7
Recommendations

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

The Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation recommends that

  1. Teacher education in science, mathematics, and technology be viewed as a continuum of programs and professional experiences that enables individuals to move seamlessly from college preparation for teaching to careers in teaching these subject areas;

  2. Teacher education be viewed as a career-long process that allows teachers of science, mathematics, and technology to acquire and regularly update the content knowledge and pedagogical tools needed to teach in ways that enhance student learning and achievement in these subjects; and

  3. Teacher education also be structured in ways that allow teachers to grow individually in their profession and to contribute to the further enhancement of both teaching and their disciplines.

As outlined, then detailed in its vision in Chapter 6, the Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation (CSMTP) believes that the goals and objectives of the general recommendations given above can be achieved by all two- and four-year colleges and universities (those with and without programs in teacher education) working with school districts to establish partnerships for teacher education.

In addition, in this chapter, the CSMTP also offers more specific recommendations in the areas of (1) recruitment and preparation of new teachers (preservice education), (2) the induction of new teachers for their first



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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium 7 Recommendations GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS The Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation recommends that Teacher education in science, mathematics, and technology be viewed as a continuum of programs and professional experiences that enables individuals to move seamlessly from college preparation for teaching to careers in teaching these subject areas; Teacher education be viewed as a career-long process that allows teachers of science, mathematics, and technology to acquire and regularly update the content knowledge and pedagogical tools needed to teach in ways that enhance student learning and achievement in these subjects; and Teacher education also be structured in ways that allow teachers to grow individually in their profession and to contribute to the further enhancement of both teaching and their disciplines. As outlined, then detailed in its vision in Chapter 6, the Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation (CSMTP) believes that the goals and objectives of the general recommendations given above can be achieved by all two- and four-year colleges and universities (those with and without programs in teacher education) working with school districts to establish partnerships for teacher education. In addition, in this chapter, the CSMTP also offers more specific recommendations in the areas of (1) recruitment and preparation of new teachers (preservice education), (2) the induction of new teachers for their first

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium teaching positions, and (3) continuing professional development (inservice) for practicing teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Consistent with the committee’s vision of making teacher preparation and professional development a seamless continuum, the committee’s specific recommendations for each of these stages in the professional lives of teachers are woven into a continuum framework. The intended audiences for each recommendation are indicated by boldface type. All of the committee’s specific recommendations are listed first in Table 7-1, then detailed below. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GOVERNMENTS Local, state, and federal governments should recognize and acknowledge the need to improve teacher education in science and mathematics, as well as assist the public in understanding and supporting improvement. Governments should understand that restructuring teacher education will require large infusions of financial support and make a strong commitment to provide the direct and indirect funding required to support local and regional partnerships for improving Almost 10 years ago, President Bush and the state governors set goals aimed at preparing all the Nation’s children to improve their achievement in core subjects and outpace the world in at least math and science by 2000…. The urgency of the ensuing national debate on how to improve academic achievement by U.S. elementary-, middle-, and high school students—and the consequences of failing to do so—remains undiminished today. At issue is who ostensibly defines the content to be learned, and who ensures the opportunity to teach and learn it well. While resolutions will be local, the dialogue that precedes them should reflect experiences from across the Nation, as well as research and evaluation of processes and outcomes, including international comparisons. National Science Board, 1999, page 1 teacher education in these disciplines. They also should encourage the recruitment and retention of teachers of science and mathematics through low-interest student loans, loan forgiveness for recently

