Appendix G

Supplementary Tables



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS Appendix G Supplementary Tables

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-1 Demographic Characteristics of Ph.D. Recipients in the Basic Biomedical Sciences   1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Total 3085 3150 3050 3118 3212 3396 3356 3444 3338 3399 3313 3369 3465 3769 3793 3992 4309 4456 4823 4881 5101 5385 5420   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Men 2347 2424 2351 2311 2351 2440 2383 2417 2224 2315 2192 2197 2214 2377 2348 2477 2655 2740 2864 2887 2955 3101 3069   76.1% 77.0% 77.1% 74.1% 73.2% 71.8% 71.0% 70.2% 66.6% 68.1% 66.2% 65.2% 63.9% 63.1% 61.9% 62.0% 61.6% 61.5% 59.4% 59.1% 57.9% 57.6% 56.6% Women 738 726 699 807 861 956 973 1027 1114 1084 1121 1172 1251 1392 1445 1515 1639 1702 1930 1976 2125 2264 2319   23.9% 23.0% 22.9% 25.9% 26.8% 28.2% 29.0% 29.8% 33.4% 31.9% 33.8% 34.8% 36.1% 36.9% 38.1% 38.0% 38.0% 38.2% 40.0% 40.5% 41.7% 42.0% 42.8% Minorities a 74 72 58 87 67 75 91 94 86 98 104 118 127 122 133 135 159 161 183 220 236 240 255   2.4% 2.3% 1.9% 2.8% 2.1% 2.2% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.9% 3.1% 3.5% 3.7% 3.2% 3.5% 3.4% 3.7% 3.6% 3.8% 4.5% 4.6% 4.5% 4.7% U.S. citizens 2554 2609 2525 2626 2738 2904 2897 2919 2850 2866 2725 2751 2670 2858 2850 2899 3050 3072 3264 3203 3278 3291 3415   82.8% 82.8% 82.8% 84.2% 85.2% 85.5% 86.3% 84.8% 85.4% 84.3% 82.3% 81.7% 77.1% 75.8% 75.1% 72.6% 70.8% 68.9% 67.7% 65.6% 64.3% 61.1% 63.0% Permanent residents 194 165 169 147 133 147 125 114 108 109 113 118 153 176 173 183 210 240 296 641 831 801 553   6.3% 5.2% 5.5% 4.7% 4.1% 4.3% 3.7% 3.3% 3.2% 3.2% 3.4% 3.5% 4.4% 4.7% 4.6% 4.6% 4.9% 5.4% 6.1% 13.1% 16.3% 14.9% 10.2% Temporary visas 256 277 261 259 253 273 248 294 291 308 364 343 455 515 570 814 987 1078 1165 980 919 1172 1170   8.3% 8.8% 8.6% 8.3% 7.9% 8.0% 7.4% 8.5% 8.7% 9.1% 11.0% 10.2% 13.1% 13.7% 15.0% 20.4% 22.9% 24.2% 24.2% 20.1% 18.0% 21.8% 21.6% Planning postdoctoral study 1891 1937 1966 2086 2127 2316 2305 2363 2298 2377 2309 2368 2419 2651 2656 2886 3160 3293 3614 3626 3806 3931 3529   61.3% 61.5% 64.5% 66.9% 66.2% 68.2% 68.7% 68.6% 68.8% 69.9% 69.7% 70.3% 69.8% 70.3% 70.0% 72.3% 73.3% 73.9% 74.9% 74.3% 74.6% 73.0% 65.1% Median time to Ph.D. (in years) b 6.00 6.17 6.25 6.33 6.41 6.50 6.50 6.67 7.00 7.09 7.17 7.25 7.33 7.42 7.42 7.58 7.50 7.59 7.67 7.75 7.83 7.67 7.83 Median age at tme of degree 29.25 29.25 29.34 29.38 29.41 29.25 29.33 29.59 29.83 30.25 30.42 30.59 30.50 30.83 30.92 31.17 31.08 31.17 31.17 31.17 31.25 31.25 30.92 a African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans; tabulations include U.S. citizens and permanent residents only. b From entry into graduate studies. SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Earned Doctorates.