How is professional expertise in teaching developed? Expert teachers that I have known do not acquire expertise simply by listening to lectures about content, about learning, or about pedagogy. Although I have seen gifted beginning teachers, [this] sort of expertise … typically requires guided practical experience and on-going professional development throughout a career. In addition to having resources and opportunities available to them, it requires significant desire and time investment on the part of the developing teacher. The development of what expertise I have as a teacher has paralleled my development as a learner. I have experienced and observed the world of the classroom, enjoyed the guidance of a mentor, interacted within a community of colleagues, and taken on my own investigations in the nature of teaching and learning. The benefits I enjoyed as a developing learner about teaching are similar to those that I attempt to create in the environment for learning for my precollege students.

Minstrell, 1999, page 9

The CSMTP specifically recommends that states explore emulating California’s contributions to internship programs for new teachers (Halford, 1998). However, the CSMTP reiterates that the primary source of funds for such activities should come from multi-year, line items in the budgets of partnerships to which all of the partners contribute.

3. School districts should collaborate with two- and four-year colleges and universities to provide professional development opportunities to experienced teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Such programs would involve faculty from science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines and from schools of education. Teachers who participate in these programs would, in turn, offer their expertise and guidance to others involved with the partnership.

The CSMTP calls on school districts to work closely with local colleges and universities in their partnership to develop graduate-level programs for teachers of science, mathematics, and technology. Discussions among teachers engaged in such a program predict-



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