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium TABLE 7-1 Specific Recommendations FOR GOVERNMENTS Local, state, and federal governments should recognize and acknowledge the need to improve teacher education in science and mathematics, as well as assist the public in understanding and supporting improvement. Governments should understand that restructuring teacher education will require large infusions of financial support and make a strong commitment to provide the direct and indirect funding required to support local and regional partnerships for improving teacher education in these disciplines. They also should encourage the recruitment and retention of teachers of science and mathematics—particularly those who are qualified “in-field”—through financial incentives, such as salaries that are commensurate and competitive with other professions in science, mathematics, and technology; low-interest student loans; loan forgiveness for recently certified teachers in these disciplines who commit to teaching; stipends for teaching internships; and grants to teachers, school districts, or teacher education partnerships to offset the costs of continual professional development. FOR COLLABORATION BETWEEN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE K-12 COMMUNITY Two- and four-year institutions of higher education and school districts that are involved with partnerships for teacher education should—working together—establish a comprehensive, integrated system of recruiting and advising people who are interested in teaching science, mathematics, and technology. FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION COMMUNITY 1. Science, mathematics, and engineering departments at two- and four-year colleges and universities should assume greater responsibility for offering college-level courses that provide teachers with strong exposure to appropriate content and that model the kinds of pedagogical approaches appropriate for teaching that content. 2. Two- and four-year colleges and universities should reexamine and redesign introductory college-level courses in science and mathematics to better accommodate the needs of practicing and future teachers. 3. Universities whose primary mission includes education research should set as a priority the development and execution of peer-reviewed research studies that focus on ways to improve teacher education, the art of teaching, and learning for people of all ages. New research that focuses broadly on synthesizing data across studies and linking it to school practice in a wide variety of school settings would be especially helpful to the improvement of teacher education and professional development for both prospective and experienced teachers. The results of this research should be collated and disseminated through a national electronic database or library.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium 4. Two- and four-year colleges and universities should maintain contact with and provide guidance to teachers who complete their preparation and development programs. 5. Following a period of collaborative planning and preparation, two- and four-year colleges and universities in a partnership for teacher education should assume primary responsibility for providing professional development opportunities to experienced teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Such programs would involve faculty from science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines and from schools of education. FOR THE K-12 EDUCATION COMMUNITY 1. Following a period of collaborative planning and preparation, school districts in a partnership for teacher education should assume primary responsibility for providing high-quality practicum experiences and internships for prospective teachers. 2. School districts in a partnership for teacher education should assume primary responsibility for developing and overseeing field experiences, student teaching, and internship programs for new teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. 3. School districts should collaborate with two- and four-year colleges and universities to provide professional development opportunities to experienced teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Such programs would involve faculty from science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines and from schools of education. Teachers who participate in these programs would, in turn, offer their expertise and guidance to others involved with the partnership. FOR PROFESSIONAL AND DISCIPLINARY ORGANIZATIONS 1. Organizations that represent institutions of higher education should assist their members in establishing programs to help new teachers. For example, databases of information about new teachers would be developed and shared among member institutions so that colleges and universities could be notified when a newly certified teacher was moving to their area to teach. Those colleges and universities could then plan and offer welcoming and support activities, such as opportunities for continued professional and intellectual growth. 2. Professional disciplinary societies in science, mathematics, and engineering, higher education organizations, governments at all levels, and business and industry should become more engaged partners (as opposed to advisors or overseers) in efforts to improve teacher education. 3. Professional disciplinary societies in science, mathematics, and engineering, and higher education organizations also should work together to align their policies and recommendations for improving teacher education in science, mathematics, and engineering.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium certified teachers in these disciplines who commit to teaching for at least three years, additional loan forgiveness for teachers of science, mathematics, and technology who agree to teach in schools with high levels of poverty or low levels of student achievement in these subject areas, stipends for teaching internships, grants to teachers, school districts, or teacher education partnerships to offset the costs of ongoing professional development in these subject areas. Most importantly, if teachers are to be held to higher levels of professional accountability, ways must be found to provide them with levels of compensation and working conditions that are competitive with other professions that recruit people with the kinds of credentials held by teachers of science and mathematics and that are commensurate with the experiences of other professionals with similar levels of education and training (see U.S. Department of Education, 1999). The problem is especially acute for people with backgrounds in science, mathematics, and technology. In today’s economy, it is much easier and more lucrative for almost anyone with a background in engineering, technology, science, or mathematics to find desirable levels of salary, benefits, and working conditions in other sectors. If governments continue to expect increasing levels of performance and accountability both for teachers and their students, then they also must provide both the compensation and the kinds of professional workplace and working conditions that would allow higher standards to be realized. Indeed, it may be necessary to provide higher levels of compensation to teachers of mathematics, science, and technology to recruit and retain the best teachers to these disciplines (see Odden and Kelley, 1997; North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1999; Olson, 1999; Kelley et al., 2000; and Odden, 2000). The federal government also should examine ways to provide assistance with improving the teaching of science, mathematics, and technology in ways that local and state governments cannot do individually. These initiatives could include Setting aside funds for ongoing professional development for teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. The committee strongly recommends that Eisenhower Grant funds continue to be restricted to professional development in science and mathematics. As the U.S. Congress considers reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, there have been attempts to make the Eisenhower Grants less restrictive.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Given the critical need for improving science and mathematics education in the United States, the CSMTP opposes any attempt to make these very limited funds available for other purposes. However, a suitable compromise would be to allow some portion of these funds to be made available to teachers from other disciplines who wish to become more knowledgeable about science, mathematics, and technology. For example, a history or social studies teacher who would like to understand more about how science and technology have influenced society in this country or other parts of the world should be able to use Eisenhower funds to learn about such issues. Providing funding that would enable prospective and practicing teachers who otherwise would be unable to benefit from participating in a partnership to do so. The CSMTP recommends that the partnership opportunities described in Chapter 6 be extended to as many prospective and experienced teachers as possible. For those schools and districts that are located too far from institutions of higher education to form their own partnerships, government funds should be made available that would enable teachers from these districts to benefit from existing partnerships in a nearby locale. Such support could include the establishment of electronic links that would enable practicing teachers to engage in high-quality professional development activities and stipends that would allow either prospective or practicing teachers to undertake extended internships with an existing partnership. Establishing a national database for improving teaching of science, mathematics, and technology. Nearly every state is at some stage of developing databases and other resources for its teachers to enable them to understand and teach to state standards in science and mathematics. While every state’s standards differ to some degree, most of them are based at least in part on the national standards for science and mathematics. Thus, it is likely that great deal of overlapping effort is taking place. If the federal government could establish a national database for improving the teaching of science, mathematics, and technology that would allow teachers to easily access information from their state and elsewhere, teaching of these disciplines could be vastly improved (e.g., NRC, 1998, 1999g). The National Science Foundation’s National Digital Library project1 could serve as the focal point 1   The National Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education Digital Library program will be a network of learning environments and resources for science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education. The library will ultimately meet the needs of students and teachers at

