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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Index

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium A AAS, see American Astronomical Society Academic facilities, see Universities and colleges Accretion and accretion disks, 58, 63, 72, 80, 83, 112, 127 defined, 214 Adaptive optics, 11, 20, 45, 103-104, 105, 109, 114, 147 defined, 214 giant planets, 57, 61 Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT), 10, 11, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 72, 76, 77-78, 79, 97, 100, 101-106, 118 Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), 14, 33, 45, 123-124 Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth (ARISE), 10, 14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 81, 83, 98, 127, 195 Advanced Solar Telescope (AST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 54, 66, 68, 98, 114-116 Airborne observatories balloon programs, 5, 14, 24, 33, 43, 45, 89, 90, 129, 195 Ultralong-Duration Balloon (ULDB) program, 33, 45, 135, 195 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), 24, 54, 100, 109, 110 ALMA, see Atacama Large Millimeter Array American Association for the Advancement of Science, 160 American Association of Variable Star Observers, 143 American Astronomical Society (AAS), xxvii, xviii, 2, 21, 139-140, 142, 145, 160, 164, 166-167, 169, 171, 173, 199, 201-202 American Astronomical Society’s Examination of Graduate Education in Astronomy, The, 171, 201-202 American Physical Society, 202 Andromeda Galaxy, 79 Antarctica Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), 44, 123 South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SPST), 10, 13, 33, 37, 43, 54, 75, 98, 128-129, 131 Apache Point, 140 Arecibo telescope, 125-126 ARISE, see Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth AST, see Advanced Solar Telescope; Division of Astronomical Sciences Asteroids, see Comets and asteroids; Near-Earth objects Astro-E, 118 Astrometric Interferometry Mission, see Space Interferometry Mission Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 142, 145, 160, 164, 166-167, 169, 173, 202 Astrophysics Theory Program (NASA), 14, 29, 33, 44 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), 4, 8, 11, 12, 20, 24, 30, 31, 38, 42, 54, 57, 72, 75, 110, 130, 189 Atmospheres, planetary, 12, 13, 24, 36, 43, 57, 58, 83, 99, 109, 111, 112, 116, 119-120, 147, 153, 154 pollution, 150, 151, 196 see also Adaptive optics; Airborne observatories; Climate and weather, planetary; Terrestrial planets Australia, 101, 125 Axions, 93, 124 B Bahcall report, see Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Balloon programs, 5, 14, 24, 33, 43, 45, 89, 90, 129, 195 Ultralong-Duration Balloon (ULDB) program, 33, 45, 135, 195 BeppoSAX satellite, 73, 74, 75 Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA), 41, 128, 130, 206 (n.4) see also Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy Big Bang, 2, 19, 32, 43, 53, 71, 86, 88, 89-91, 124, 134-135, 219 BIMA, see Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Biomedical science astronomy’s contribution to, 147-151 (passim), 154, 157-158 ultraviolet radiation, health impacts, 154 see also Extraterrestrial life Black holes, 2, 3, 8, 14, 19, 40, 42, 53, 54, 68, 70, 112, 117-118, 120, 122, 123, 126, 127, 155 Constellation-X Observatory, 10, 11, 33, 37, 38, 118 defined, 221 formation and evolution, 3, 8, 11, 18, 32, 38, 53 galactic nuclei, 14, 19, 38, 39, 42, 66, 73, 78, 80-85, 105, 109, 120, 121, 126, 127, 134 quasars, 11, 20, 38, 77, 80, 126, 220 theory, 19, 120, 122, 126 BOOMERANG telescope, 90 Brazil, 101 Brown dwarfs, 19, 20, 63, 109 C Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 130, 206 (n.4) Canada, 31, 128 Canadian Space Agency, 9, 36, 101, 131 Canary Islands, Gran Telescopio Canarias, 101, 206 (n.1) CARMA, see Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy CCDs, see Charge-coupled devices Center for Adaptive Optics, 20 Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array, 110 Centimeter-wavelength astronomy, 125-127 Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth (ARISE), 10, 14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 81, 83, 98, 127, 195 Arecibo telescope, 125-126 Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), 8, 10, 11, 31, 33, 37, 38, 54, 78, 83, 85, 97, 125, 126, 127 HALCA, 127 list of facilities, 126 Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), 