table are expressed on a full body weight basis although, in the model, they are converted to shrunk (96 percent of BW) and emptybody (89.1 percent of SBW) weights to compute requirements. 5. It is assumed that there is no stress due to weather and that the body condition score of the animal is 3. 6. Net requirements were converted to dietary require- ments by assuming an average bioavailability of 40 percent for calcium and 67 percent for phosphorus. These values were obtained by formulating diets for target ADG across a range of body weights. Across these diets, the bioavailabil- ity of phosphorus was relatively constant (near 67 percent), but calcium bioavailability ranged from 32 percent for diets with no supplemental calcium to 41 percent for diets sup- plemented with calcium carbonate. 7. For pregnant heifers, body weight (BOO) includes the conceptus weight (kg) shown, which is computed using the equation in the model assuming that birth weight equals 6.275 percent of mature weight. 8. For pregnant heifers, reported daily gains are heifer ADG with and without conceptus (ADG in parentheses include the conceptus gain (kg/d), which is computed with the model equation). The requirements for pregnancy are included in the total requirements. The body weights and daily gains in the tables were selected to reflect likely values for heifers in both typical and accelerated heifer rearing programs. Some of the trends that are apparent in the tables include: 1. The effects of mature weight and current body weight on net energy and protein requirements are evident in the tables. Animals that have higher rates of gain have higher energy and protein requirements for growth and, as the animal matures, the amount of energy required for a partic- ular daily gain increases. However, RUP and RDP require- ments are more complicated. The factors affecting these calculations are: If two heifers have similar current body weights, but different mature weights, the required TDN concentration of the diet is higher for animals with the smaller mature weight because the NEG requirement is higher. The higher TDN permits the growth of more microbes provided that adequate RDP is available. Thus, the RDP requirements are higher in the animals with the smaller mature size. 2. Stage of growth of the heifer also affects CP and RUP requirements. When mature size increases, the physiologi- cal age at which an animal reaches a specific weight is reduced. The result is that the efficiency with which protein is used for growth increases. The increase in the amount of net protein required for growth by animals with larger mature sizes at a set body weight and ADG may be offset by the higher efficiency of use of the absorbed protein. 3. As a result of these two factors, RUP and CP required may actually be lower for animals with a larger mature weight at a given body weight and ADG than for animals with smaller mature weights. These interactions are illus- trated below for a body weight of 300 kg and an ADG of 0.8 kg/day for both mature sizes. Mature weight, kg % of mature weight NEG required, Mcal/day DMI, kg/d Diet TDN, % Net protein required, g/d Equivalent body weight, kg Efficiency of MP use for NP, % MP required, g/d . . 450 67 3.13 7.1 67.7 114 319 47.1 524 MP from microbial protein, g/d 443 RDP required/ g/d 736 RUP required, g/d 151 CP required, g/d 887 650 41 2.38 7.1 63.4 136 221 58.2 525 409 685 183 868

OCR for page 258
260 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-1 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Small Breed Cows (live weight = 454 kg) in Early Lactation (intake estimated at 11 days in milk). Values are Appropriate for the Diet Below With 78% TDNa True LW Milk Fat Protein DMI change NET RDP RUP RDP RUP CP (kg) (%) (%) (kg) (kg) (Meal) (g) (g) (%) (%) (%) 15 4.0 3.0 9.4 - 0.3 19.0 1060 500 11.3 5.3 16.6 15 4.0 3.5 9.4 - 0.3 19.4 1060 630 11.3 6.7 18.0 15 4.0 4.0 9.4 - 0.4 19.8 1060 760 11.3 8.1 19.4 15 4.5 3.0 9.7 - 0.3 19.7 1090 490 11.2 5.1 16.3 15 4.5 3.5 9.7 - 0.4 20.1 1090 620 11.2 6.4 17.6 15 4.5 4.0 9.7 - 0.5 20.5 1090 750 11.2 7.7 18.9 15 5.0 3.0 9.9 - 0.4 20.4 1110 480 11.2 4.8 16.0 15 5.0 3.5 9.9 - 0.5 20.8 1110 610 11.2 6.2 17.4 15 5.0 4.0 9.9 - 0.5 21.2 1110 740 11.2 7.5 18.7 30 4.0 3.0 12.9 - 1.4 30.1 1410 1170 10.9 9.1 20.0 30 4.0 3.5 12.9 - 1.6 30.9 1410 1430 10.9 11.1 22.0 30 4.0 4.0 12.9 - 1.7 31.8 1410 1690 10.9 13.1 24.0 30 4.5 3.0 13.5 - 1.5 31.5 1460 1150 10.8 8.5 19.3 30 4.5 3.5 13.5 - 1.7 32.3 1460 1410 10.8 10.4 21.2 30 4.5 4.0 13.5 - 1.9 33.2 1460 1670 10.8 12.4 23.2 30 5.0 3.0 14.0 - 1.6 32.8 1510 1140 10.8 8.1 18.9 30 5.0 3.5 14.0 - 1.8 33.7 1510 1400 10.8 10.0 20.8 30 5.0 4.0 14.0 - 2.0 34.6 1510 1660 10.8 11.9 22.7 aDiet used for this table consisted of 15~o immature legume silage, 33~o normal corn silage, 34~o ground high moisture shelled corn, 12~o soybean meal (48~o crude protein), 2.5~o tallow, 1.5~o menhaden fish meal, and No mineral and vitamin mix. Requirements are dependent upon the diet fed. Requirements shown do not include nutrients needed for live weight change. Live weight change is based on assumed NED intake minus requirements. Requirements for RUP do not include protein provided by loss in body reserves or required for gain in body reserves. Requirement for total CP assumes RDP and RUP are met. Requirement for total CP will increase if RDP requirement is not met.

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 261 TABLE 14-2 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Small Breed Cows (live weight = 454 kg) in Midlactation (intake estimated at 90 days in milk). Values Are Appropriate for the Diet Below with 78% TDNa True LW Milk Fat Protein DMI change NET RDP RUP RDP RUP CP (kg) (%) (%) (kg) (kg) (Meal) (g) (g) (%) (%) (%) 20 4.0 3.0 16.0 1.0 22.7 1680 560 10.5 3.5 14.0 20 4 0 3 5 16.0 0.8 23.2 1680 740 10.5 4.6 15.1 20 4 0 4 0 16.0 0.7 23.8 1680 910 10.5 5.7 16.2 20 4.5 3.0 16.5 0.9 23.6 1730 550 10.5 3.3 13.8 20 4 5 3 5 16.5 0.8 24.2 1730 720 10.5 4.4 14.9 20 4 5 4 0 16.5 0.7 24.8 1730 900 10.5 5.5 16.0 20 5.0 3.0 17.0 0.9 24.5 1770 540 10.4 3.2 13.6 20 5.0 3.5 17.0 0.8 25.1 1770 710 10.4 4.2 14.6 20 5.0 4.0 17.0 0.6 25.7 1770 880 10.4 5.2 15.6 30 4.0 3.0 19.5 0.4 30.1 1980 1010 10.2 5.2 15.4 30 4.0 3.5 19.5 0.2 30.9 1980 1270 10.2 6.5 16.7 30 4.0 4.0 19.5 0 31.8 1980 1530 10.2 7.8 18.0 30 4.5 3.0 20.3 0.3 31.5 2040 990 10.0 4.9 14.9 30 4.5 3.5 20.3 0.1 32.3 2040 1250 10.0 6.2 16.2 30 4.5 4.0 20.3 - 0.1 33.2 2040 1510 10.0 7.4 17.4 30 5.0 3.0 21.1 0.2 32.8 2100 980 10.0 4.6 14.6 30 5.0 3.5 21.1 0 33.7 2100 1240 10.0 5.9 15.9 30 5.0 4.0 21.1 - 0.2 34.6 2100 1500 10.0 7.1 17.1 40 4.0 3.0 23.1 - 0.3 37.5 2240 1470 9.7 6.4 16.1 40 4.0 3.5 23.1 - 0.6 38.6 2240 1820 9.7 7.9 17.6 40 4.0 4.0 23.1 - 0.8 39.8 2240 2160 9.7 9.4 19.1 40 4.5 3.0 24.2 - 0.5 39.3 2310 1460 9.5 6.0 15.5 40 4.5 3.5 24.2 - 0.7 40.5 2310 1800 9.5 7.4 16.9 40 4.5 4.0 24.2 - 1.0 41.7 2310 2150 9.5 8.9 18.4 40 5.0 3.0 25.2 - 0.7 41.2 2390 1450 9.5 5.8 15.3 40 5.0 3.5 25.2 - 0.9 42.3 2390 1790 9.5 7.1 16.6 40 5.0 4.0 25.2 - 1.1 43.5 2390 2140 9.5 8.5 18.0 aDiet used for this table consisted of 15~o immature legume silage, 33~o normal corn silage, 34~o ground high moisture shelled corn, 12~o soybean meal (48~o crude protein), 2.5~o tallow, 1.5~o menhaden fish meal, and No mineral and vitamin mix. Requirements are dependent upon the diet fed. Requirements shown do not include nutrients needed for live weight change. Live weight change is based on assumed NED intake minus requirements. Requirements for RUP do not include protein provided by loss in body reserves or required for gain in body reserves. Requirement for total CP assumes RDP amd RUP are met. Requirement for total CP will increase if RDP requirement is not met.

