should the role of education programs be in states that mandate that all new teachers graduate with a major in something other than education? Given these changing regulations, how can a prospective teacher’s preparation in education be tied more closely to that student’s preparation in one or more disciplines, and vice versa?

Unfortunately, many faculty in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SME&T) at the nation’s colleges and universities may not be sufficiently aware of these changing expectations to help prospective teachers learn and understand the content and concepts that are critical to effective teaching in these disciplines and their subject areas. Nor do most of these faculty have the kinds of professional development in teaching that would enable them to model effectively the kinds of pedagogy that is needed for success in grades K-12 classrooms (e.g., NRC, 1999h).

Accreditation standards for education programs may not reflect recent changes in expectations for classroom teaching. For example, information technology will likely play an increasingly pervasive role in teaching and learning yet, according to several recent reports, teacher education programs are not providing prospective or practicing teachers with enough preparation to enable them to use information technology tools effectively to enhance teaching and learning (Milken Family Foundation, 1999; CEO Forum, 1999, 2000). While many educators and policy analysts consider educational technology as a vehicle for transforming education, relatively few teachers (20 percent) feel well equipped to institute technology integration in classroom instruction (U.S. Department of Education, 1999).3

Teacher licensing examinations do not always reflect recommended standards for teacher education or what states expect K-12 students to know or be able to do. The content of teacher licensing examinations often does not reflect content espoused by such national standards documents as the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996a), the Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993), and Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Nor do


The International Society for Technology in Education released the National Educational Technology Standards and Performance Indicators for Teacher Education in June 2000. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, these standards provide standards and benchmarks for “Essential Conditions for Teacher Preparation” and “Performance Profiles for Teacher Preparation” in the use of information technology at various stages of the teacher preparation process. Additional information about these standards is available at <>.

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