current opportunities for basic biomedical Ph.D.s and continuing advances in science, the NIH should build on its tradition of multidisciplinary training by providing more students and fellows with the skills that will allow them to collaborate effectively with investigators in clinical medicine, the behavioral sciences, and such fields as mathematics, physics, and chemistry.

Recommendation 2-5. The NIH should increase its efforts to identify and support programs that encourage and prepare underrepresented minority students for careers in basic biomedical research.

Although there has been some increase in minority Ph.D.s in the basic biomedical sciences, their number is still low. The cause of this is likely not in graduate training but far earlier in the educational careers of students. There is a great need to evaluate and identify what works, which environments are especially successful, and where NIH interventions could make a difference.

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