OCR for page 258
262 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-3 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Small Breed Cows (live weight = 454 kg) in MidIactation (intake estimated at 90 days in milk). Values are Appropriate for the Diet Below with 68% TDNa True LW Milk Fat Protein DMI change NET RDP RUP RDP RUP CP (kg) (%) (%) (kg) (kg) (Meal) (g) (g) (%) (%) (%) 10 4.0 3.0 12.4 0.9 15.3 1240 230 10.0 1.9 11.9 10 4.0 3.5 12.4 0.8 15.6 1240 320 10.0 2.6 12.6 10 4.0 4.0 12.4 0.8 15.9 1240 420 10.0 3.4 13.4 10 4 5 3.0 12.7 0.9 15.7 1270 230 10.0 1.8 11.8 10 4 5 3.5 12.7 0.8 16.0 1270 320 10.0 2.5 12.5 10 4.5 4.0 12.7 0.8 16.3 1270 410 10.0 3.2 13.2 10 5.0 3.0 12.9 0.9 16.2 1290 220 10.0 1.7 11.7 10 5.0 3.5 12.9 0.8 16.5 1290 310 10.0 2.4 12.4 10 5.0 4.0 12.9 0.8 16.8 1290 400 10.0 3.1 13.1 20 4.0 3.0 16.0 0.4 22.7 1560 680 9.8 4.3 14.1 20 4.0 3.5 16.0 0.3 23.2 1560 860 9.8 5.4 15.2 20 4.0 4.0 16.0 0.2 23.8 1560 1040 9.8 6.5 16.3 20 4.5 3.0 16.5 0.4 23.6 1610 660 9.8 4.0 13.8 20 4.5 3.5 16.5 0.3 24.2 1610 840 9.8 5.1 14.9 20 4.5 4.0 16.5 0.2 24.8 1610 1030 9.8 6.2 16.0 20 5.0 3.0 17.0 0.4 24.5 1660 650 9.8 3.8 13.6 20 5.0 3.5 17.0 0.2 25.1 1660 830 9.8 4.9 14.7 20 5.0 4.0 17.0 0.1 25.7 1660 1010 9.8 5.9 15.7 30 4.0 3.0 19.5 - 0.1 30.1 1870 1130 9.6 5.8 15.4 30 4.0 3.5 19.5 - 0.3 30.9 1870 1400 9.6 7.2 16.8 30 4.0 4.0 19.5 - 0.4 31.8 1870 1670 9.6 8.6 18.2 30 4.5 3.0 20.3 - 0.2 31.5 1940 1110 9.6 5.5 15.1 30 4.5 3.5 20.3 - 0.3 32.3 1940 1380 9.6 6.8 16.4 30 4.5 4.0 20.3 - 0.5 33.2 1940 1650 9.6 8.1 17.7 30 5.0 3.0 21.1 - 0.2 32.8 2000 1090 9.5 5.2 14.7 30 5.0 3.5 21.1 - 0.4 33.7 2000 1360 9.5 6.4 15.9 30 5.0 4.0 21.1 - 0.6 34.6 2000 1630 9.5 7.7 17.2 . ~ aDiet used for this table consisted of 40~o mid-maturity legume hay, 27~o normal corn silage, 23~o cracked dry shelled corn, Do soybean meal (48~o crude protein), and Do mineral and vitamin mix. Requirements are dependent upon the diet fed. Requirements shown do not include nutrients needed for live weight change. Live weight change is based on assumed NED intake minus requirements. Requirements for RUP do not include protein provided by loss in body reserves or required for gain in body reserves. Requirement for total CP assumes RDP and RUP are met. Requirement for total CP will increase if RDP requirement is not met.

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 263 TABLE 14-4 Daily Nutrient Requirements Of Large Breed Cows (Live Weight = 680 kg) In Early Lactation (intake estimated at 11 days in milk). Values Are Appropriate For The Diet Below With 78% TDNa True LW Milk Fat Protein DMI change NET RDP RUP RDP RUP CP (kg) (%) (%) (kg) (kg) (Meal) (g) (g) (%) (%) (%) 20 3.0 2.5 12.0 0 23.0 1360 500 11.3 4.2 15.5 20 3.0 3.0 12.0 - 0.2 23.6 1360 670 11.3 5.6 16.9 20 3.0 3.5 12.0 -0.3 24.2 1360 850 11.3 7.1 18.4 20 3.5 2.5 12.4 - 0.1 23.9 1400 480 11.3 3.9 15.2 20 3.5 3.0 12.4 - 0.2 24.5 1400 660 11.3 5.3 16.6 20 3.5 3.5 12.4 - 0.4 25.1 1400 840 11.3 6.8 18.1 20 4.0 2.5 12.7 - 0.2 24.9 1440 470 11.3 3.7 15.0 20 4.0 3.0 12.7 - 0.3 25.4 1440 650 11.3 5.1 16.5 20 4.0 3.5 12.7 - 0.4 26.0 1440 820 11.3 6.5 17.8 30 3.0 2.5 14.0 - 0.6 29.2 1570 860 11.2 6.1 17.4 30 3.0 3.0 14.0 - 0.8 30.1 1570 1130 11.2 8.1 19.3 30 3.0 3.5 14.0 - 1.0 30.9 1570 1390 11.2 9.9 21.1 30 3.5 2.5 14.5 - 0.7 30.6 1620 850 11.2 5.9 17.0 30 3.5 3.0 14.5 - 0.9 31.4 1620 1110 11.2 7.7 18.8 30 3.5 3.5 14.5 - 1.1 32.3 1620 1370 11.2 9.4 20.6 30 4.0 2.5 15.1 - 0.9 32.0 1670 830 11.1 5.5 16.6 30 4.0 3.0 15.1 - 1.0 32.8 1670 1090 11.1 7.2 18.3 30 4.0 3.5 15.1 - 1.2 33.7 1670 1350 11.1 8.9 20.0 40 3.0 2.5 16.0 - 1.2 35.3 1760 1230 11.0 7.7 18.7 40 3.0 3.0 16.0 - 1.5 36.5 1760 1580 11.0 9.9 20.9 40 3.0 3.5 16.0 - 1.7 37.7 1760 1930 11.0 12.1 23.1 40 3.5 2.5 16.7 - 1.4 37.2 1830 1210 11.0 7.2 18.2 40 3.5 3.0 16.7 - 1.6 38.4 1830 1560 11.0 9.3 20.3 40 3.5 3.5 16.7 - 1.9 39.6 1830 1910 11.0 11.4 22.4 40 4.0 2.5 17.4 - 1.6 39.1 1900 1190 10.9 6.8 17.8 40 4.0 3.0 17.4 - 1.8 40.2 1900 1540 10.9 8.9 19.8 40 4.0 3.5 17.4 - 2.0 41.4 1900 1890 10.9 10.9 21.8 aDiet used for this table consisted of 15~o immature legume silage, 33~o normal corn silage, 34~o ground high moisture shelled corn, 12~o soybean meal (48~o crude protein), 2.5~o tallow 1.5~o Menhaden fish meal, and No mineral and vitamin mix. Requirements are dependent upon the diet fed. Requirements shown do not include nutrients needed for jive weight change. Live weight change is based on assumed NED intake minus requirements. Requirements for RUP do not include protein provided by loss in body reserves or required for gain in body reserves. Requirement for total CP assumes RDP amd RUP are met. Requirement for total CP win increase if RDP requirement is not met.