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium for such a compendium of information. The CSMTP recommends that future Requests for Proposals include specific requests to develop this national database and library on teaching of science, mathematics, and technology. Creating a national database that lists job openings and teacher candidates for science, mathematics, and technology. As indicated elsewhere in this report, there is great variance in both the supply of and demand for qualified teachers across the country. A national registry that lists available positions and the names and résumés of teacher candidates who are seeking positions might greatly reduce the overabundance of teachers in some parts of the country and the critical shortages of teachers in others. The U.S. Department of Education could oversee this registry or it could become part of the NSF’s National Digital Library for Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education, once that library is established. Developing national consensus on criteria for teacher credentialing. The CSMTP recommends that the U.S. Secretary of Education convene a panel of representatives from the 50 states for the purpose of reaching consensus on a set of uniform criteria for teacher credentialing that would allow teachers of science, mathematics, and technology who earn certification in one state to teach in any other. The CSMTP envisions that the development of such consensus criteria would be based on high standards for teaching and also would be valid in all states for some agreed upon number of years. Each state also would be able to reserve the right to require some additional number of hours of credit for specific coursework in that state (e.g., courses on state history). Teachers who received a credential under this agreement would be required to take these additional courses prior to obtaining their first re-certification in that state.     all levels—K-12, undergraduate, graduate, and lifelong learning—in both individual and collaborative settings. It will serve not only as a gateway to a rich array of current and future high-quality educational content and services but also as a forum where resource users may become resource providers. For example, users might contribute their expertise to produce new teaching modules from resources such as real-time experimental data or visualization software available through the network. Or they might evaluate and report on the efficacy of specific digital learning objects (such as Java applets or interactive electronic notebooks) and their impact on student learning. Beyond providing traditional library functions, such as the intelligent retrieval of relevant information, indexing and online annotation of resources, and archiving of materials, the digital library will also enable users to access virtual collaborative work areas, hands-on laboratory experiences, tools for analysis and visualization, remote instruments, large databases of real-time or archived data, simulated or virtual environments, and other new capabilities as they emerge (NSF, 2000).

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Coupled with the development of a national registry for teacher positions and available candidates, this national consensus on teacher certification could help ease regional shortages of teachers and lead to greater agreement about what teachers of science, mathematics, and technology should know and be able to do. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COLLABORATION BETWEEN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE K-12 COMMUNITY Two- and four-year institutions of higher education and school districts that are involved with partnerships for teacher education should establish a comprehensive, integrated system of recruiting and advising people who are interested in teaching science, mathematics, and technology. The members of the CSMTP are convinced that the recruitment of high-quality teachers in science, mathematics, and technology is truly a national need and must become a national priority. Colleges and universities must contribute to attracting the best and brightest candidates to the profession. Efforts to attract the best students to science, mathematics, and technology teaching should be of a magnitude similar to efforts now used to recruit students to other professions, such as medicine, law, and graduate programs in the natural sciences and engineering. Science, mathematics, and engineering departments should be active participants with their institutions in the recruitment and ongoing support of students who have indicated their interest in pursuing careers in teaching. Their institutions should recognize departments that are especially effective in these efforts. Departments or colleges of science, mathematics, engineering and technology at two- and four-year colleges and universities that offer teacher education programs also should provide services to prospective teachers at levels that are comparable to those offered to students who plan to pursue careers in other professions in the life and physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering. These services should include the appointment of a pre-teaching advisor or an advisory committee. These advisors would be given the time and resources required to establish programs for recruiting students who are interested in science, mathematics, and engineering and who also relate well to children and young adults at the elementary or secondary levels. They also would advise these students on issues and