14, 33, 45, 54, 78, 126, 127 Square Kilometer Array (SKA), 8, 10, 26, 31, 33, 37, 41, 46, 54, 78, 125, 127, 132, 189 Very Large Array (VLA), 11, 38, 74, 75, 84, 125, 126, 140, 180, 187 Very Long Baseline Array, 14, 81, 84, 125, 126, 127 CGRO, see Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Chandra X-ray Observatory, 20, 70, 71, 118, 194, 198 Charge-coupled devices (CCDs), 148-149, 216 Chile, 101 European Southern Observatory, 31, 102-103, 206 (n.1) Climate and weather, planetary Earth, 9, 66, 150, 153-154 giant planets, 58 COBE, see Cosmic Background Explorer Colleges, see Universities and colleges Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), 10, 13, 26, 33, 37, 41-42, 54, 72, 98, 130, 189 Comets and asteroids, 19, 58, 61, 62, 108, 128, 142, 154 see also Kuiper Belt objects; Near-Earth objects Communications energetic particles, disruption by, 154 interferomic timing technique, 152 mirrors and antennas, 146-147 radio astronomy and, 149 solar magnetism, disruption by, 66 spacecraft, 15, 46, 47, 152 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), 13, 20, 40, 73, 74, 75, 120-121, 194, 198 Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment, 13, 40, 83, 120 Computer technology, xvii, 15, 21, 46, 107, 108, 140, 156-157 astronomy’s contribution to industry, 150-153 (passim) funding, 5, 24-25, 178, 179 laboratory astrophysics and, 134 National Virtual Observatory, 10, 12, 14, 33, 34, 37, 39, 44, 132-133 numerical simulation, 7, 29, 106, 116, 152-153 professional education, 171, 172 theoretical applications, 7, 29

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium see also Internet Congress of the United States, xvi, 24, 29, 178, 194, 203-206 Constellation-X Observatory, 10, 11, 33, 37, 38, 54, 72, 75-76, 80, 83, 85, 89, 91, 97, 118-119 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 28, 88, 89, 90, 129, 195 Cosmic Background Imager, 89 Cosmic microwave background, 4-5, 20, 24, 28, 42, 43, 87, 88-91, 128-131, 214 Cosmic rays, 14, 33, 40, 44, 45, 80, 85, 123, 155 BeppoSAX satellite, 73, 74, 75 Fly’s Eye telescope, 85, 123, 217 Cosmology, 3, 8, 18, 20-21, 27-28, 31-32, 41, 43, 53, 54, 86-91, 119, 156, 205 age of the universe, 3, 53, 73, 77, 86 Big Bang, 2, 19, 32, 43, 53, 71, 86, 88, 89-91, 124, 134-135, 219 cosmic microwave background, 4-5, 20, 24, 28, 42, 43, 87, 88-91, 128-131, 214 European Planck Surveyor, 5, 8, 20, 24, 30, 43, 54, 89, 91, 129 expansion of the universe, 3, 19, 32, 53, 75, 86-87, 155; see also Dark matter and energy; Big Bang supra; redshifts infra galactic evolution, 3, 9, 11, 19, 20, 32, 36, 38, 52, 53, 73-80, 102, 104, 106, 108-109; see also redshifts infra galactic formation, 3, 8, 9, 11, 18, 20, 32, 36, 38, 43, 45, 52, 53, 75, 76, 78, 83, 102, 104, 106, 127, 138 mergers, 40-41, 75, 78, 83-84 Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), 5, 20, 24, 43, 54, 89, 129, 131 redshifts, 12, 19, 36, 38, 39, 75, 77, 78, 83, 86, 88, 100 Cost factors, 5, 7, 9, 14-15, 22, 25, 34, 45-46, 182, 186-188, 194-195 balloon programs, 14, 33, 45, 135 centimeter wavelength astronomy, 127 Explorer program, 28 Hubble Space Telescope, 5, 24 international collaboration, 8, 30-31 large telescopes, general, 103 numerical simulation, 7 prioritized initiatives described, 9, 11, 14-15, 34-36, 38-44 (passim) prioritized initiatives, list of, 10, 33, 37 see also Funding Cross-disciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II, 94, 124 Cryogenics, 36, 44, 46, 93, 100-101, 102, 110, 111, 112, 123, 124, 149 D Dark matter and energy, 3, 8, 12, 15, 32, 39, 43-44, 53, 73, 77, 86-87, 91-94, 107, 124, 127, 155 axions, 94, 124 see also Black holes Darwin mission, 31 Data exploration, xvii, 107, 153, 156-157 National Virtual Observatory, 10, 12, 14, 33, 34, 37, 39, 44, 132-133 Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The (“1991 survey”), 2, 5, 9, 20, 24, 25, 100, 174, 184 Department of Defense, 32, 149, 178 Department of Education, 160 Department of Energy, 6, 13, 32, 40, 178, 179, 203 federal agency coordination, 7-8, 27-28, 30, 195-196, 204-205 plasma physics, 27-28 Discovery program (NASA), 22, 35 Division of Astronomical Sciences (AST), 27, 175, 179, 182, 186, 188, 190-191, 193, 206 Doppler shifts, 55-56, 117 Dunn Solar Telescope, 115 E Earth astronomical environment, effect on, general, 3, 54, 66, 114, 116-117; see also Near-Earth objects climate, 9, 66, 150, 153-154 comets and asteroids, collisions, 19, 154 environmental pollution, 196-197 ultraviolet radiation, impacts, 154 see also Terrestrial Planet Finder; Terrestrial planets