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-2 Demographic Characteristics of Ph.D. Recipients in the Behavioral and Social Sciences   1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Total 2794 2897 2893 2743 2736 2610 2729 2507 2590 2482 2352 2357 2288 2268 2215 2261 2290 2273 2439 2411 2406 2434 2591   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Men 1899 1949 1860 1725 1623 1535 1568 1397 1385 1256 1187 1180 1133 1046 1030 1008 977 1031 1019 1042 1013 982 1012   68.0% 67.3% 64.3% 62.9% 59.3% 58.8% 57.5% 55.7% 53.5% 50.6% 50.5% 50.1% 49.5% 46.1% 46.5% 44.6% 42.7% 45.4% 41.8% 43.2% 42.1% 40.3% 39.1% Women 895 948 1033 1018 1113 1075 1161 1110 1205 1226 1165 1177 1155 1222 1185 1253 1309 1236 1412 1362 1388 1444 1558   32.0% 32.7% 35.7% 37.1% 40.7% 41.2% 42.5% 44.3% 46.5% 49.4% 49.5% 49.9% 50.5% 53.9% 53.5% 55.4% 57.2% 54.4% 57.9% 56.5% 57.7% 59.3% 60.1% Minorities a 114 130 129 139 157 149 141 158 147 144 152 144 126 147 139 169 182 157 183 188 221 200 219   4.1% 4.5% 4.5% 5.1% 5.7% 5.7% 5.2% 6.3% 5.7% 5.8% 6.5% 6.1% 5.5% 6.5% 6.3% 7.5% 7.9% 6.9% 7.5% 7.8% 9.2% 8.2% 8.5% U.S. citizens 2464 2598 2554 2448 2440 2301 2389 2157 2220 2100 1975 1936 1819 1807 1684 1851 1869 1812 1964 1944 1915 1943 1927   88.2% 89.7% 88.3% 89.2% 89.2% 88.2% 87.5% 86.0% 85.7% 84.6% 84.0% 82.1% 79.5% 79.7% 76.0% 81.9% 81.6% 79.7% 80.5% 80.6% 79.6% 79.8% 74.4% Permanent residents 75 76 81 79 79 86 68 66 67 49 72 77 87 74 70 72 97 94 104 128 137 137 117   2.7% 2.6% 2.8% 2.9% 2.9% 3.3% 2.5% 2.6% 2.6% 2.0% 3.1% 3.3% 3.8% 3.3% 3.2% 3.2% 4.2% 4.1% 4.3% 5.3% 5.7% 5.6% 4.5% Temporary visas 190 168 154 133 147 138 150 131 163 177 164 163 153 172 222 235 267 294 301 283 276 263 253   6.8% 5.8% 5.3% 4.8% 5.4% 5.3% 5.5% 5.2% 6.3% 7.1% 7.0% 6.9% 6.7% 7.6% 10.0% 10.4% 11.7% 12.9% 12.3% 11.7% 11.5% 10.8% 9.8% Planning postdoctoral study 349 392 441 480 444 459 465 409 469 444 434 493 459 459 406 438 495 488 532 555 567 521 486   12.5% 13.5% 15.2% 17.5% 16.2% 17.6% 17.0% 16.3% 18.1% 17.9% 18.5% 20.9% 20.1% 20.2% 18.3% 19.4% 21.6% 21.5% 21.8% 23.0% 23.6% 21.4% 18.8% Median time to Ph.D. (in years) b 6.25 6.33 6.59 6.92 7.17 7.33 7.63 8.00 8.00 8.25 8.59 8.91 8.92 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.08 9.08 9.00 9.00 9.00 8.92 8.83 Median age at time of degree 30.42 30.58 30.83 30.83 31.42 31.75 32.08 32.34 32.75 33.00 33.42 34.00 34.33 35.00 34.75 34.67 35.00 34.83 34.92 34.34 34.50 33.91 33.38 a African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans; tabulations include U.S. citizens and permanent residents only. b From entry into graduate studies. SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Earned Doctorates.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-3 Demographic Characteristics of Ph.D. Recipients in the Clinical Sciences   1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Total 230 241 276 289 311 337 367 416 526 621 619 677 699 788 881 840 954 1030 1112 1217 1236 1246 1349   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Men 158 176 196 208 202 204 221 232 249 262 244 259 290 302 313 322 333 363 396 420 456 434 462   68.7% 73.0% 71.0% 72.0% 65.0% 60.5% 60.2% 55.8% 47.3% 42.2% 39.4% 38.3% 41.5% 38.3% 35.5% 38.3% 34.9% 35.2% 35.6% 34.5% 36.9% 34.8% 34.2% Women 72 65 80 81 109 133 146 184 277 359 375 418 409 486 568 518 617 659 704 787 769 803 870   31.3% 27.0% 29.0% 28.0% 35.0% 39.5% 39.8% 44.2% 52.7% 57.8% 60.6% 61.7% 