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium options for becoming certified teachers. Advisors would work with their departmental colleagues, faculty in the institution’s school of education, and with local schools involved with a partnership. These advisors either should be suitably compensated for their work or provided with sufficient amounts of released time from other responsibilities to carry out this work. In addition, the quality of advising should be taken into account during personnel decisions. The advisor or advising group also would have primary responsibility for coordinating the campus’ teacher preparation efforts with those of community colleges that are sending large numbers of students to the campus (see Recommendations for the Higher Education Community, Recommendation 3). Colleges and universities that do not provide formal teacher education programs should recognize that prospective teachers of science, mathematics, and technology also matriculate on their campuses. At a minimum, faculty advisors should be designated in these disciplines. These advisors should learn about the procedures for credentialing in their state, alternative routes to certification, and the challenges and opportunities that K-12 teachers face so that they can offer appropriate advice and guidance to these students. However, postsecondary faculty in the sciences, mathematics, engineering, and technology should not delegate all responsibility for advising and mentoring future teachers to a specified advisor or advisory committee. Job descriptions for new faculty hires or redefinitions of responsibilities for continuing faculty who teach and advise undergraduate students should include the expectation that applicants have or are willing to acquire the knowledge they will need to help students learn about careers in teaching. Through their words, actions, and financial support, the highest level administrators should reaffirm or indicate that pre-teaching advisors or advisory committees will be integral components of the institution’s academic and career support programs (ACE, 1999). Again, the CSMTP concurs with the conclusions of others (e.g., ACE, 1999; NRC, 1999h) that teacher education must become a campus-wide priority, not solely the purview of departments or colleges of education. If such commitments cannot be made and sustained, continuation of formal programs for teacher preparation and professional development on those campuses should be called into question.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION COMMUNITY 1. Science, mathematics, and engineering departments at two-and four-year colleges and universities should assume greater responsibility for offering college-level courses that provide teachers with strong exposure to appropriate content and that model the kinds of pedagogical approaches appropriate for teaching that content. Postsecondary institutions that educate teachers of science and mathematics should articulate clear connections between their programs and the high standards that national professional organizations have established for beginning and more experienced teachers. These connections could be formulated by the partnership for teacher education to which the postsecondary institutions belong and could then be used to guide the development and improvement of teacher education programs. Science and mathematics courses for preservice teachers should be rich in appropriate content. Courses should offer fewer topics and allow students to explore the topics presented in greater depth. Content offered in science and mathematics courses for prospective teachers should be presented in ways that teachers can adapt to their own classrooms. In addition, the teaching of effective pedagogy should not be delegated to education courses. College and university faculty in the SME&T disciplines who offer courses for prospective teachers should model effective teaching techniques through their own classroom practices. In partnerships, K-12 classroom teachers who have strong pedagogical knowledge and skills could help their higher education counterparts model such approaches to teaching. Other organizations have attempted to define preparation for teachers of science and mathematics in terms of subjects to be covered and amount of exposure to various disciplines. For example, a recent report from the Learning First Alliance (1998) recommends specific content knowledge that middle-school specialists in mathematics should acquire. The Alliance also calls for teachers of middle-grades mathematics to be familiar with all of the mathematics taught in grades K-12, with special emphasis on the grade below and the grade above the teacher’s own. The National Science Teachers Association (1998) has prepared similar criteria for teachers of science. However, as the aforementioned organizations and others also emphasize, well-prepared teachers must have a

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium deep knowledge and understanding of their discipline and of effective pedagogy, as well as the capacity to use pedagogical content knowledge to influence student learning. Research shows that students demonstrate higher levels of achievement when they learn from teachers who are well versed in their subject areas (e.g., see Chapter 3). A critical component of such competence comes from deep knowledge and understanding, as compared to memorization, of the subjects that teachers present to their students (Shulman, 1986; Coble and Koballa, 1996; Manouchehri, 1997; and Grouws and Schultz, 1996). An expanding body of research is now exploring what content teachers of science and mathematics should know and how they can best acquire such knowledge (NRC, 2000b; Ma, 1999). Although experts have not yet reached consensus on a core body of knowledge that every teacher should know to be able to teach at a given grade level, they agree that how teachers come to understand content knowledge in their disciplines is as important as the specific information they learn. College and university scientists, mathematicians, and engineers should emphasize conceptual understanding of whatever subject matter they impart to their students. National standards and benchmarks for both content and teacher preparation in science, mathematics, and technology (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996a; NCTM, 2000; ITEA, 2000, AMATYC, 1995) can serve as guides to college-level educators. The CSMTP also recommends that content, pedagogy, and field experiences be planned and implemented jointly with colleagues from schools of education and with school practitioners in a partnership. These joint efforts would lead to better connections between content courses in science, mathematics, and technology; methods courses; and field experiences. Laboratory and fieldwork, including exercises where students design experiments to answer their own questions, should be an integral component of every science course that prospective teachers take (NRC, 1999h). Learning through inquiry and active engagement with subject matter should be a primary feature of all courses that prospective teachers take—disciplinary as well as pedagogical. Students also should be given as many opportunities as possible to solve problems collaboratively as well as individually. Educators of teachers, especially those in science, mathematics, engineering departments, must recognize that teachers’ content knowledge of science and mathematics grows and matures with time and experience. Thus, teacher education programs, especially for prospective elementary