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Economic factors, see Cost factors; Funding; Private sector Education, see Professional education; Public education and outreach Einstein, Albert, 40, 84, 87, 155 see also Relativistic phenomena Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment (EGRET), 13, 40, 83, 120 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 73, 85, 98, 120-122, 195 Environmental pollution, 150, 151, 196-197 ultraviolet radiation, health impacts, 154 European Far Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), 5, 8, 24, 30, 75, 109, 110 European Planck Surveyor, 5, 8, 20, 24, 30, 43, 54, 89, 91, 129 European Science Foundation, 30 European Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, see Solar and Heliospheric Observatory European Southern Observatory, 31, 102-103, 206 (n.1) European Space Agency, 9, 13, 109 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), 4, 8, 11, 12, 20, 24, 30, 31, 38, 42, 54, 57, 72, 75, 110, 130, 189 European Planck Surveyor, 5, 8, 20, 24, 30, 43, 54, 89, 91, 129 Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), 41 Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), 36 Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), 31 European Very Large Telescope, 100 EUVE, see Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer EXIST, see Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), 8, 10, 11, 31, 33, 37, 38, 54, 78, 83, 85, 97, 125, 126, 127 Explorer program (NASA), 7, 22, 28, 34, 35, 73, 113, 120, 135, 194, 195 Extraterrestrial life, 3, 9, 18, 32, 52, 53, 157-158 intelligent, 131-132 Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), 9, 10, 12, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 111-112 Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), 28, 113 F Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Explorer, 113 FASR, see Frequency Agile Solar Radio telescope FCRAO, see Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Federal Funding of Astronomical Research, xvi, xvii, 21, 133, 203 Federal government program coordination, 7-8, 15, 27-28, 29-30, 181-183, 204-205 public education initiatives, 15, 48, 160 see also Congress of the United States; Funding; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Science Foundation; Office of Management and Budget; specific departments Fellowships, see Postdoctoral fellowships FIRST, see European Far Infrared Space Telescope Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO), 130 Fly’s Eye telescope, 85, 123, 217 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; terms beginning European; specific countries France, 125 Frequency Agile Solar Radio telescope (FASR), 10, 13, 33, 37, 42-43, 54, 98, 115, 116, 189 Funding, xvi, 5, 6, 9, 21, 24-26, 108, 204 balloon programs, 135 competitive grants programs, 25, 133, 187, 190-193, 201, 199 competitive reviews, 6, 27, 34, 185-186, 188, 189, 190, 205, 206 computer technology, 5, 24-25, 178, 179 Department of Energy, 196 Federal Funding of Astronomical Research, xvi, xvii, 21, 133, 203 international collaboration, 8, 30-31, 184-185 laboratory astrophysics, 134 NASA, 5, 14-15, 24-26, 32, 33, 34-35, 44, 45-46, 133-134, 146, 163, 178 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program (NASA/NSF), 33, 44, 133

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium NSF, xvii, xviii, 5, 6, 25, 26, 29, 33, 38, 44, 45, 48-49, 108, 133, 134, 146, 160-161, 163, 178, 179, 181-182, 185, 186-188, 189-193, 199, 205-206 competitive reviews, 6, 27, 34, 185-186, 187-188, 189, 190, 205, 206 prioritized initiatives, descriptions, 9, 11, 13, 14-15, 32, 34-36, 40 prioritized initiatives, list of, 10, 33 professional education, 5, 15, 25-26; see also Postdoctoral fellowships professional societies, 201-203 public education initiatives, 15, 146, 160-161, 163-164, 167, 175 theoretical initiatives, 5, 7, 25, 29, 133-134, 187-188 see also Cost factors; Postdoctoral fellowships G Galaxies, 2, 3, 53, 73-85, 88, 107, 109 active, 14, 80, 83, 85, 109, 112, 120, 126, 214 clusters, 38, 42, 75-76, 85, 91, 104, 106, 117-118, 128 Constellation-X Observatory, 10, 11, 33, 37, 38, 54, 72, 75-76, 80, 83, 85, 89, 91, 97, 118-119 evolution, 3, 9, 11, 19, 20, 32, 36, 38, 52, 53, 73-80, 102, 104, 106, 108-109, 113; see also Cosmology; Redshifts