OCR for page 258
264 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-5 Daily Nutrient Requirements Of Large Breed Cows (Live Weight = 680 kg) In Midlactation (intake estimated at 90 days in milk). Values Are Appropriate For The Diet Below With 78% TDNa True LW Milk Fat Protein DMI change NET RDP RUP RDP RUP CP (kg) (%) (%) (kg) (kg) (Meal) (g) (g) (%) (%) (%) 35 3.0 2.5 22.7 1.3 32.2 2370 820 10.4 3.6 14.1 35 3.0 3.0 22.7 1.1 33.2 2370 1130 10.4 5.0 15.4 35 3.0 3.5 22.7 0.9 34.2 2370 1430 10.4 6.3 16.7 35 3.5 2.5 23.6 1.2 33.8 2450 800 10.4 3.4 13.8 35 3.5 3.0 23.6 1.0 34.8 2450 1110 10.4 4.7 15.1 35 3.5 3.5 23.6 0.8 35.9 2450 1410 10.4 6.0 16.4 35 4.0 2.5 24.5 1.1 35.4 2520 780 10.3 3.2 13.5 35 4.0 3.0 24.5 0.9 36.5 2520 1090 10.3 4.4 14.7 35 4.0 3.5 24.5 0.7 37.5 2520 1390 10.3 5.7 16.0 45 3.0 2.5 25.7 0.8 38.3 2620 1190 10.2 4.6 14.8 45 3.0 3.0 25.7 0.5 39.7 2620 1580 10.2 6.1 16.3 45 3.0 3.5 25.7 0.3 41.0 2620 1970 10.2 7.7 17.9 45 3.5 2.5 26.9 0.7 40.4 2710 1170 10.1 4.3 14.4 45 3.5 3.0 26.9 0.4 41.8 2710 1560 10.1 5.8 15.9 45 3.5 3.5 26.9 0.2 43.1 2710 1950 10.1 7.2 17.3 45 4.0 2.5 28.1 0.5 42.5 2800 1150 10.0 4.1 14.1 45 4.0 3.0 28.1 0.3 43.8 2800 1540 10.0 5.5 15.4 45 4.0 3.5 28.1 0 45.2 2800 1930 10.0 6.9 16.8 55 3.0 2.5 28.7 0.3 44.5 2850 1570 9.9 5.5 15.4 55 3.0 3.0 28.7 0 46.1 2850 2060 9.9 7.2 17.1 55 3.0 3.5 28.7 - 0.4 47.7 2850 2540 9.9 8.9 18.8 55 3.5 2.5 30.2 0.1 47.1 2960 1560 9.8 5.2 15.0 55 3.5 3.0 30.2 - 0.2 48.7 2960 2040 9.8 6.8 16.6 55 3.5 3.5 30.2 - 0.6 50.7 2960 2510 9.8 8.3 18.1 55 4.0 2.5 31.7 - 0.1 49.6 3060 1540 9.7 4.9 14.5 55 4.0 3.0 31.7 - 0.5 51.2 3060 2020 9.7 6.4 16.0 55 4.0 3.5 31.7 - 0.8 52.8 3060 2490 9.7 7.9 17.5 aDiet used for this table consisted of 15/70 immature legume silage, 330/70 normal corn silage, 340/70 ground high moisture shelled corn, 120/70 soybean meal (480/70 crude - \ ~ ~n7 '-I] --- ~ =0.7 we rich men1 anal 9.~7n mineral and vitamin mix. Requirements are dependent upon the diet fed. Requirements shown do not include protein), 2.5% tallow, 1.5% menhaden lists Ill~LLI, ElIlU ~/0 IlllIl~rELI ELIlU Vl[~IIllI1 IlllX. h~]UlI~lll~llL~ ~w =~wll=wllL Lowell Lll~ ILL 1~. $~LIll~lll~llL~ ~11~ nutrients needed for live weight change. Live weight change is based on assumed NED intake minus requirements. Requirements for RUP do not include protein provided by loss in body reserves or required for gain in body reserves. Requirement for total CP assumes RDP and RUP are met. Requirement for total CP will increase if RDP requirement is not met.

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 265 TABLE 14-6 Daily Nutrient Requirements Of Large Breed Cows (Live Weight = 680 kg) In Midlactation (intake estimated at 90 days in milk). Values Are Appropriate For The Diet Below With 68% TDNa True LW Milk Fat Protein DMI change NET RDP RUP RDP RUP CP (kg) (%) (%) (kg) (kg) (Meal) (g) (g) (%) (%) (%) 25 3.0 2.5 19.6 1.0 26.0 1940 620 9.9 3.2 13.1 25 3.0 3.0 19.6 0.8 26.8 1940 840 9.9 4.3 14.2 25 3.0 3.5 19.6 0.7 27.5 1940 1070 9.9 5.5 15.4 25 3.5 2.5 20.3 0.9 27.2 2000 600 9.9 3.0 12.9 25 3.5 3.0 20.3 0.8 27.9 2000 820 9.9 4.0 13.9 25 3.5 3.5 20.3 0.6 28.7 2000 1050 9.9 5.2 15.1 25 4.0 2.5 21.0 0.9 28.4 2060 580 9.8 2.8 12.6 25 4.0 3.0 21.0 0.7 29.1 2060 810 9.8 3.9 13.7 25 4.0 3.5 21.0 0.6 29.8 2060 1030 9.8 4.9 14.7 35 3 0 2.5 22.7 0.6 32.2 2210 990 9.7 4.4 14.1 35 3 0 3.0 22.7 0.4 33.2 2210 1300 9.7 5.7 15.4 35 3.0 3.5 22.7 0.2 34.2 2210 1620 9.7 7.1 16.8 35 3 5 2.5 23.6 0.5 33.8 2290 960 9.7 4.1 13.8 35 3 5 3.0 23.6 0.3 34.8 2290 1280 9.7 5.4 15.1 35 3.5 3.5 23.6 0.1 35.9 2290 1600 9.7 6.7 16.4 35 4.0 2.5 24.5 0.4 35.4 2370 940 9.7 3.8 13.5 35 4.0 3.0 24.5 0.2 36.5 2370 1260 9.7 5.1 14.8 35 4.0 3.5 24.5 0 37.5 2370 1570 9.7 6.4 16.1 45 3.0 2.5 25.7 0.1 28.3 2470 1370 9.6 5.3 14.9 45 3.0 3.0 25.7 - 0.1 39.7 2470 1780 9.6 6.9 16.5 45 3.0 3.5 25.7 - 0.4 41.0 2470 2180 9.6 8.5 18.1 45 3.5 2.5 26.9 0 40.4 2570 1340 9.6 5.0 14.6 45 3.5 3.0 26.9 - 0.2 41.8 2570 1750 9.6 6.5 16.1 45 3.5 3.5 26.9 - 0.5 43.1 2570 2160 9.6 8.0 17.6 45 4.0 2.5 28.1 - 0.1 42.5 2670 1310 9.5 4.7 14.2 45 4.0 3.0 28.1 - 0.3 43.8 2670 1720 9.5 6.1 15.6 45 4.0 3.5 28.1 - 0.6 45.2 2670 2130 9.5 7.6 17.1 a Diet used for this table consisted of 40~o mid-maturity legume hay, 27~o normal corn silage, 23~o cracked dry shelled corn, No soybean meal (48~o crude protein), and No mineral and vitamin mix. Requirements are dependent upon the diet fed. Requirements shown do not include nutrients needed for live weight change. Live weight change is based on assumed NED intake minus NED requirements. Requirements for RUP do not include protein provided by loss in body reserves or required for gain in body reserves. Requirement for total CP assumes RDP and RUP are met. Requirement for total CP will increase if RDP requirement is not met.

OCR for page 258
266 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-7 Nutrient Requirements of Lactating Dairy Cows as Determined Using Sample Diets Holstein = 680 kg Bwt, Mature Bwt = 680 kg, BCS = 3.0, 65 mos age, Milk fat = 3.5~o, milk true protein = 3.0~o, lactose = 4.8~o, Default environmental conditions Jersey = 454 kg Bwt, mature Bwt = 454 kg, BCS = 3.0, 65 mos age milk fat = 4.2~o, milk true protein = 3.6~o, lactose = 4.8~o Default environmental conditions Days in milk 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 50 120 90 Dry matter intake input Model Model Model Model Model Model Model Model Model Model predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted Milk production (kg) 25 35 45 54.4 25 35 40 35 35 35 Milk production (lbs) 55 77 99 120 55 77 88 77 77 77 Dry matter intake (kg) 20.3 23.6 26.9 30 18 21.7 23.5 19.8 22.2 22.7 Dry matter intake (lbs) 44.7 51.9 59.2 66 39.6 47.7 51.7 43.6 48.8 49.9 Daily wt change (kg) 0.5 0.3 0.1 - 0.2 0 - 0.2 - 0.5 - 0.7 - 0.1 0 Days to gain one condition score 221 316 1166 3777 4247 Days to lose one condition score 544 241 110 80 532 Energya NEL (Meal /day) 27.9 34.8 41.8 48.3 27.7 35.6 39.5 35.6 35.6 35.6 NEL ( Meal/ kg) 1.37 1.47 1.55 1.61 1.54 1.64 1.68 1.8 a 1.6 1.57 NEL (Meal/lb) 0.62 0.67 0.7 0.73 0.7 0.74 0.76 0.82 0.73 0.71 Protein Metabolizable protein (g/d) 1862 2407 2954 3476 1991 2639 2965 2579 2656 2672 Diet ho MP 9.2 10.2 11 11.6 11.1 12.2 12.6 13 12 11.8 Rumen degradable protein (g/d) 1937 2298 2636 2947 1747 2125 2288 1971 2167 2206 Diet ho RDP 9.5 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.7 10 9.8 9.7 Rumen undegradable protein (g/d) 933 1291 1677 2089 1151 1632 1865 1670 1619 1611 Diet Do RUP 4.6 5.5 6.2 6.9 6.4 7.5 7.9 8.4 7.3 7.1 % RDP+ % RUP (crude protein)b 14.1 15.2 16.0 16.7 16.1 17.3 17.6 18.4 17.1 16.8 Fiber and carbohydrates NDF, min Do 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 ADF, min Do 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 NFC, mar. % 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 36 44 Minerals Absorbable calcium (g/day) 52.1 65 76.5 88 50.7 65.2 72.4 65.2 65.2 65.2 Dietary Ca Do 0.62 0.61 0.67 0.6 0.57 0.57 0.63 0.66 0.54 0.53 Absorbable phosphorus (g/day) 44.2 56.5 68.8 80.3 41.4 54.1 60.4 52.2 54.6 55.1 Dietary P Do 0.32 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.33 0.37 0.36 0.44 0.35 0.34 MA Do 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.19 0.19 Cl Do 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.24 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.25 0.25 Ke DO 1 1.04 1.06 1.07 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.07 1.03 1.02 Na do 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.22 0.2 0.19 S do 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Co mg/kg 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 Cu mg/kgf 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 11 10 9 I mg/kgg 0.6 0.5 0.44 0.4 0.44 0.4 0.34 0.4 0.36 0.35 Fe mg/kg 12.3 15 17 18 14 16 17 18 16 15 Mn mg/kg 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 13 12 12 Se mg/kg 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 03 03 03 03 03 03 Zn mg/kg 43 48 52 55 45 49 51 54 48 47 Vitamin A (It//day) 75000 75000 75000 75000 49500 49500 49500 49500 49500 49500 Vitamin D (It//day) 21000 21000 21000 21000 13500 13500 13500 13500 13500 13500 Vitamin E (It//day) 545 545 545 545 360 360 360 360 360 360 Vitamin A (IU/kg) 3685 3169 2780 2500 2772 2300 2123 2520 2247 2198 Vitamin D (IU/kg) 1004 864 758 680 755 627 579 687 613 600 Vitamin E (IUAcg) 27 23 20 18 20 17 16 18 16 16 Sample diets used in model to generate tables. Ingredients listed as kg /day DM. Corn silage, normal 8.48 8.21 5.61 12.02 8.96 7.77 7.39 7.1 7.96 8.15 Soybean meal, solv. 48~o CP 1.01 1.62 1.41 2.39 2.16 2.78 1.67 2.54 2.85 2.91 Legume forage silage, mid-maturity 3.85 4.57 2.67 3.1 2.83 3.18 3.25 Corn grain steam flaked 1.8 4.33 7.08 6.35 2.6 4.91 5.88 4.48 5.03 5.15 Calcium carbonate 0.04 0.07 0.09 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 Monosodium phosphate (1 Him) 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 Soybean meal, expellers 1.16 Legume forage hay, immature 6.16 5.42 4.59 Sodium chloride 0.12 0.011 0.12 0.14 0.1 0.1 0.12 0.09 0.1 0.1 Grass hay, c-3, mid-mat 4.47 3.21 0.98 0.93 0.85 0.95 0.97 Vitamin and mineral premix 0.54 0.49 0.51 0.49 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.45 0.51 0.52 Bermudagrass hay, coastal 0.87 Continues