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium teachers, should offer some coursework in science and mathematics that includes in-depth development of basic ideas of the discipline, reasoning, and problem solving rather than just broad surveys of subject matter. Similarly, programs for experienced teachers should build on those teachers’ current content knowledge and help them acquire yet deeper understanding of the subject(s) they teach. Information technology will permeate and influence virtually every aspect of teaching and learning in the future. Faculty in the content areas and in schools of education together must help teachers learn how to use these tools and how to integrate them into their teaching. Recent reports indicate that teacher education programs are falling far short in providing prospective teachers with such educational opportunities (Becker and Anderson, 1998; Kent and McNergney, 1999; Valdez et al., 1999; Milken Family Foundation, 1999; Means, 2000). Teachers of the future will have to be as cognizant of the capabilities of computers to transform teaching and learning as they are knowledgeable about the primary subject matter they teach (e.g., NRC, 1999a). The national standards and benchmarks for information technology (IT) education released in June 2000 are designed to help teachers use IT to enhance their teaching and their students’ learning and, therefore, should also help teacher educators better organize their efforts to restructure and improve this critically important component of teacher education. 2. Two- and four-year colleges and universities should reexamine and redesign introductory college-level courses in science and mathematics to better accommodate the needs of practicing and future teachers. Introductory courses should be structured in ways that help all students better understand the role and relationship of the sciences and mathematics to other disciplines, to students’ lives, and to helping students make informed decisions about issues in which science and technology play integral roles. Most students who do not go on to careers in the sciences do not enroll in courses beyond the introductory level (NSF, 1996; NRC 1999h; AFT, 2000). Moreover, many students either do not know or do not declare their intention to become teachers until later in their college careers (Seymour and Hewitt, 1997). Thus, faculty in the life and physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering who teach lower-division courses in these subjects have a special obligation and responsibility to the education of future teachers. They must understand that any of their students may elect to become teachers and that this decision may not be made until