58.5% 61.7% 64.5% 61.7% 64.7% 64.0% 63.3% 64.7% 62.2% 64.4% 64.5% Minorities a 2 4 10 8 12 8 13 19 23 34 31 32 38 50 38 41 56 49 79 69 87 81 80   0.9% 1.7% 3.6% 2.8% 3.9% 2.4% 3.5% 4.6% 4.4% 5.5% 5.0% 4.7% 5.4% 6.3% 4.3% 4.9% 5.9% 4.8% 7.1% 5.7% 7.0% 6.5% 5.9% U.S. citizens 171 181 213 223 240 256 292 328 401 492 458 489 527 573 656 630 706 739 803 897 857 865 891   74.3% 75.1% 77.2% 77.2% 77.2% 76.0% 79.6% 78.8% 76.2% 79.2% 74.0% 72.2% 75.4% 72.7% 74.5% 75.0% 74.0% 71.7% 72.2% 73.7% 69.3% 69.4% 66.0% Permanent residents 31 27 34 23 32 27 29 25 30 36 32 30 33 38 29 34 58 48 63 91 103 87 78   13.5% 11.2% 12.3% 8.0% 10.3% 8.0% 7.9% 6.0% 5.7% 5.8% 5.2% 4.4% 4.7% 4.8% 3.3% 4.0% 6.1% 4.7% 5.7% 7.5% 8.3% 7.0% 5.8% Temporary visas 21 28 25 28 27 45 34 48 70 66 85 93 84 108 118 145 161 213 202 214 235 253 247   9.1% 11.6% 9.1% 9.7% 8.7% 13.4% 9.3% 11.5% 13.3% 10.6% 13.7% 13.7% 12.0% 13.7% 13.4% 17.3% 16.9% 20.7% 18.2% 17.6% 19.0% 20.3% 18.3% Planning postdoctoral study 43 51 64 57 78 87 81 84 69 104 89 109 109 133 116 165 141 192 185 226 236 238 223   18.7% 21.2% 23.2% 19.7% 25.1% 25.8% 22.1% 20.2% 13.1% 16.7% 14.4% 16.1% 15.6% 16.9% 13.2% 19.6% 14.8% 18.6% 16.6% 18.6% 19.1% 19.1% 16.5% Median time to Ph.D. (in years) b 7.00 6.63 6.50 7.09 6.92 7.17 7.67 7.50 7.92 8.17 8.83 8.91 9.00 9.00 9.08 9.59 9.17 9.92 9.63 9.50 9.91 9.79 10.00 Median age at time of degree 31.83 31.58 30.79 31.67 31.75 32.00 32.37 32.87 34.08 34.33 35.50 35.96 35.92 36.42 36.75 37.17 37.83 37.75 38.42 37.79 38.08 38.46 38.42 aAfrican Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans; tabulations include U.S. citizens and permanent residents only. bFrom entry into graduate studies. SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Earned Doctorates.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-4 Characteristics of the Science and Engineering Workforce in the Basic Biomedical Sciences   1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 Total 40639 44727 49827 54660 58118 63194 67341 72142 74405 79497 82983 92955 Men 34110 37141 41166 44350 46429 49956 52565 55318 55712 58424 59925 65716 Women 6529 7586 8661 10310 11689 13238 14776 16824 18693 21030 23095 27239 Minorities a 1076 1171 1286 1592 1561 1862 1950 2251 2805 3048 3410 3943 Citizens 38187 41756 46158 51499 55337 60153 64015 68451 70501 74398 76570 84887 Permanent residents 1118 1340 1807 2291 2192 2359 2646 2807 2709 3653 5091 4922 Temporary residents 796 1080 1669 503 331 473 581 884 997 1431 1322 1466 Tenured faculty 13376 14345 15636 17836 18884 20114 19157 19755 17106 19151 19487 20326 Tenure track, not tenured 8854 9170 5952 6446 5673 6644 6149 5872 7556 7683 8259 8974 Total academics 27219 29889 33188 36165 36797 39307 41027 43572 40581 45247 48568 53026 Tenured or tenure-track faculty 22230 23515 21588 24282 24557 26758 25306 25627 24662 26834 27746 29300 Nontenure-track faculty 668 1057 4476 3586 3953 3696 5974 6235 4010 5386 5713 6822 Academic postdoctorates 2615 3507 4358 4722 4405 4450 4784 5993 4819 6401 7693 9620 Other academics 1706 1810 3092 3575 3882 4403 4963 5717 7090 6626 7427 7296 Total industry b 5326 5583 6313 