formation, 3, 8, 9, 11, 18, 20, 32, 36, 38, 43, 45, 52, 53, 75, 76, 78, 83, 102, 104, 106, 127, 138 mergers, 40-41, 75, 78, 83-84 gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), 93-94, 219 nuclei, 14, 19, 38, 39, 42, 66, 73, 78, 80-85, 105, 109, 120, 121, 126, 127, 134 quasars, 11, 20, 38, 77, 80, 126, 220 starbursts and starburst galaxies, 39, 73, 84-85, 110, 112, 126, 221 structure, general, 24, 85, 88, 111 see also Interstellar and intergalactic media and processes; Milky Way; Stars Galaxy Evolution Explorer, 113 Galileo probe, 216 Gamma-ray astronomy, 8, 10, 13, 15, 19, 74, 80, 117, 179 defined, 217 Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment (EGRET), 13, 40, 83, 120 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 73, 85, 98, 120-122, 195 Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 54, 73, 83, 98, 119-121, 195 Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS), 10, 13, 33, 37, 42, 83, 98, 120 Whipple Observatory, 120, 140 Gamma-ray bursts, 19, 40, 42, 72-73, 74-75, 76, 85, 107, 109, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123 GBT, see Green Bank Telescope Gemini optical-infrared telescopes, 20, 30, 101, 103, 118, 178, 180, 181, 183, 184 Germany, 101, 109, 125, 130 Giant planets, 3, 19, 54, 55, 57, 58, 61, 62, 106 Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT), 10, 11, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 72, 76, 77-78, 79, 97, 100, 101-106, 118 GLAST, see Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG), 180, 204 Global Positioning System, 152, 197 Graduate Assistance in Areas of National Need (GAANN), 172 Gran Telescopio Canarias, 101, 206 (n.1) Gravitational forces, xvii, 13, 22, 63, 107, 155, 193 accretion and accretion disks, 58, 63, 72, 80, 83, 112, 127, 214 Big Bang, 89-90 galactic mergers, 83-84 Gravity Probe B, 122 Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40-41, 54, 83, 98, 122, 195

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Triad program, 122, 221 see also Black holes; Dark matter and energy Gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 Gravitational Physics: Exploring the Structure of Space and Time, 22, 84 Gravity Probe B, 122 Great Observatories (NASA), 7, 28 Chandra X-ray Observatory, 20, 70, 71, 118, 194, 198 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), 13, 20, 40, 73, 74, 75, 120, 194, 198 Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment, 13, 40, 83, 120 defined, 217 Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 5, 9, 20, 24, 30, 36, 69, 74, 75, 83, 84, 86, 100, 102, 109, 113, 118, 133, 142, 147, 149, 194, 198, 216 Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 4, 20, 24, 36, 54, 75, 100, 110 Green Bank Telescope (GBT), 125, 189 Ground-based programs, xv, 2, 5, 6, 12-13, 15, 24, 26-28, 29, 33, 34, 46, 47, 96, 99, 101, 129, 178-193, 204 Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), 44, 123 Fly’s Eye, 85, 123 Ice Cube experiment, 44, 123 private sector, general, 6, 27, 39-40, 101, 108, 127, 182, 183 university facilities, 6, 26-27, 39-40, 181, 183, 188, 189, 190, 191 see also Infrared astronomy, ground-based; Laboratory astrophysics; National Science Foundation; Optical astronomy, ground-based; Radio astronomy, ground-based; Ultraviolet astronomy, ground-based GSMT, see Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope H HALCA, 127 Hands-on Astrophysics, 143 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 145 Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, 130 HESSI, see High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager HET, see Hobby-Eberly Telescope High-Energy Astronomical Observatory (HEAO-1), 42, 98 High-energy astrophysics, xvii, 44, 72, 117-124, 155, 193, 195 see also Cosmic rays; Gamma-ray astronomy; Gamma-ray bursts; Particle astrophysics High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI), 115 High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-2), 120 Historical perspectives, 1, 18-21, 52, 178, 181 Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The (“1991 survey”), 2, 5, 9, 20, 24, 25, 100, 174, 184 Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), 101, 103 Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 5, 9, 20, 24, 30, 36, 69, 74, 75, 83, 84, 86, 100, 102, 109, 113, 118, 133, 142, 147, 149, 194, 198, 216 Human factors, xv, 21, 23, 139, 158, 160, 178 practical contributions to society, 146-158 see also Organizational and institutional factors; Professional education; Public education and outreach I Ice Cube experiment, 44, 123 Image analysis, 101, 143, 151, 152-153, 156-157, 172 India, 125 Informal Science Education program, 164 Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), 28 Infrared astronomy, general, 96-99, 149 defined, 218 galactic evolution, 75 Infrared astronomy, ground-based, xvii, 6, 15, 76-77, 110-111, 182, 183, 189 Advanced Solar Telescope (AST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 54, 66, 68, 98, 114-116

