students to take responsibility for the learning of all members of the community.

  • Nurture collaboration among students.

  • Structure and facilitate ongoing formal and informal discussion based on a shared understanding of rules of scientific discourse.

  • Model and emphasize the skills, attitudes, and values of scientific inquiry.


Teachers of science actively participate in the ongoing planning and development of the school science program. In doing this, teachers

  • Plan and develop the school science program.

  • Participate in decisions concerning the allocation of time and other resources to the science program.

  • Participate fully in planning and implementing professional growth and development strategies for themselves and their colleagues.

From the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000, excerpted from pages 25-67).

Standard 1. Worthwhile Mathematical Tasks

The teacher of mathematics should pose tasks that are based on—

  • Sound and significant mathematics;

  • Knowledge of students’ understandings, interests, and experiences;

  • Knowledge of the range of ways that diverse students learn mathematics;

And that

  • Engage students’ intellect;

  • Develop students’ mathematical understandings and skills;

  • Stimulate students to make connections and develop a coherent framework for mathematical ideas;

  • Call for problem formulation, problem solving, and mathematical reasoning;

  • Promote communication about mathematics;

  • Represent mathematics as an ongoing human activity;

  • Display sensitivity to, and draw on, students’ diverse background experiences and dispositions;

  • Promote the development of all students’ dispositions to do mathematics

Standard 2. The Teacher’s Role in Discourse

The teacher of mathematics should orchestrate discourse by—

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