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 267 TABLE 14-7 (continuedJ Holstein = 680 kg Bwt, Mature Bwt = 680 kg, BCS = 3.0, 65 mos age, Milk fat = 3.5~o, milk true protein = 3.0~o, lactose = 4.8~o, Default environmental conditions Jersey = 454 kg Bwt, mature Bwt = 454 kg, BCS = 3.0, 65 mos age milk fat = 4.2~o, milk true protein = 3.6~o, lactose = 4.8~o Default environmental conditions Days in milk 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 50 120 90 Dry matter intake input Model Model Model Model Model Model Model Model Model Model predicted predicted predicted predicted predicted predictedh predicted predictedh predictedh predicted + Pooh Cottonseed, whole with lint 2.53 2.24 1.02 1.64 0.94 1.05 1.07 Tallow 0.29 0.24 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.25 Calcium soaps of fatty acids 0.29 0.18 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.19 Blood meal, ring dried 0.23 0.31 0.11 0.1 0.1 0.11 0.12 Sorghum, Sudan type, silage 2.26 Sample diet evaluation NEL (Meal/kg) Undiscounted TDN To 1.49 1.55 1.57 1.58 1.54 65 69 71 74 69 1.59 1.57 1.62 1.58 1.57 73 75 73 73 73 a Recommenced energy content of early lactation rations must be limited to prevent rumen acidosis. Cow must therefore be expected to utilize body reserves to meet energy needs at highest levels of milk production. See fiber and NFC restrictions. b equivalent to crude protein requirement only if RDP and RUP are perfectly balanced. CThese are the minimum fiber (or maximum NFC) concentrations needed to maintain rumen health and milk fat test (see Chapter 4). Assumes that active transport of magnesium across the rumen wall is intact. High dietary potassium and excess non-protein nitrogen often interfere with Mg absorption. Under these conditions dietary Mg should be increased to 0.3~o-0.35~o (see Chapter 6). eHeat stress may increase the need for potassium (see Chapter 6). fHigh dietary molybdenum, sulfur, and iron can interfere with copper absorption increasing the requirement (see Chapter 6). g Diets high in goitrogenic substances increase the iodine requirement (see Chapter 6). h Diet composition is the same in all four cases of the Jersey cow producing 35 kg milk. Amount of dry matter consumed varies with days in milk and the use of predicted vs. actual dry matter intake in the model.

OCR for page 258
268 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-8 Nutrient Requirements and Required Diet Nutrient Concentrations for Fresh Cows Fed an Example Fresh-Cow Ration Days in milk Dry matter intake input Milk production (kg) Milk production (lbs) Dry matter intake (kg) Dry matter intake (lbs) Daily wt change (kg) Days to gain one condition score Days to lose one condition score Holstein = 680 kg Bwt, Mature Bwt = 680 kg, BCS = 3.3, 58 mos age milk fat = 3.~o, milk true protein = 3.0~o, milk lactose = 4.8~o Default environmental conditions 11 11 Model Model predicted predicted + 20~o 25 13.5 29.7 -0.9 99 25 16.1 35.4 o 4886 Jersey = 454 kg Bwt, Mature Bwt = 454 kg, BCS = 3.3, 58 most Age milk fat = 4.2~o, milk true protein = 3.6~o, milk lactose = 4.8~o Default environmental conditions 11 Model . ~ predicted predicted + 20~o predicted predicted + 20~o 35 25 25 77 55 55 35 77 15.6 34.3 -1.6 11 Mncir~1 143 18.8 41.4 -0.6 41 11 11 Mncir~1 Mr 11.9 26.2 -1.4 14.3 31.5 83 Energya NEL (Meal/day) 27.9 27.9 34.8 34.8 27.7 27.7 NEL (Meal/kg) 2.06 1.73 2.23 1.85 2.33 1.93 NEL (Meal/lb) 0.94 0.79 1.01 0.84 1.06 0.88 Proteinb Metabolizable protein (g/d) 1643 1725 2157 2254 1801 1875 Diet do MP 12.2 10.7 13.8 12.0 15.1 13.1 Rumen degradable protein (g/d) Diet do RDP Rumen undegradable protein (g/d) 949 Diet do RUP 7 0 do RDP+ do RUP (crude protein)C 17.5 Fiber and carbohydrates NDF, min do ADF, min do NFC, max do 1421 10.5 1683 10.5 863 5.4 15.9 1634 10.5 1405 9.0 19.5 1931 10.3 1045 5.6 15.9 25-33 25-33 25-33 25-33 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 36-44 36-44 36-44 36-44 1244 10.5 1265 10.6 21.1 25-33 17-21 36-44 1469 10.3 1202 8.4 18.7 25-33 17-21 36-44 Minerals Absorbable calcium (g/day) 52.1 52.1 64 64 51 51 Dietary Ca do 0.74 0.65 0.79 0.68 0.80 0.70 Absorbable phosphorus (g/ day) 37.3 40.0 49.0 52.0 35.0 37.7 Dietary P do 0.38 0.34 0.42 0.37 0.40 0.36 Mge ~0 0.27 0.23 0.29 0.24 0.27 0.22 Cl do 0.36 0.30 0.40 0.33 0.36 0.30 Kf do 1.19 1.11 1.24 1.14 1.19 1.10 Na do 0.34 0.29 0.34 0.28 0.31 0.26 S do 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Co mg/kg 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 Cu mg/kgg 16 13 16 13 15 12 I mg/kgh 0.88 0.74 0.77 0.64 0.67 0.56 Fe mg/kg 19 16 22 19 21 17 Mn mg/kg 21 17 21 17 19 15 Se mg/kg 03 0.3 03 03 03 03 Zn mg/kg 65 54 73 60 67 56 Vitamin A (It//day) 75000 75000 75000 75000 49900 49900 Vitamin D (It//day) 21000 21000 21000 21000 13600 13600 Vitamin E (It//day) 545 545 545 545 363 363 Vitamin A (IU/kg) 5540 4646 4795 3978 4193 3490 Vitamin D (IU/kg) 1511 1267 1308 1085 1143 951 Vitamin E (IU/kg) 40 34 3~S 29 31 25 Continues