7951 9635 11967 13588 15582 18513 19950 19434 22204 Industry professionals 5273 5543 6286 7881 9589 11841 13366 15376 18309 19579 18903 21643 Industry postdoctorates 53 40 27 70 46 126 222 206 204 371 531 561 Total government 4030 4250 4776 4831 5287 5399 6254 6290 6589 7200 7185 8649 Government professionals 3785 3914 4449 4545 4843 5026 5725 5776 6157 6154 6074 7212 Government postdoctorates 245 336 327 286 444 373 529 514 432 1046 1111 1437 Other sectors of employment 3055 3436 4103 4303 4657 5043 4847 5034 5984 4072 3790 5602 aAfrican Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans; tabulations include U.S. citizens and permanent residents only. bIncluding those who are self-employed. SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-5 Characteristics of the Science and Engineering Workforce in the Behavioral and Social Sciences   1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 Total 25802 29155 33010 36662 41038 43862 45295 48844 48154 51307 52324 57843 Men 20501 22569 25033 27006 29315 30171 30392 31896 30151 31485 30959 33605 Women 5301 6586 7977 9656 11723 13691 14903 16948 18003 19849 21365 24238 Minorities a 642 843 1049 1444 1774 1846 1980 2274 2760 3042 3278 4015 Citizens 25170 28556 31993 35664 39918 42559 44107 47449 46565 49746 50745 55822 Permanent residents 340 322 569 795 856 1066 1113 1149 1338 1353 1388 1732 Temporary residents 165 127 332 123 182 135 50 218 160 178 178 289 Tenured faculty 10038 11285 12901 14700 16960 17113 15968 17053 15291 17183 18121 19492 Tenure track, not tenured 6803 6729 4506 4538 4169 4759 4041 4359 4597 4974 4790 4879 Total academics 18668 20132 22543 25025 26896 28472 28187 29841 26475 29901 31764 34850 Tenured or tenure-track faculty 16841 18014 17407 19238 21129 21872 20009 21412 19888 22157 22911 24371 Nontenure-track faculty 690 710 2719 2290 2306 2606 3819 3643 2204 2410 2797 3168 Academic postdoctorates 435 543 806 760 702 713 579 745 412 469 967 1177 Other academics 702 865 2119 2737 2759 3281 3780 4041 3971 4865 5089 6134 Total industry b 2111 2777 3487 4643 6625 7345 8032 8843 10696 10896 10484 11779 Industry professionals 2111 2773 3487 4643 6622 7328 8029 8838 10696 10878 10421 11650 Industry postdoctorates 0 4 0 0 3 17 3 5 0 18 63 129 Total government 1793 2394 2654 2831 3058 3182 3858 3732 3900 4874 4993 5192 Government professionals 1778 2353 2605 2781 3013 3163 3816 3732 3816 4748 4854 5071 Government postdoctorates 15 41 49 50 45 19 42 0 84 126 139 121 Other sectors of employment 2662 2788 3116 3181 3200 3740 3876 4787 4631 3201 3138 3820 aAfrican Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans; tabulations include U.S. citizens and permanent residents only. bIncluding those who are self-employed. SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-6 Characteristics of the Science and Engineering Workforce in the Clinical Sciences   1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 Total 3515 3815 4615 5390 6119 7340 7835 9154 9479 11143 12431 14618 Men 3028 3161 3709 4211 4560 5117 5139 5603 5416 5752 5826 6918 Women 487 654 906 1179 1559 2223 2696 3551 4063 5352 6605 7700 