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium after these students have completed introductory courses. Accordingly, college and university faculty must offer courses that engage all students and provide them with an understanding of the processes as well as the content of their own and related disciplines. These courses also should help all students develop the habits of mind, including curiosity and reflection that prove invaluable for teachers throughout their careers. Specific recommendations about the overarching principles of science that such courses could cover are available (NRC, 1999h). In short, the development of such introductory and lower division courses should become a higher priority for all science, mathematics, engineering, and technology programs in the nation’s two- and four-year colleges and universities. Recommendations about how such courses might be structured have appeared elsewhere (NSF, 1996; McNeal and D’Avanzo, 1997; NRC, 1999h; AMATYC, 1995). The CSMTP agrees fully with those reports that call for SME&T faculty to work much more closely together to improve the coherence and integration of learning in the SME&T disciplines. Teaching and learning centers could help. For example, in coordination with a campus’ teaching and learning center,2 the pre-teaching advisor or advisory committee could engage SME&T faculty in discussions about adopting new approaches in their disciplinary or interdisciplinary introductory and lower division courses. 3. Universities whose primary mission includes education research should set as a priority the development and execution of peer-reviewed research studies that focus on ways to improve teacher education, the art of teaching, and learning for people of all ages. New research that focuses broadly on synthesizing data across studies and linking it to school practice in a wide variety of school settings would be especially helpful to the improvement of teacher education and professional development for both prospective and experienced teachers. The results of this research 2   Increasing numbers of colleges and universities are establishing teaching and learning centers on their campuses. The University of Kansas maintains a listing of these centers around the world (<http://eagle.cc.ukans.edu/~cte/resources/websites/unitedstates.html>). The goals of the Center for Teaching Excellence at the University of Kansas are to provide opportunities for teaching faculty to discuss students’ learning and ways to enhance it in their classrooms; to support faculty as they implement their ideas for improving students’ learning; to bring research about teaching to the attention of the university community; to encourage involvement in the scholarship of teaching and research on learning; to offer course development assistance at any stage—planning, teaching, evaluating—to foster instructional innovation; and to advocate and recognize teaching excellence.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium should be collated and disseminated through a national electronic database or library. The National Research Council (1999f) has called for a decade of intensive research on how to improve education. The CSMTP recommends that a major component of this effort be devoted to a comprehensive yet focused examination of how to improve teacher education and teaching in science, mathematics, and technology, as well as how to improve teacher retention in these subject areas.3 The presidents and chancellors of 61 of the nation’s leading research universities already have committed their institutions to engaging in research that will enhance the practice of teaching (e.g., AAU, 1999). The members of the CSMTP applaud this action and urge other institutions of higher education to make similar commitments. Effective ways must be found to disseminate the results of this research to teachers and to teacher educators. The National Science Foundation is currently investing in the development and construction of a national digital library for SME&T education (NRC, 1998, 1999g; NSF, 2000). The CSMTP recommends that this digital library effort take primary responsibility for collecting, indexing, and broadly disseminating the results of existing and future research on the improvement of teacher education and teaching. 4. Two- and four-year colleges and universities should maintain contact with and provide guidance to teachers who complete their preparation and development programs.4 With government agencies, state legislatures, and businesses demanding greater accountability and improvements in the quality of science and 3   The primary sources of federal government support for educational research include numerous programs under the auspices of the Office of the Undersecretary of the U.S. Department of Education (<http://web99.ed.gov/GTEP/Program2.nsf>), the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Educational Research and Improvement (<http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/funding.html>), and the National Science Foundation’s Division of Research, Evaluation, and Communication (within the Directorate for Education and Human Resources: < http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/ehr/rec/default.htm>). In addition, the American Educational Research Association provides links on its website to its own grants programs and those of other organizations (<http://aera.ucsb.edu/subweb/links-FR.html>). 4   This recommendation is modeled after a proposal currently under consideration by the Taskforce for K-16 Education of the Association of American Universities (AAU). Under this proposal, a new teacher who graduates from any AAU member institution and relocates to another area served by another AAU member institution would be invited to participate in a variety of professional and social activities with other teachers in the area. Such reciprocal agreements would enable teachers who have relocated to interact with other teachers with similar backgrounds and allow universities to maintain better records about the professional activities of their graduates. The CSMTP strongly supports this kind of networking and urges other higher education organizations to undertake similar ventures with their member institutions.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium mathematics teaching in the United States, it is in the interests of colleges and universities to know how their teacher graduates are faring. Colleges and universities that prepare teachers should (1) keep track of their graduates’ careers in teaching and (2) determine their graduates’ job performance and other measures of teaching success through questionnaires to the teachers themselves and to leaders at the schools where they are employed. Keeping track of these students would allow institutions of higher education to undertake research both on the career paths of teachers and on the academic performance of the teachers’ students. This information also could be used to target improvements in teacher education programs. New teachers also could benefit greatly by maintaining formal official and informal contacts with their alma mater’s education programs. The social, cultural, and intellectual environments of college and university campuses offer important opportunities for new teachers to grow professionally. Thus, the CSMTP agrees with the American Council on Education (1999) in recommending that all institutions of higher education that educate teachers find ways to include their graduates in the life and activities of their campuses for at least three years following graduation. This contact might include invitations to new teachers to join listservs or chat rooms so that they may discuss common issues and concerns about teaching. Other ways to maintain such contact would be to invite teacher alumni/ae back to the campus in summer to participate in graduate-level or informal courses on topics of particular relevance to novice teachers. These courses and programs might include more in-depth study of content matter in science and mathematics; opportunities to undertake research projects with faculty, graduate students, or fellow teachers from local partnerships; and symposia and other presentations that deal with science, mathematics, and education. Given the near ubiquity of access to the Internet, teachers who are in remote locations could still participate in electronic discussion groups and Webcasts of lectures and symposia sponsored by their undergraduate or graduate institutions. 5. Following a period of collaborative planning and preparation, two-and four-year colleges and universities in a partnership for teacher education should assume primary responsibility for providing professional development opportunities to experienced teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Such programs would involve faculty from science, mathematics, and engineer-