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Gemini optical-infrared telescopes, 20, 30, 101, 103, 118, 178, 180, 181, 183, 184 Keck telescopes, 74, 75, 100, 101-102, 103, 105, 110, 111, 118, 178, 181 National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), 6, 20, 27, 143, 151, 179, 181, 183-184 Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP), 10, 12-13, 26, 33, 37, 40, 54, 108-109 Infrared astronomy, space-based, xvii, 4, 46, 110-113 European Far Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), 5, 8, 24, 30, 75, 109, 110 Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), 28 Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 33, 35-39 (passim), 54, 57, 72, 76-78, 83, 85, 87, 97, 100-102, 104, 106, 110, 112 Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 4, 20, 24, 36, 54, 75, 100, 110 Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), 4, 12, 20, 24, 35, 54, 55, 94, 109, 110, 111 Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), 9, 10, 12, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 57, 97, 110-112 Infrared Spatial Interferometer, 110 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 130, 131 Institutional factors, see Organizational and institutional factors; Professional societies; Universities and colleges Intelligence, extraterrestrial, see Search for extraterrestrial intelligence Interdisciplinary approaches, 4, 6, 18, 154-158, 193 federal agency coordination, 7-8, 27-28, 30, 181-182 Interferometry, 4, 15, 46, 99, 110-111, 126, 151-152 Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth (ARISE), 10, 14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 81, 83, 98, 127, 195 defined, 218 Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), 8, 10, 11, 31, 33, 37, 38, 54, 78, 83, 85, 97, 125, 126, 127 HALCA, 127 Infrared Spatial Interferometer, 110 Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), 22, 122 Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40-41, 54, 83, 98, 122, 195 Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), 14, 33, 45, 54, 78, 126, 127 Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), 4, 12, 20, 24, 35, 54, 55, 94, 109, 110, 111 Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), 9, 10, 12, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 57, 97, 110-112 Very Large Array (VLA), 11, 38, 74, 75, 84, 125, 126, 140, 180, 187 Very Large Telescope Interferometer, 101, 111 Very Long Baseline Array, 14, 81, 84, 125, 126, 127 very long baseline interferometry, general, 30 International Dark Sky Association, 196 International perspectives, xv-xvi, 22, 101, 123, 125, 130-131, 181 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), 4, 8, 11, 12, 20, 24, 30, 31, 38, 42, 54, 57, 72, 75, 110, 130, 189 collaboration framework, 8, 30-31, 182 costs and funding for collaborative efforts, 8, 30-31, 184-185 Square Kilometer Array (SKA), 8, 10, 26, 31, 33, 37, 41, 46, 54, 78, 125, 127, 132, 189 see also terms beginning European; specific countries International Space Station Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), 14, 33, 45, 123-124 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 73, 85, 98, 120-122, 195 International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), 28 Internet Los Alamos preprint server, 196 National Virtual Observatory, 10, 12, 14, 33, 34, 37, 39, 44, 132-133 public education, general, 48, 49, 140, 142, 146, 163