Minorities a 134 146 186 201 260 281 348 500 626 762 946 1139 U.S. citizens 3276 3515 4207 4977 5766 6917 7334 8647 8929 10483 11669 13635 Permanent residents 125 170 264 362 336 340 446 435 471 467 693 775 Temporary residents 83 91 148 44 8 79 55 72 65 184 69 208 Tenured faculty 931 1031 1271 1424 1516 1968 1960 2191 1890 2331 2770 3081 Tenure track, not tenured 684 743 565 780 921 1002 931 1337 1426 1749 1988 1878 Total academics 1856 2064 2564 2963 3225 3938 4164 4959 4706 5753 6684 7609 Tenured or tenure-track faculty 1615 1774 1836 2204 2437 2970 2891 3528 3316 4080 4758 4959 Nontenure-track faculty 56 78 423 438 485 443 784 843 761 944 947 1366 Academic postdoctorates 107 108 105 139 100 177 90 152 116 140 342 416 Other academics 78 104 231 182 203 348 399 436 513 589 637 868 Total industry b 739 733 992 1259 1493 1798 1954 2310 2568 2867 2940 3617 Industry professionals 739 733 992 1259 1485 1793 1940 2307 2564 2862 2923 3568 Industry postdoctorates 0 0 0 0 8 5 14 3 4 5 17 49 Total government 500 470 457 562 619 703 753 918 1080 1207 1410 1514 Government professionals 491 462 446 527 585 689 745 916 1064 1141 1309 1467 Government postdoctorates 9 8 11 35 34 14 8 2 16 66 101 47 Other sectors of employment 380 455 436 501 645 749 760 778 847 828 962 1329 aAfrican Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans; tabulations include U.S. citizens and permanent residents only. bIncluding those who are self-employed. SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-7 Primary Form of Financial Support for Graduate Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences Mechanisms of Support 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 NIH and other DHHS traineeships and fellowships 5068 4281 4363 3678 3478 3400 3502 3486 3896 4001 4138 3941 NIH and other DHHS research assistantships 1832 2227 2804 3092 3159 3608 4562 5918 6483 7174 7461 7436 Other federal support 1897 2322 2509 2579 2407 2581 2651 2854 3087 3690 3800 3816 Institutional teaching assistantships 7530 7703 8076 8160 8200 8150 7547 7736 7685 7866 8005 7861 Other institutional support 4195 5865 5304 5811 6061 6816 8212 8991 10006 10435 10946 10819 SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctoratesin Science and Engineering.

OCR for page 109
ADDRESSING THE NATION'S CHANGING NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS TABLE G-8 Primary Source of Financial Support for Graduate Students in the Behavioral and Social Sciences Mechanisms of Support 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 NIH and other DHHS traineeships and fellowships 3666 3139 2664 1381 665 625 523 457 575 539 540 563 NIH and other DHHS research assistantships 867 916 946 668 590 681 744 1015 1139 1242 1179 1236 Other federal support 2146 2546 1842 2744 2150 2045 2069 2129 2310 2458 2532 2560 Institutional teaching assistantships 7186 7215 7268 7705 7686 7852 8112 8579 8795 9581 9724 9801 Other institutional support 5311 5948 5724 6663 6827 7423 7926 8908 9815 10411 10249 10828 SOURCE: Data are from the Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctoratesin Science and Engineering.