OCR for page 258
270 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-9 Nutrient Requirements and Diet Concentrations Needed to Meet Requirements for Dry Cows as Determined Using Example Diets REQUIREMENTS OF A DIET TO MEET TISSUE DEMANDS Hnict~in Bow mature hody weight without concentus = 680 kit, BCS = 3.3, llUl~L~lll ~UW, lil~LUl~ UUU,y W~l~llL WlLllUL~ ~~ ~~ Ail, Calf wt = 45 kg Gaining 0.67 kg/day with conceptus Days pregnant 240 270 279 Current body wt (with conceptus) kg 730 751 757 Age (months) 57 58 58 Dry matter intake (kg) 14.4 13.7 10.1 Dry matter intake (lbs) 31.7 30.1 22.2 Energy NET (Meal/day required) 14.0 14.4 14.5 NET (Meal/kg required) 0.97 1.05 1.44 Protein Metabolizable protein (g/d) 871 901 810 Diet % MP 6.0 6.6 8.0 Rumen degradable protein (g/day) 1114 1197 965 Diet % RDP 7.7 8.7 9.6 Rumen undegradable protein (g/day) 317 292 286a a Diet % RUP 2.2 2.1 2.8 % RDP+ % RUP (crude protein)b 9.9 10.8 12.4 Fiber and carbohydrates Minimum % NDF 33 33 33 Minimum % ADF 21 21 21 Maximum % NFC 42 42 42 Minerals Absorbable calcium (g) 18.1 21.5 22.5 Dietary Ca % 0.44 0.45 0.48 Absorbable phosphorus (g) 19.9 20.3 16.9 Dietary P % 0.22 0.23 0.26 Mgd % 0.11 0.12 0.16 Cl % 0.13 0.15 0.20 K % 0.51 0.52 0.62 Na % 0.10 0.10 0.14 S % 0.2 0.2 0.2 Co mg/kg 0.11 0.11 0.11 Cu mg/kge 12 13 18 I mg/kgf 0.4 0.4 0.5 Fe mg/kg 13 13 18 Mn mg/kg 16 18 24 Se mg/kg 0.3 03 03 Zn mg/kg 21 22 30 Vitamin A (It//day) 80300 82610 83270 Vitamin D (It//day) 21900 21530 22710 Vitamin E (It//day) 1168 1202 1211 Vitamin A (IU/kg) 5576 6030 8244 Vitamin D (IU/kg) 1520 1645 2249 Vitamin E (IU/kg) 81 88 120 Sample diets used in model to generate tables Ingredient (kg DM) Corn silage, normal 4.;~2 4.U;3 Soybean meal, solv. 48% CP 0.27 Grass silage, C-3, mid-mat 8.1 7.35 3.73 Corn grain, ground hi moist 0.31 Beet sugar pulp, dried 1.42 Wheat straw 5.79 1.56 Sodium chloride 0.02 0.02 U.UZ Vitamin and mineral premix 0.46 0.41 0.31 Calcium carbonate Monosodium phosphate (1 Him) Magnesium oxide Calcium phosphate (Di-> Continues

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 271 TABLE 14-9 (continuedJ REQUIREMENTS OF A DIET TO MEET TISSUE DEMANDS Holstein Cow, mature body weight without conceptus = 680 kg, BCS = 3.3, Calf wt = 45 kg Gaining 0.67 kg/day with conceptus Sample dry cow diet evaluation NDF % 62.2 53.9 46.5 Forage NDF % 62.2 53.9 39.5 ADF % 39.7 33.5 27.8 NFC % 19.6 27.2 34.7 Undiscounted TDN 51 57 63 Diet NET (Meal/kg), dependent on DMI 1.12 1.33 1.49 NEL (Meal/day supplied by example diet) 16.1 18.1 15 aRUP corrected from model prediction to provide actual RUP requirement if diet had been formulated to meet RDP requirement. Protein in many cases will not be balanced for RDP before the metabolizable protein requirement of the dry cow is met. When this occurs the RUP requirement determined by the model increases to compensate for the lost microbial protein. When RDP is inadequate the energy derived from the diet may be less than predicted by model due to incomplete digestion as a result of reduced bacterial activity in the rumen. b to RUP + Ho RDP = Crude protein required only if ration is perfectly balanced for RDP and RUP. Rumen function may require that the crude protein content of the dry cow ration be Who, despite the needs of the cow being met at lower CP levels. These are the minimum fiber (or maximum NFC) concentrations needed to maintain rumen health and milk fat test (see Chapter 4). Actual concentrations may need to be higher (or lower for NFC) depending on energy requirements of the cow. For transition and early lactation cows, diets should meet these minimum and maximum constraints and be formulated to contain 1.60 Mcal/kg of NED (see Chapter 9). Thigh dietary potassium and excess non-protein nitrogen can interfere with Mg absorption. e High dietary molybdenum, sulfur, and iron can interfere with copper absorption increasing the requirement (see text). fDiets high in goitrogenic substances increase the iodine requirement (see text).

OCR for page 258
272 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-10 Example Diet Incorporating Dietary Guidelines Suggested in Chapter 9 for Transitioning a Heifer (entering first lactation) During the Later Dry Period to Acclimate Her To the Lactating Ration and To Reduce Metabolic Disease This animal must be entered into the model as a replacement heifer to accommodate growth requirements. Tissue requirements for a heifer (270 d pregnant, weighing 625 kg with conceptus, mature body weight of 680 kg, consuming 10.6 kg dry matter / day, gaining 300 g body weight plus 660 g conceptus weight each day, and a current body condition score of 3.3) and nutrient densities of an example ration that follows the recommendation guidelines. Guidelines for Nutrients required by Example close-up close-up heifer diet tissues (as assessed with heifer ration the example diet) Recommendations that Nutrients differ from requirement supplied Energy NEL (Meal/day) 14.8 16.9 NEL (Meal/kg) 1.54-1.62a 1.40 1.5S Protein Metabolizable protein (g/d) 888 1027 Diet % MP 8.4 9.7 Rumen degradable protein (g/day) 1052 1067 Diet % RDP 9.9 10.2 Rumen undegradable protein (g/day) 336 511 Diet % RUP 3.2 4.9 % RDP+ % RUP (crude proteins) 13.5-15.0 13.1 15.0 Fiber and carbohydrates Minimum % NDF 33c 25-33 39.1 Minimum % ADF 21C 17-21 23.4 Maximum % NFC 43c 36-43 39.4 Minerals Absorbable calcium (g) 22.4 24.5 Dietary Ca % 0.40 0.44 Absorbable phosphorus (g) 16.6 25.4 Dietary P % 0.3_0.4e 0.23 0.37 Mg % 0.35-0.40f 0.14 0.40 Cl % 0.16 0.44 K % 0.55g 0.55 1.54 Na % 0.12 0.13 S % 0.20 0.19 Co mg/kg 0.11 0.11 Cu mg/kg 16 16 I mg/kg 0.4 0.4 Fe mg/kg 26 26 Mn mg/kg 22 22 Semg/kg 0.3 03 Zn mg/kg 30 30 Vitamin A (It//day) 75000h 68750 75000 Vitamin D (It//day) 20000h 18750 20000 Vitamin E (It//day) 1200h 848 1200 Vitamin A (IU/kg) 6486 7075 Vitamin D (IU/kg) 1769 1887 Vitamin E (IU/kg) 80 113 Dietary cation-anion difference (Na + K) - (Cl + S), meq/kg 24 203 Continues

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 273 TABLE 14-10 (continuedJ Sample diet used in model to generate tables Ingredient (kg D M/day) Corn silage, normal Soybean meal, solv. 48% CP Grass silage, C-3, mid-mat Corn grain, ground high moist Beet sugar pulp, dried Sodium chloride Vitamin and mineral premix Magnesium oxide Calcium phosphate (Di-) Example Close-up heifer diet 4.58 1.07 2.44 1.04 0.95 0.02 0.39 0.04 0.02 aEnergy increased to prepare rumen for lactation ration, promote feed intake, and reduce displaced abomasum after calving. biro RUP + To RDP = Crude protein required only if ration is perfectly balanced for RDP and RUP. CProtein may not be balanced for RDP before the metabolizable protein requirement of the animals is met. When this occurs the RUP requirement is increased to compensate for the lost microbial protein. In addition energy derived from the diet may be diminished due to incomplete digestion as a result of reduced bacterial activity in the rumen. Suggested carbohydrate profile to reduce displacement of the abomasum. eA level which will provide adequate phosphorus even on the day of calving when DMI is low. fA level which will allow passive absorption of magnesium across the rumen wall to maintain adequate blood magnesium concentration. "Goal would be to limit potassium to the requirement of the heifer to reduce udder edema. Very difficult to achieve. hA level which will provide adequate vitamins even on the day of calving when DMI is low, utilizing requirements of cows, not replacement heifers.

