C

Significant Events in the History of Occupational Safety and Health

1700

Bernardino Ramazzini, widely considered the “father of industrial medicine,” publishes his first book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen).

1812

North America’s first accident insurance policy is issued.

1864

The Pennsylvania Mine Safety Act passes into law.

1867

Phillipa Flowerday is hired by the firm of J. & J. Colman in Norwich, Great Britain. Her employment at this mustard company is considered the earliest recorded evidence of a company specifically hiring an industrial nurse.

The first recorded call by a labor organization for U.S. occupational safety and health law is heard.

The state of Massachusetts institutes the first government-sponsored factory inspection program.

1888

Betty Moulder of Pennsylvania works with coal miners.

1895

Vermont Marble Company initiates Industrial Nursing Service with Ada Mayo Stewart as the industrial nurse.

1896

The National Fire Protection Association is founded to prevent fires and to write codes and standards.

1897

Great Britain passes a workmen’s compensation act for occupational injuries. English legislators would later (1906) extend the aegis of the act to encompass occupational diseases.

1902

The state of Maryland passes the first workers’ compensation law.

The first attempt by a state government to force employers to



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Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel C Significant Events in the History of Occupational Safety and Health 1700 Bernardino Ramazzini, widely considered the “father of industrial medicine,” publishes his first book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). 1812 North America’s first accident insurance policy is issued. 1864 The Pennsylvania Mine Safety Act passes into law. 1867 Phillipa Flowerday is hired by the firm of J. & J. Colman in Norwich, Great Britain. Her employment at this mustard company is considered the earliest recorded evidence of a company specifically hiring an industrial nurse. The first recorded call by a labor organization for U.S. occupational safety and health law is heard. The state of Massachusetts institutes the first government-sponsored factory inspection program. 1888 Betty Moulder of Pennsylvania works with coal miners. 1895 Vermont Marble Company initiates Industrial Nursing Service with Ada Mayo Stewart as the industrial nurse. 1896 The National Fire Protection Association is founded to prevent fires and to write codes and standards. 1897 Great Britain passes a workmen’s compensation act for occupational injuries. English legislators would later (1906) extend the aegis of the act to encompass occupational diseases. 1902 The state of Maryland passes the first workers’ compensation law. The first attempt by a state government to force employers to

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Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel   compensate their employees for on-the-job injuries is overturned when the U.S. Supreme Court declares Maryland’s workers’ compensation law to be unconstitutional. 1906 First systematic survey of workplace fatalities in the United States is conducted in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. 1907 Largest coal mining disaster in U.S. history takes place in Monongah, West Virginia. 1908 Alice Hamilton, M.D., the first physician to devote herself to research in industrial medicine, publishes her first article about occupational diseases in the United States. 1911 First U.S. worker’s compensation laws are enacted. A professional, technical organization, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, responsible for developing safety codes for boilers and elevators, is founded. National Organization for Public Health Nursing is formed. 1912 National Council for Industrial Safety is established. Originally organized to collect data and promote accident prevention programs, it became the National Safety Council in 1913. 1913 Industrial nurses registry is established in Boston. The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes data that show a rate of 61 industrial deaths per 100,000 workers. 1914 The U.S. Public Health Service establishes the Office of Industrial Hygiene and Sanitation. Its primary function is research in occupational health. After several name changes it became the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1971. 1916 The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of state workers’ compensation laws. The American Association of Industrial Physicians and Surgeons is formed. It later became the American Occupational Medicine Association, then the American College of Occupational Medicine, and finally, in 1991, the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1917 First industrial nursing course is offered at Boston University College of Business Administration. 1918 The American Standards Association is founded. Responsible for the development of many voluntary safety standards, some of which are referenced into laws, today it is known as the American National Standards Institute. 1919 Alice Hamilton, M.D., is appointed assistant professor of industrial medicine at Harvard Medical School, the first woman to be on the faculty of Harvard University. First book on industrial nursing is written by Florence Wright.

