baccalaureate work that would allow them to apply their knowledge and pedagogical skills in school settings. The Holmes report also urged that teacher education take place at “teaching centers” linked to major universities, a strategy parallel to the reform of medical education in the early 1900s following publication of the Flexner Report (1910).

A major study by Goodlad (1994) served as further impetus for restructuring teacher education. Goodlad highlighted significant problems, such as the lack of “connectedness” among schools of education, university liberal arts programs, and the K-12 education sector. Goodlad also cited as problematic the low status accorded to teacher education programs and schools of education on university campuses. He recommended strengthening the connections between reform efforts taking place in schools of education (teacher preparation) and those in K-12 education (e.g., implementation of content standards). Both the Holmes Group and Goodlad reports encouraged development of Professional Development Schools and other forms of university and K-12 partnerships. More than 300 schools of education responded to these reports to create programs that go beyond the traditional four-year degree programs to include more extensive study of subject matter and more extensive clinical training in K-12 schools (Darling-Hammond, 1997). In 1998, Abdal-Haqq reported that over 600 PDS models had been developed in the United States, with some of these institutions exploring several different models for improving teacher education. More than 1,000 such schools exist today (Abdal-Haqq, personal communication). Professional Development Schools are described in greater detail later in this report.

ROADBLOCKS TO CHANGES IN TEACHER EDUCATION

Murray (1996) emphasized that a significant barrier to the reform of teacher education results from a long-standing belief among many people that teaching is a natural human endeavor. Parents teach their children, and friends and colleagues teach each other. Even people with few personal connections or similar interests may teach each other. However, in most of these cases, the act of teaching almost always occurs among people of like minds, backgrounds, education, or beliefs and centers around tasks or problems that the teacher and learner have in common. It is strikingly different from what typically occurs in schools.

The notion that anyone can teach clearly is ingrained in the contemporary



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