OCR for page 258
274 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-11 Example Diet Incorporating Dietary Guidelines Suggested in Chapter 9 for Transitioning a Cow (entering 2nd lactation or greater) During the Last Weeks of Gestation to Acclimate Her To a Lactating Ration and To Reduce Metabolic Disease Tissue requirements for a cow (270 d pregnant, weighing 751 kg with conceptus, mature body weight of 680 kg, consuming 13.7 kg dry matter/day, and a current body condition score of 3.3) with the nutrients supplied by the example rations that follow the recommendation guidelines. Nutrients Guidelines for Guidelines for Example Example needed to meet standard close-up "anionic" close-up standard "anionic" requirement of diet diet close-up diet close-up diet tissues as determined with example diet Recommendations Recommendations that differ from that differ from simply meeting simply meeting Nutrients Nutrients tissue requirement tissue requirement supplied supplied Energy NEL (Meal/day) 14.4 22.0 21.5 NET (Meal/kg diet) 1.05 1.54 - 1.62a 1.54 - 1.62a 1.61 1.58 Protein Metabolizable protein (g/d) 910 164 1133 Diet % MP 6.6 8.5 8.3 Rumen degradable protein (g/day) 1358 1104 1075 Diet % RDP 9.9 8.1 7.8 Rumen undegradable protein (g/day) l72b 640 621 Diet % RUP 1.3b 4.7 4.5 % RDP+ % RUP (crude protein)C 10.2 l2.0d l2.0d 12.8 12.3 Fiber and carbohydrates Minimum % NDF 25-33 33 33 38.2 37.2 Minimum % ADF 17-21 21 21 22.4 21.8 Maximum % NFC 36-44 43 43 42.8 41.6 Minerals Absorbable calcium (g) 21.5 32.0 95.0 Dietary Ca % 0.45 0.6-1.5f 0.43 0.98 Absorbable phosphorus (g) 20.3 28 36 Dietary P % 0.23 0.3-0.4g 0.3-0.4 0.3 0.37 Mg % 0.12 0.35 - 0.40h 0.35 - 0.40h 0.39 0.38 Cl % 0.15 0.8-1.2i 0.42 0.89 Ki % 0.52 1.35 1.32 Na % 0.1 0.16 0.15 S % 0.2 0.3_0.4i 0.18 0.31 Co mg/kg 0.11 0.11 0.11 Cu mg/kg 13 13 13 I mg/kg 0.4 0.4 0.4 Fe mg/kg 13 13 13 Mn mg/kg 18 18 18 Semg/kg 0.3 03 03 Zn mg/kg 22 22 22 7 7 Vitamin A (It//day) 82610 loOOOOK loOOOOK 100000 100000 Vitamin D (It//day) 22530 25000k 25000k 25000 25000 Vitamin E (It//day) 1202 1200k 1200k 1803 1803 Vitamin A (IU/kg) 6030 7300 7300 Vitamin D (IU/kg) 1644 1824 1824 Vitamin E (IU/kg) 88 132 132 Dietary cation-anion difference (Na + K) - (Cl + S), meq/kg 10 10 - 75 to ol 185 - 41 Continues

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 275 TABLE 14-11 (continuedJ Tissue requirements for a cow (270 d pregnant, weighing 751 kg with conceptus, mature body weight of 680 kg, consuming 13.7 kg dry matter/day, and a current body condition score of 3.3) with the nutrients supplied by the example rations that follow the recommendation guidelines. Nutrients Guidelines for Guidelines for Example Example needed to meet standard close-up "anionic" close-up standard "anionic" requirement of diet diet close-up diet close-up diet tissues as determined with example diet Recommendations Recommendations that differ from that differ from simply meeting simply meeting Nutrients Nutrients tissue requirement tissue requirement supplied supplied Sample diets used in model to generate tables Ingredient (kg DM/day) No added Anionic diet anion diet Corn silage, normal 5.55 5.40 Soybean meal, solv. 48% CP 0.79 0.77 Grass silage, C-3, mid-mat 2.48 2.42 Corn grain, ground hi moist 2.16 2.10 Beet sugar pulp, dried 2.15 2.09 Sodium chloride 0.03 0.03 Vitamin and mineral premix 0.43 0.42 Calcium carbonate 0.07 Magnesium oxide 0.05 0.03 Calcium phosphate (Di-) 0.02 0.07 Magnesium sulfate (7 H2O, Epsom salts)m 0.14 Calcium chloride (2 H2O, 77-80% CaCl2)m 0.14 a energy increased to prepare rumen for lactation ration, promote feed intake, and reduce displaced abomasum after calving. bRUP corrected from model prediction to provide RUP requirement if diet can be formulated to meet RDP requirement. cot RUP + To RDP = Crude Protein Required only if ration is perfectly balanced for RDP and RUP. Protein in most cases will not be balanced for RDP before the metabolizable protein requirement of the dry cow is met. When this occurs the RUP requirement determined by the model increases to compensate for the lost microbial protein. When RDP is inadequate the energy derived from the diet may be less than predicted by model due to incomplete digestion as a result of reduced bacterial activity in the rumen. In order to improve rumen digestion the recommendation is to exceed the cow's requirement for metabolizable protein to meet the RDP requirement of the rumen. e Suggested carbohydrate profile to reduce displacement of the abomasum. fUtilizing the DCAD concept to prevent milk fever, diet calcium does not have to be limited. gA level which will provide adequate phosphorus even on the day of calving when DMI is low. hA level which will allow passive absorption of magnesium across the rumen wall to maintain adequate blood magnesium concentration. 'Adding anions to the ration to reduce hypocalcemia. Shoal would be to limit potassium to the requirement of the cow. Very difficult to achieve. kA level which will provide adequate vitamins even on the day of calving when DMI is low. Monitoring urine pH can help titrate the correct DCAD of the ration. mMore palatable sources of anions than used in this example are available and would likely impair DMI less.

OCR for page 258
276 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-12 Daily Nutrient Requirements (DM basis) of Small Breed (mature weight = 450 kg) Non-Bred Heifers BW ADG DMI TDN NEm NEG ME RDP RUP RDP RUP cpa Ca P kg kg/d kg/d % Mcal/d Mcal/d Mcal/d g/d g/d % % % g/d g/d 100 0.3 3.0 56.5 2.64 0.47 6.0 255 110 8.6 3.7 12.4 14 7 0.4 3.0 58.6 2.64 0.64 6.4 270 143 9.0 4.7 13.7 18 8 0.5 3.1 60.7 2.64 0.82 6.7 284 175 9.3 5.7 15.0 21 10 0.6 3.1 62.9 2.64 1.00 7.0 298 207 9.6 6.7 16.3 25 11 0.7 3.1 65.2 2.64 1.19 7.3 310 239 10.0 7.7 17.7 28 12 0.8 3.1 67.7 2.64 1.37 7.6 323 270 10.4 8.7 19.0 31 13 150 0.3 4.0 56.5 3.57 0.63 8.2 346 95 8.6 2.4 11.0 15 8 0.4 4.1 58.6 3.57 0.87 8.7 366 124 9.0 3.0 12.0 19 10 0.5 4.1 60.7 3.57 1.11 9.1 385 152 9.3 3.7 12.9 22 11 0.6 4.2 62.9 3.57 1.36 9.5 403 180 9.6 4.3 13.9 25 12 0.7 4.2 65.3 3.57 1.61 9.9 421 207 10.0 4.9 14.9 28 13 0.8 4.2 67.7 3.57 1.86 10.3 437 234 10.4 5.5 15.9 31 14 200 0.3 5.0 56.5 4.44 0.79 10.2 429 81 8.6 1.6 10.3 17 10 0.4 5.1 58.6 4.44 1.08 10.7 454 106 9.0 2.1 11.1 20 11 0.5 5.1 60.7 4.44 1.38 11.3 478 131 9.3 2.6 11.8 23 12 0.6 5.2 62.9 4.44 1.68 11.8 500 156 9.6 3.0 12.6 26 13 0.7 5.2 65.3 4.44 1.99 12.3 522 179 10.0 3.4 13.4 29 14 0.8 5.2 67.7 4.44 2.31 12.8 543 202 10.4 3.9 14.2 32 15 250 0.3 5.9 56.5 5.24 0.93 12.0 508 69 8.6 1.2 9.8 19 11 0.4 6.0 58.6 5.24 1.28 12.7 537 91 9.0 1.5 10.5 21 12 0.5 6.1 60.7 5.24 1.63 13.4 565 113 9.3 1.9 11.1 24 13 0.6 6.1 62.9 5.24 1.99 14.0 592 135 9.6 2.2 11.8 27 14 0.7 6.2 65.3 5.24 2.36 14.6 617 155 10.0 2.5 12.5 30 15 0.8 6.2 67.7 5.24 2.73 15.2 642 175 10.4 2.8 13.2 32 16 300 0.3 6.7 56.5 6.01 1.07 13.8 582 58 8.6 0.9 9.5 20 12 0.4 6.9 58.6 6.01 1.46 14.6 616 79 9.0 1.1 10.1 23 13 0.5 7.0 60.7 6.01 1.87 15.3 648 98 9.3 1.4 10.7 26 14 0.6 7.0 62.9 6.01 2.28 16.0 678 117 9.6 1.7 11.3 28 15 0.7 7.1 65.3 6.01 2.70 16.7 707 135 10.0 1.9 11.9 31 16 0.8 7.1 67.7 6.01 3.13 17.4 736 151 10.4 2.1 12.5 34 17 aCrude protein required only if ration is perfectly balanced for RDP and RUP.

