TABLE 9-4 Proximate Composition of Milk from Several Primate Species

Species

No. of Samples

Lactation Stage, Days

Dry Matter, %

Fat,%

Crude Protein,%

Carbohydrates, %

Ash, %

References

Lemuridae

 

Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus)

6

28-74

9.6

0.9

1.3

8.5

0.2

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

 

2

90

2.75

1.95

6.2

0.295

Buss et al, 1976

Black lemur (Eulemur macaco)

7

30-82

10.1

1.1

1.5

8.4

0.3

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

 

2

2-5 h;

0.8

6.0

5.5

0.60

Buss et al, 1976

 

184 d

 

2.6

4.8

5.0

0.59

 

Lemur (Lemur catta)

3

7-161

2.5

3.23

6.43

0.37

Buss et al, 1976

Red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer)

3

26-57

10.3

0.8

1.1

8.9

0.2

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz)

4

45-81

9.8

0.7

1.3

7.9

0.2

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

Ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata)

5

17-48

14.0

3.2

4.2

7.7

0.4

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

Galagidae

 

Garnett’s bushbaby (Otolemur garnettii)

14

14-73

18.5

7.3

5.2

6.6

0.6

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

Thick-tailed bushbaby (Otolemur crassicaudatus)

8

19-60

18.6

8.0

4.8

6.4

0.6

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

Pilson and Cooper, 1967

Lorisidae

 

Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang)

4

18-90

16.3

7.0

3.9

6.6

0.7

Tilden and Oftedal, 1997

Callitrichidae

 

Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)

1

3

5.8

5.7

6.9

0.78

Buss, 1975;

 

4

10-55

19.4

10.2

3.0

6.8

Oftedal and Iverson, 1995

Common marmoset (Callathrix jacchus)

4

14-75

7.14

3.56

7.5

0.26

Turton et al, 1978

Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus)

3

13.1

3.1

3.8

5.8

0.4

Jenness and Sloan, 1970

Cebidae

 

Red howler (Alouatta seniculus)

7

30-150

11.3

1.1

1.9

6.6

Oftedal and Iverson, 1995

Mantled howler (Aloutta palliata)

7

30-150

11.7

1.6

2.2

6.7

Oftedal and Iverson, 1995

Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

13

5.1

3.5

6.3

0.3

Buss and Cooper, 1972

Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

2-7

3.3

4.3

0.1

Hopf, 1970

Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

2

1.0

3.0

7.0

0.2

Jenness and Sloan, 1970

Cercopithecidae

 

Talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin)

5

17-38

12.3

2.9

2.1

7.2

0.28

Buss and Cooper, 1970

Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

8

44-119

12.2

5.2

1.6

0.4

Nishikawa et al., 1976

Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)

7

35-56

14.0

4.2

1.6

6.2

Ota et al., 1991

Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

13-18

16-35

15.6

4.6

2.3

7.9

0.8

Lönnerdal et al., 1984;

 

45

 

3.0

2.1

5.9

0.26

Wagenen et al., 1941

Baboons (Papio anubis, Papio cynocephalus, Papio papio)

24

21-63

14.0

4.5

1.5

7.8

0.3

Buss, 1968a; Roberts et al., 1985

Lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)

1

13

.

2.05

3.0

3.60

0.28

Taylor and Tomkinson, 1975

Humans (Homo sapiens)

 

Mature

11.6

3.2

0.89

7.4

0.143

Fomon, 1993

Humans (Homo sapiens)

1160

>10

12.4

4.1

0.8

6.8

0.2

Jenness, 1979

depending upon the product label. To ensure that label claims will be met, manufacturers often incorporate excesses of some nutrients to account for loss during production, storage, and use.

Formulas Used for Artificially Rearing Infant Nonhuman Primates

Early on, it was found that milk formulas intended for human infants could be used to rear some newborn nonhuman primates (Table 9-5). Originally, human-infant formulas were used to ensure survival of newborn monkeys that had lost their mothers. That was successful, and it was soon recognized that artificially reared (formula-fed) nonhuman primates could be used as animal models for studies of nutrition, growth, and development of human infants (Ausman et al., 1977, 1986, 1989; Samonds and Hegsted, 1973, 1978). For some nonhuman-primate species, however, the proportion of metabolizable energy provided by protein (usually 5-10%) was too low, and protein malnutrition was induced, since those species normally produce milk in which protein accounts for 12-16% of metabolizable energy. Later, higher-protein diets that successfully nourish these infants were developed (Samonds and Hegsted, 1978; Ausman et al, 1989).

It is difficult to prepare liquid diets in the laboratory that keep nutrient sources in a homogeneous suspension. Some particles precipitate and others float, causing varia-



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