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium ing disciplines and from schools of education. As described elsewhere in this report, two-year community colleges are playing increasingly critical roles in educating students who are likely to pursue careers in teaching. Hence, full participation will be required of two-year colleges in both formal partnerships and in other kinds of arrangements to promote improved teacher education. Additional recommendations concerning these kinds of collaborative activities are detailed below (see RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE K-12 Community, Recommendation #3). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE K-12 COMMUNITY 1. Following a period of collaborative planning and preparation, school districts in a partnership for teacher education should assume primary responsibility for providing high-quality practicum experiences and internships for prospective teachers. Currently, local school districts serve as laboratories that provide prospective teachers with opportunities to obtain classroom experience. However, most of the funds to support these practicum programs come from the two- and four-year colleges and universities that prepare future teachers. The CSMTP proposes that this arrangement change and that, in concert with local teacher education partnerships, school districts take primary responsibility for developing and implementing practicum experiences for preservice teachers, piloting various ways to handle this responsibility over time to test for the most effective arrangements. This proposal would be of benefit to both districts and prospective teachers because districts have a much better appreciation of their staffing needs and how student teachers and teacher internships might address them than do the colleges and universities that supply those student teachers. The activities to come under the direct sponsorship and supervision of districts would include early field experiences for students who are just beginning their teacher education programs, field placement with a master or mentor teacher for more prolonged student teaching experience, and induction-level internships for recent graduates with baccalaureate degrees. In addition, the master or mentor teachers and school district administrators could work through a partnership arrangement with the pre-teaching advisors from the collaborating college or university (see also Recommendations for Collaboration Between Institutions of Higher Education and the K-12 Community.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium To support this new arrangement, the CSMTP recommends that funds previously allocated by the institutions of higher education for this purpose be redirected instead to the supervising school districts. This loss of funds by departments or colleges of education would be offset by their assumption of primary responsibility for professional development for teachers in the partner districts (see also Chapter 6, Financial Support for Partnerships for Teacher Education). 2. School districts in a partnership for teacher education should assume primary responsibility for developing and overseeing field experiences, student teaching, and internship programs for new teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. In cooperation with their partnership for teacher education, school districts should create infrastructures that allow new teachers sufficient time for professional development. Up to 20 percent of a beginning teacher’s workweek should be set aside for planning, discussions with mentor teachers, and for additional coursework in the subjects he or she is teaching in the first year of employment. This kind of plan would require flexible, creative, and individualized scheduling that meets the needs of the novice teacher. Teachers who are given this opportunity would agree after their internship to work with and assist mentors to other new teachers who enter the school or district in subsequent years. If teaching is to be viewed as comparable with other respected professions in our society, then schools, districts, and states must recognize that beginning teachers do not possess all of the content knowledge and pedagogical skills they need to be maximally effective. Novice teachers must be afforded the time and opportunities for meaningful professional development. A number of districts and states have recognized this critical need and have begun to implement systemically opportunities for all beginning teachers to take work-day time for reflection and activities outside the classroom that contribute to their effectiveness in the classroom. Descriptions of such programs are provided in Appendix D. The CSMTP applauds these kinds of programs and urges all school districts and states to adopt similar strategies. Funds to support such efforts could come from a variety of sources. For example, some portion of the funds districts use to provide professional development programs for all teachers could be reallocated to the internship program. Professional development funds available to schools and districts from national programs could be tapped. States also could be a source.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium How is professional expertise in teaching developed? Expert teachers that I have known do not acquire expertise simply by listening to lectures about content, about learning, or about pedagogy. Although I have seen gifted beginning teachers, [this] sort of expertise … typically requires guided practical experience and on-going professional development throughout a career. In addition to having resources and opportunities available to them, it requires significant desire and time investment on the part of the developing teacher. The development of what expertise I have as a teacher has paralleled my development as a learner. I have experienced and observed the world of the classroom, enjoyed the guidance of a mentor, interacted within a community of colleagues, and taken on my own investigations in the nature of teaching and learning. The benefits I enjoyed as a developing learner about teaching are similar to those that I attempt to create in the environment for learning for my precollege students. Minstrell, 1999, page 9 The CSMTP specifically recommends that states explore emulating California’s contributions to internship programs for new teachers (Halford, 1998). However, the CSMTP reiterates that the primary source of funds for such activities should come from multi-year, line items in the budgets of partnerships to which all of the partners contribute. 3. School districts should collaborate with two- and four-year colleges and universities to provide professional development opportunities to experienced teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Such programs would involve faculty from science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines and from schools of education. Teachers who participate in these programs would, in turn, offer their expertise and guidance to others involved with the partnership. The CSMTP calls on school districts to work closely with local colleges and universities in their partnership to develop graduate-level programs for teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Discussions among teachers engaged in such a program predict-