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Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel 1935 Social Security Act of 1935 is passed. This act provided funds for state industrial programs. 1936 Walsh-Healey Act for worker health and safety standards is enacted, setting safety and health standards for employers receiving federal contracts over $10,000. 1937 Godfrey publishes one of the first statements on the need for public health involvement in accident prevention in the American Journal of Public Health. The Council on Industrial Health of the American Medical Association is created. An estimated 2,200 nurses are working in the industry. 1938 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists is formed. 1939 American Industrial Hygiene Association is formed. 1942 Gordon formalizes concept that epidemiology could be used as a theoretical foundation for accident prevention. DeHaven describes structural environments as a primary cause of injury in falls from heights. American Association of Industrial Nurses is founded with Catherine Dempsey as the first President. 1943 Army directives are created for the establishment of industrial medical programs in all Army-owned and operated plants, arsenals, depots, and ports of embarkation. American Public Health Association Committee on Administrative Practice appoints a subcommittee on accident prevention; the subcommittee reports accident prevention programs in six state and two local health departments. 1946 The American Academy of Occupational Medicine is founded. Its membership comprises full-time physicians in occupational medicine. It merges with the American Occupational Medicine Association in 1988 to form the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1948 All states (48 at the time) have workers’ compensation laws. 1950 The first doctorates of industrial medicine are conferred upon three graduates of the University of Pittsburgh. 1952 The Coal Mine Safety Act passes into law. 1953 Human Factors in Air Transportation is published by McFarland. Industrial Nursing Journal begun; it later became the Occupational Health Nursing Journal and then AAOHN Journal. 1955 First annual Stapp conferences on the biomechanics of crashes are held. American Board on Preventive Medicine recognizes occupational

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Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel   medicine as a subspecialty, with its own certification requirements. 1956 Accident Prevention Program is initiated by the U.S. Public Health Service. 1959 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is founded. 1960 Specific safety standards are promulgated for the Walsh-Healey Act. 1961 American Public Health Association publishes Accident Prevention: The Role of Physician and Public Health Workers. 1964 Passage of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act greatly expands the powers of federal inspectors. It served as a model for the 1970 Occupational Health and Safety Act. Journal of Safety Research begins publication. Haddon, Suchman, and Klein publish Accident Research: Methods and Approaches. Eleven schools of public health develop training programs in injury prevention funded by the U.S. Public Health Service. The four major U.S. auto manufacturers install front-seat lap belts as standard equipment. 1966 Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society is published by the National Research Council. The U.S. Department of Transportation and its sections, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board, are established. 1968 President Lyndon Johnson calls for a federal occupational safety and health law. 1969 Mine Safety and Health Act becomes law. The Construction Safety Act is passed into law. Board of Certified Safety Professionals, which certifies practitioners in the safety profession, is established. Graduate programs in occupational health nursing begin. 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act is passed into law. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are established. 1972 Black Lung Benefits Act is enacted. Accreditation Board for Occupational Health Nursing is established. 1974 The Industrial Medical Association becomes the American Occupational Medicine Association. 1977 Mine Safety and Health Administration is established to administer the provisions of the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. American Association of Industrial Nurses is renamed as American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.

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Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel 1980 First population-based and emergency room-based injury surveillance system is implemented in the United States (Massachusetts and Ohio). 1985 Injury in America: A Continuing Public Health Problem is published by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. 1988 The American Academy of Occupational Medicine and the American Occupational Medical Association merge to become the American College of Occupational Medicine. Occupational Safety and Health Administration hires its first occupational health nurse. Role of the Primary Care Physician in Occupational and Environmental Medicine published by the Institute of Medicine. 1991 Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention is published by the Institute of Medicine. Addressing the Physician Shortage in Occupational and Environmental Medicine is published by the Institute of Medicine. 1992 Americans with Disabilities Act is passed. 1993 Injury Control in the 1990s: A National Plan for Action is published by the Centers for Disease Control. 1998 American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Foundation established. 1999 Reducing the Burden of Injury is published by the Institute of Medicine.