interest, as well as the need of teachers who have varying degrees of experience, professional expertise, and proficiency.

  • Collaboration among the people involved in programs, including teachers, teacher educators, teacher unions, scientists, administrators, policy makers, members of professional and scientific organizations, parents, and business people, with clear respect for the perspectives and expertise of each.

  • Recognition of the history, culture, and organization of the school environment.

  • Continuous program assessment that captures the perspectives of all those involved, uses a variety of strategies, focuses on the process and effects of the program, and feeds directly into program improvement and evaluation.

From the NCTM Standards for the Professional Development of Teachers of Mathematics

(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991, excerpted from pages 127-173)

Standard 1. Experiencing Good Mathematics Teaching

Mathematics and mathematics education instructors in preservice and continuing education programs should model good mathematics teaching by—

  • Posing worthwhile mathematical tasks;

  • Engaging teachers in mathematical discourse;

  • Enhancing mathematical discourse through the use of a variety of tools, including calculators, computers, and physical and pictorial models;

  • Creating learning environments that support and encourage mathematical reasoning and teachers’ dispositions and abilities to do mathematics;

  • Expecting and encouraging teachers to take intellectual risks in doing mathematics and to work independently and collaboratively;

  • Representing mathematics as an ongoing human activity

  • Affirming and supporting full participation and continued study of mathematics by all students.

Standard 2. Knowing Mathematics and School Mathematics

The education of teachers of mathematics should develop their knowledge of the content and discourse of mathematics, including—

  • Mathematical concepts and procedures and the connections among them;

  • Multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures;

  • Ways to reason mathematically, solve

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