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium ably would be high level and in-depth. Such collaboration also would promote the establishment of learning communities and a culture of lifelong learning for teachers as they progress through their careers (e.g., Resnick and Hall, 1998; Fullan, 1993). By design, these programs should allow practicing teachers to enhance their understanding and appreciation of the subject(s) they teach. They should be structured in accordance with guidelines that other organizations have published about what teachers of science and mathematics should know and be able to do to teach effectively at various grade levels. Such programs also should encourage teachers to learn about and discuss modern educational theory, theories of learning, and related subjects. Both two- and four-year colleges and universities could be involved with these professional development programs. Through the kinds of partnerships discussed in Chapter 6, two-and four-year colleges and universities could decide how best to apportion responsibility for conducting these programs. For example, with appropriate support from universities in the partnership, community colleges might offer courses with graduate credit to experienced teachers. It should be noted here that the model for ongoing teacher professional development articulated in Figure 6-4 also calls for professional development of teachers that would allow them to become mentors to other teachers and to faculty counterparts and students in higher education, as well as leaders in their districts. One avenue for leadership for mentor teachers would be to become closely involved with their district/college partnership. Teachers who progressed through partnership programs might reasonably be expected to serve as participants or leaders in policymaking arenas in their districts, such as curriculum, as well as to serve as mentors to other teachers. Master or mentor teachers also could serve as liaisons to local college and university partners or in other ways that benefited the partnership’s community. For example, they could provide invaluable perspective and expertise to the improvement of design and execution of professional development programs in the partnership. They also could work directly with teacher educators and students to strengthen preservice and other activities. Working to enhance the teaching profession is something teachers not only should be encouraged and supported to do but something for which they should take responsibility, as do other professionals for their professions. In this way, teaching could take on more of the supportive infrastructure and stature that other professions enjoy.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium These types of expectations of teachers must be coupled, however, with the district’s willingness to provide experienced teachers with time during their work hours and throughout the school year. The kinds of partnership or collaborations envisioned by the CSMTP here could ease the district’s burden in this regard. For example, qualified student teachers who have been mentored closely through the partnership might be able to provide the needed classroom coverage. The CSMTP recognizes that implementation of this recommendation might be difficult for school districts not located near colleges or universities. However, the use of distance learning and other types of information technologies would allow teachers from locations that are geographically removed from the partnership to participate in these kinds of courses (e.g., Ariza et al., 2000). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL AND DISCIPLINARY ORGANIZATIONS 1. Organizations that represent institutions of higher education should assist their members in establishing programs to help new teachers. For example, databases of information about new teachers would be developed and shared among member institutions so that colleges and universities could be notified when a newly certified teacher was moving to their area to teach. Those colleges and universities could then plan and offer welcoming and support activities, such as opportunities for continued professional and intellectual growth. Models for this kind of support for new teachers are described elsewhere in this report. 2. Professional disciplinary societies in science, mathematics, and engineering, higher education organizations, government at all levels, and business and industry should become more engaged partners (as opposed to advisors or overseers) in efforts to improve teacher education. 3. Professional disciplinary societies in science, mathematics, and engineering, and higher education organizations also should work together to align their policies and recommendations for improving teacher education in science, mathematics, and engineering. In addition to the societies that serve the professional needs of teachers, many disciplinary research organizations have become more interested in improving science and mathematics education in grades K-12. A number of these organizations are beginning to focus on how they can become more involved with improving teacher education. Profes-

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium Statement on the Education of Future Teachers The scientific societies listed below urge the physics community, specifically physical science and engineering departments and their faculty members, to take an active role in improving the preservice training of K-12 physics/science teachers. Improving teacher training involves building cooperative working relationships between physicists in universities and colleges and the individuals and groups involved in teaching physics to K-12 students. Strengthening the science education of future teachers addresses the pressing national need for improving K-12 physics education and recognizes that these teachers play a critical education role as the first and often-time last physics teacher for most students. While this responsibility can be manifested in many ways, research indicates that effective preservice education involves hands-on, laboratory-based learning. Good science and mathematics education will help create a scientifically literate public, capable of making informed decisions on public policy involving scientific matters. A strong K-12 physics education is also the first step in producing the next generation of researchers, innovators, and technical workers. American Institute of Physics American Physical Society American Association of Physics Teachers American Astronomical Society Acoustical Society of America American Institute of Physics, December 19995 5   This statement and a cover letter to chairs of departments of physics and astronomy are available at <http://www.aip.org/education/futeach.htm>.

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Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millenium sional societies in science, mathematics, and engineering have the potential to play a critical role in improving teacher education. However, the various disciplines must find ways to work together to develop and implement teacher education programs and activities that are in concert with recommendations from national organizations and that promote consistent goals for each discipline. The CSMTP calls on umbrella organizations such as the Council of Scientific Society Presidents or others in specific disciplines to begin this dialogue by convening representatives from professional societies to discuss their individual and collective roles in teacher education.