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 277 TABLE 14-13 Daily Nutrient Requ irements (DM basis) of Large Breed (mature weight = 650 kg) Non-Bred Heifers BW ADG DMI TDN NEm NEG ME RDP RUP RDP RUP cpa Ca P kg kg/d kg/d % Mcal/d Mcalld McaW g/d g/d % % % g/d g/d 150 0.5 4.1 58.4 3.57 0.84 8.6 364 167 8.9 4.1 13.0 23 11 0.6 4.1 60.0 3.57 1.03 9.0 379 199 9.2 4.8 14.0 26 12 0.7 4.2 61.7 3.57 1.22 9.3 393 230 9.4 5.5 14.9 30 13 0.8 4.2 63.4 3.57 1.41 9.6 407 261 9.7 6.2 15.9 33 15 0.9 4.2 65.3 3.57 1.61 9.9 421 292 10.0 6.9 16.9 37 16 1.0 4.2 67.2 3.57 1.80 10.3 434 322 10.3 7.6 17.9 40 17 1.1 4.2 69.2 3.57 2.00 10.6 446 352 10.6 8.3 18.9 43 18 200 0.5 5.1 58.4 4.44 1.05 10.7 452 148 8.9 2.9 11.9 24 12 0 6 5.1 60.0 4.44 1.28 11.1 470 177 9.2 3.4 12.6 27 13 0 7 5.2 61.7 4.44 1.51 11.5 488 205 9.4 4.0 13.4 30 14 0.8 5.2 63.4 4.44 1.75 11.9 505 233 9.7 4.5 14.2 34 15 0 9 5.2 65.3 4.44 1.99 12.3 522 260 10.0 5.0 15.0 37 17 1 0 5.2 67.2 4.44 2.24 12.7 538 287 10.3 5.5 15.8 40 18 1.1 5.2 69.2 4.44 2.49 13.1 554 314 10.6 6.0 16.6 43 19 250 0.5 6.0 58.4 5.24 1.24 12.6 534 131 8.9 2.2 11.1 25 13 0.6 6.1 60.0 5.24 1.51 13.1 556 156 9.2 2.6 11.8 28 14 0.7 6.1 61.7 5.24 1.79 13.6 577 182 9.4 3.0 12.4 31 15 0 8 6.2 63.4 5.24 2.07 14.1 597 207 9.7 3.4 13.1 34 16 0 9 6.2 65.3 5.24 2.36 14.6 617 232 10.0 3.7 13.7 37 17 1.0 6.2 67.2 5.24 2.65 15.0 636 256 10.3 4.1 14.4 40 18 1 1 6.2 69.2 5.24 2.94 15.5 655 280 10.6 4.5 15.1 43 19 300 0 5 6.9 58.4 6.01 1.42 14.5 612 114 8.9 1.7 10.6 27 14 0.6 6.9 60.0 6.01 1.73 15.1 637 138 9.2 2.0 11.2 30 15 0.7 7.0 61.7 6.01 2.05 15.6 661 161 9.4 2.3 11.7 33 16 0.8 7.1 63.4 6.01 2.38 16.2 685 183 9.7 2.6 12.3 35 17 0.9 7.1 65.3 6.01 2.70 16.7 707 205 10.0 2.9 12.9 38 18 1 0 7.1 67.2 6.01 3.03 17.2 729 227 10.3 3.2 13.5 41 19 1 1 7.1 69.2 6.01 3.37 17.7 751 248 10.6 3.5 14.1 44 20 350 0.5 7.7 58.4 6.75 1.59 16.2 687 99 8.9 1.3 10.2 28 15 0.6 7.8 60.0 6.75 1.94 16.9 715 121 9.2 1.5 10.7 31 16 0.7 7.9 61.7 6.75 2.30 17.6 742 141 9.4 1.8 11.2 34 17 0.8 7.9 63.4 6.75 2.67 18.2 769 162 9.7 2.0 11.7 37 18 0.9 8.0 65.3 6.75 3.03 18.8 794 181 10.0 2.3 12.3 40 19 1.0 8.0 67.2 6.75 3.41 19.4 819 200 10.3 2.5 12.8 42 20 1.1 8.0 69.2 6.75 3.78 19.9 843 218 10.6 2.7 13.3 45 21 400 0.5 8.5 58.4 7.46 1.76 18.0 760 86 8.9 1.0 9.9 30 16 0.6 8.6 60.0 7.46 2.15 18.7 791 105 9.2 1.2 10.4 33 17 0.7 8.7 61.7 7.46 2.55 19.4 821 124 9.4 1.4 10.9 35 18 0.8 8.8 63.4 7.46 2.95 20.1 850 142 9.7 1.6 11.3 38 19 0.9 8.8 65.3 7.46 3.35 20.7 878 159 10.0 1.8 11.8 41 20 1.0 8.8 67.2 7.46 3.76 21.4 905 176 10.3 2.0 12.3 44 21 1.1 8.8 69.2 7.46 4.18 22.0 931 192 10.6 2.2 12.8 46 22 a Crude protein required only if ration is perfectly balanced for RDP and RUP.

OCR for page 258
278 Nutr~ent Requirements of Dairy CattIe TABLE 14-14 Daily Nutrient Requirements (DM basis) of Small Breed (mature weight = 450 kg) Bred Heifers BW ADG DMI TDN NEm NEG ME RDP RUP RDP RUP cpa Ca P kg kg/d kg/d % Mcal/d Mcal/d Mcal/d g/d g/d % % % g/d g/d 240 days pregnant (Conceptus weight of 39 kg and ADG of 0.4 kg/day) 300 0.3 (0.7)b 7.7 56.5 5.42 0.96 15.7 663 291 8.6 3.8 12.4 36 19 0.4 (0.8) 7.7 58.6 5.42 1.32 16.4 693 310 9.0 4.0 13.0 39 20 0.5 (0.9) 7.7 60.8 5.42 1.68 17.0 721 329 9.3 4.2 13.5 41 21 0.6 (1.0) 7.7 63.1 5.42 2.06 17.7 748 346 9.7 4.5 14.1 44 22 0.7 (1.1) 7.7 65.5 5.42 2.44 18.3 774 364 10.0 4.7 14.7 47 23 0.8 (1.2) 7.7 68.1 5.42 2.82 18.9 798 380 10.4 5.0 15.4 49 24 0.9 (13) 7.6 70.9 5.42 3.21 19.4 822 395 10.8 5.2 16.1 52 24 350 0.3 (0.7) 8.6 56.2 6.18 1.10 17.5 739 282 8.6 3.3 11.9 38 20 0.4 (0.8) 8.7 58.3 6.18 1.50 18.3 773 299 8.9 3.4 12.4 40 21 0.5 (0.9) 8.7 60.5 6.18 1.92 19.0 805 315 9.3 3.6 12.9 43 22 0.6 (1.0) 8.7 62.8 6.18 2.35 19.8 836 330 9.6 3.8 13.4 46 23 0.7 (1 1) 8.7 65.3 6.18 2.78 20.4 865 345 10.0 4.0 14.0 48 24 0.8 (1.2) 8.6 67.8 6.18 3.22 21.1 893 358 10.4 4.2 14.5 51 25 0.9 (13) 8.5 70.6 6.18 3.66 21.8 921 371 10.8 4.3 15.1 53 25 400 0.3 (0.7) 9.5 56.0 6.91 1.23 19.2 813 275 8.6 2.9 11.5 40 21 0.4 (0.8) 9.6 58.1 6.91 1.68 20.1 851 291 8.9 3.0 11.9 42 22 0.5 (0.9) 9.6 60.3 6.91 2.15 21.0 887 305 9.2 3.2 12.4 45 23 0.6 (1.0) 9.6 62.6 6.91 2.62 21.8 921 319 9.6 3.3 12.9 47 24 0.7 (1 1) 9.6 65.0 6.91 3.11 22.5 953 331 9.9 3.5 13.4 50 25 0.8 (1.2) 9.5 67.6 6.91 3.60 23.3 985 342 10.3 3.6 13.9 52 26 0.9 (1.3) 9.4 70.3 6.91 4.09 24.0 1015 352 10.8 3.7 14.5 55 26 450 0.3 (0.7) 10.4 55.8 7.62 1.35 20.9 884 273 8.5 2.6 11.2 41 22 0.4 (0.8) 10.5 57 9 7.62 1.85 21.9 926 288 8.9 2.8 11.6 44 23 0.5 (0.9) 10.5 60.1 7.62 2.37 22.8 965 301 9.2 2.9 12.1 46 24 0.6 (1.0) 10.5 62.4 7.62 2.89 23.7 1003 313 9.5 3.0 12.5 49 25 0.7 (1 1) 10.5 64.8 7.62 3.42 24.5 1038 324 9.9 3.1 13.0 51 26 0.8 (1.2) 10.4 67.4 7.62 3.96 25.4 1073 333 10.3 3.2 13.5 54 27 0.9 (1 3) 10.3 70.1 7.62 4.51 26.1 1106 341 10.7 3 3 14.0 56 28 aCrude protein required only if ration is perfectly bValues in parentheses are ADG (lbs/d). balanced for RDP and RUP.

OCR for page 258
Nutrient Requirement Tables 279 TABLE 14-15 Daily Nutrient Requirements (DM basis) of Large Breed (mature weight = 650 kg) Bred Heifers BW ADG DMI TDN NEm NEG ME RDP RUP RDP RUP cpa Ca P kg kg/d kg/d % Mcal/d Mcal/d Mcal/d g/d g/d % % % g/d g/d 240 days pregnant (Conceptus weight of 48 kg and ADG of 0.6 kg/day) 450 0.5 (l.l)b 10.5 59.3 7.49 1.77 22.5 951 402 9.1 3.8 12.9 47 25 0.6 (1.2) 10.5 61.1 7.49 2.16 23.2 981 418 9.3 4.0 13.3 50 25 0.7 (1 3) 10.5 62.9 7.49 2.55 23.9 1010 433 9.6 4.1 13.7 53 26 0.8 (1.4) 10.5 64.8 7.49 2.96 24.5 1038 448 9.9 4.3 14.2 55 27 0.9 (15) 10.4 66.8 7.49 3.37 25.2 1066 462 10.2 4.4 14.7 58 28 1.0 (1.6) 10.4 68.9 7.49 3.78 25.8 1092 475 10.5 4.6 15.1 61 29 1.1 (1.7) 10.3 71.2 7.49 4.19 26.4 1118 488 10.9 4.8 15.6 63 30 500 0.5 (1 1) 11.3 59.0 8.17 1.93 24.2 1024 391 9.0 3.4 12.5 49 26 0.6 (1.2) 11.4 60.8 8.17 2.36 25.0 1057 405 9.3 3.6 12.9 52 27 0.7 (1 3) 11.4 62.6 8.17 2.79 25.7 1088 419 9.6 3.7 13.3 54 27 0.8 (1.4) 11.3 64.5 8.17 3.23 26.4 1119 432 9.9 3.8 13.7 57 28 0.9 (15) 11.3 66.5 8.17 3.67 27.2 1149 444 10.2 3.9 14.1 59 29 1.0 (1.6) 11.2 68.6 8.17 4.13 27.8 1177 455 10.5 4.1 14.5 62 30 1.1 (1.7) 11.1 70.8 8.17 4.58 28.5 1206 465 10.8 4.2 15.0 65 31 550 0.5 (1 1) 12.2 58.8 8.84 2.09 25.9 1094 382 9.0 3.1 12.1 51 27 0.6 (1.2) 12.2 60.5 8.84 2.55 26.7 1130 395 9.3 3.2 12.5 53 28 0.7 (1 3) 12.2 62.3 8.84 3.02 27.5 1164 407 9 5 3 3 12.9 56 29 0.8 (1.4) 12.2 64.2 8.84 3.49 28.3 1197 418 9.8 3.4 13.3 58 29 0.9 (15) 12.1 66.2 8.84 3.98 29.1 1229 428 10.1 3.5 13.7 61 30 1.0 (1.6) 12.1 68.3 8.84 4.46 29.8 1260 437 10.4 3.6 14.1 64 31 1.1 (1.7) 12.0 70.5 8.84 4.95 30.5 1291 445 10.8 3.7 14.5 66 32 600 0.5 (1 1) 13.0 58.6 9.50 2.24 27.5 1163 375 9.0 2.9 11.8 53 28 0.6 (1.2) 13.0 60.3 9.50 2.74 28.4 1202 387 9.2 3.0 12.2 55 29 0.7 (1 3) 13.0 62.1 9.50 3.24 29.3 1238 397 9.5 3.0 12.5 58 30 0.8 (1.4) 13.0 64.0 9.50 3.75 30.1 1274 407 9.8 3.1 12.9 60 30 0.9 (15) 13.0 66.0 9.50 4.27 30.9 1308 416 10.1 3.2 13.3 63 31 1.0 (1.6) 12.9 68.0 9.50 4.79 31.7 1342 423 10.4 3 3 13.7 65 32 1.1 (1.7) 12.8 70.2 9.50 5.32 32.5 1374 430 10.7 34 14.1 68 33 650 0.5 (1 1) 13.8 58.4 10.14 2.39 29.1 1231 371 8.9 2.7 11.6 54 29 0.6 (1.2) 13.8 60.1 10.14 2.92 30.1 1272 382 9.2 2.8 12.0 57 30 0.7 (1 3) 13.8 61.9 10.14 3.46 31.0 1311 392 9.5 2.8 12.3 59 31 0.8 (1.4) 13.8 63.8 10.14 4.00 31.9 1349 400 9.8 2.9 12.7 62 31 0.9 (15) 13.8 65.8 10.14 4.56 32.7 1385 408 10.1 3.0 13.0 64 32 1.0 (1.6) 13.7 67.8 10.14 5.11 33.6 1421 414 10.4 3.0 13.4 67 33 1.1 (1.7) 13.6 70.0 10.14 5.68 34.4 1456 418 10.7 3.1 13.8 69 34 a Crude protein required only if ration is perfectly balanced for RDP and RUP. bValues in parentheses are ADG (lbs/d).

OCR for page 258
280 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle TABLE 14-16 Nutrient Requirements of Growing Holstein Heifers Using Model to Predict Target Average Daily Gain Needed to Attain a Mature Body Weight of 680 Kg 18 most (450 kg) BCS = 3.0 90 days gestation to calve at 24 mos age 11.3 24.9 6 most (200 kg) BCS = 3.0 to calve at 24 mos age 5.2 11.4 12 most (300 kg) BCS = 3.0 to calve at 24 mos age 7.1 15.62 Dry matter intake predicted by model (kg) Dry matter intake predicted by model (lbs) Energy ME (Meal/day) ME (Mcallkg) ME (Meal/lb) Protein Metabolizable protein (g/d) Diet % MP Rumen degradable protein Diet % RDP Rumen undegradable protein Diet % RUP % RDP+ % RUP (crude protein)a Fiber and carbohydrates NDF, min % ADF, min % NFC, max % Minerals Absorbable calcium (g) Dietary Ca % Absorbable phosphorus (g) Dietary P % MgC % Cl % K % Na % S % Co mg/kg Cu mg/kgd I mg/kge Fe mg/kg Mn mg/kg Se mg/kg Zn mg/kg Vitamin A (IU/ day) Vitamin D (IU/ day) Vitamin E (IU /day) Vitamin A (IU/kg) Vitamin D (IU/kg) Vitamin E (IU /kg) Sample Diets used in model to generate tables Ingredient (kg/d) Corn silage, normal Soybean meal, solv. 48% CP Grass silage, C-3, mid-mat Limestone Vitamin premix Diet ME (Mcallkg) Diet undiscounted TDN % Target ADG without conceptus (kg) Target ADG with conceptus (kg) ME allowable ADG without conceptus of diet ME allowable ADG with conceptus of diet MP allowable ADG without conceptus of diet MP allowable ADG with conceptus of diet 10.6 2.04 0.93 415 8.0 481 9.3 176 3.4 12.7 30-33 20-21 34-38 11.3 0.41 9.1 0.28 0.11 0.11 0.47 0.08 0.2 0.11 10 0.27 43 22 0.3 32 16000 6000 160 3076 1154 31 2.90 0.30 1.68 0.03 0.30 2.24 61 0.65 0.65 0.82 0.82 0.76 0.76 16.2 2.28 1.03 550 7.7 667 9.4 209 2.9 12.3 30-33 20-21 34-38 15.0 0.41 10.6 0.23 0.11 0.12 0.48 0.08 0.2 0.11 10 0.30 31 20 0.3 27 24000 9000 240 3380 1268 34 4.08 0.41 2.29 0.02 0.27 2.29 62 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.87 1.09 1.09 20.3 1.79 0.82 635 5.6 970 8.6 88 0.8 9.4 30-33 20-21 34-38 36000 13500 360 3185 1195 32 13.0 0.37 13 0.18 0.08 0.10 0.46 0.07 0.2 0.11 9 0.30 13 14 0.3 18 1.51 o 9.52 o 0.30 2.08 56 0.59 0.59 0.86 0.86 1.30 1.30 aEquivalent to crude protein requirement only if RDP and RUP are perfectly balanced. . non ~ the ~i~i~ll~ fiber (or mn~rimum NFC) concentrations needed to maintain rumen health (see Chapter 4). Actual concentrations may need to be higher (or - 1nese are tne minimum liner Or maxima as, ~VIIw~ VIIO II~ V 111~11 lower for NFC) depending on energy requirements of the heifer. CAssumes that active transport of magnesium across the rumen wall is intact. High dietary potassium and excess non-protein nitrogen often interfere with Mg absorption. Under these conditions dietary Mg should be increased. (see Chapter 6). Thigh dietary Mo, sulfur, and Fe can interfere with Cu absorption increasing the requirement (see Chapter 6). e Diets high in goitrogenic substances increase the iodine requirement (see Chapter 6).