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Interstellar and intergalactic media and processes, 3, 53, 63-65, 68, 78-80, 85, 100, 106, 109, 110, 117-118, 123 cosmic microwave background, 4-5, 20, 24, 28, 42, 43, 87, 88-91, 128-131, 214 Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope, 10, 11, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 72, 76, 77-78, 79, 97, 100, 101-106, 118 see also Dark matter and energy Interstellar Probe program (NASA), 22 IRAM, see Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique IRAS, see Infrared Astronomical Satellite Italy, 73, 101 IUE, see International Ultraviolet Explorer J James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), 131 Japan, 125, 127, 181 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), 31, 130 Japanese Advanced Satellites for Cosmology and Astrophysics, 8, 30 solar astronomy (Nobeyama Radioheliograph), 115, 130, 131 Subaru telescope, 101, 206 (n.1) Jupiter, 55, 106, 109 Galileo probe, 216 Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet, 19, 61, 62, 142 K Keck Foundation, xviii, 181 Keck telescopes, 74, 75, 100, 101-102, 103, 105, 110, 111, 118, 178, 181 Kitt Peak McMath-Pierce Telescope, 114, 115 Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), 2, 12, 19, 36, 39, 58, 60, 100, 107, 128 L Laboratory astrophysics, xvii, 14, 21, 33, 34, 134-135, 155-156, 195-196 see also Department of Energy Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), 10, 11-12, 33, 37, 38-39, 42, 54, 58, 61, 72, 87, 93, 97, 106-108, 132, 154 Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), 101, 111 Large Hadron Collider, 135 Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), 131 Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), 22, 122 Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40-41, 54, 83, 98, 122, 195 LBT, see Large Binocular Telescope LMT, see Large Millimeter Telescope Long-term Space Astrophysics (LTSA) program, 198-199 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 196 Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), 14, 33, 45, 54, 78, 126, 127 Lowell Observatory, 140 LSST, see Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope LTSA, see Long-term Space Astrophysics Lyman-α clouds, 106 M Magellan telescope, 101 Magnetic phenomena, 13, 14, 41, 43, 45, 58, 63, 65-66, 68, 72, 80, 83, 96, 97, 98, 114-119 (passim), 122, 124, 127, 134, 135, 153, 155 Advanced Solar Telescope (AST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 54, 66, 68, 98, 114-116 Magnetohydrodynamics, 116, 119, 153 defined, 219 MAP, see Microwave Anisotropy Probe Mars, 109, 153 Mass media, 141-142, 163 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 200 Massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), 93-94 MAXIMA telescope, 90

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium McCray report, see Strategy for Ground-based Optical and Infrared Astronomy, A Medical science, see Biomedical science MERLIN, see Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network Methodology, see Research methodology Mexico, 131 Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), 5, 20, 24, 43, 54, 89, 129, 131 Microwaves, cosmic microwave background, 4-5, 20, 24, 28, 42, 43, 87, 88-91, 128-131, 214 Mid-size Explorer mission (MIDEX), 73 Milky Way, 2, 19, 20, 36. 52, 53, 55, 73, 77, 81, 106, 111, 138, 219 massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), 93-94 supernovae, 42 white dwarf binaries, 40-41 Millimeter Array (MMA), 4, 20, 24 see also Atacama Large Millimeter Array Millimeter-wavelength astronomy, 65, 128, 129 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), 4, 8, 11, 12, 20, 24, 30, 31, 38, 42, 54, 57, 72, 75, 110, 130, 189 Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA), 41, 128, 130, 206 (n.4) Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), 10, 13, 26, 33, 37, 41-42, 54, 72, 98, 130, 189 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO), 130 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 130, 131 list of telescopes, 130-131 Millimeter Array (MMA), 4, 20, 24 Nobeyama Radioheliograph, 115, 130, 131 Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), 41, 128, 130, 206 (n.4) Minority groups, professional development, 200-201 Mission operations and data analysis (NASA), 5, 25, 27 MMT, see Multiple Mirror Telescope M31 and M32 galaxies, 78, 79 Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN), 125 Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), 101 Museums and planetariums, 140-141, 143, 163-164 N NAIC, see National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center National Aeronautics and Space Administration, xvi, 6, 7, 8, 22, 58, 178, 201, 203, 204-205 Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth (ARISE), 10, 14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 81, 83, 98, 127, 195 balloon programs, 5, 14, 24, 33, 43, 45, 89, 90, 129, 195 Ultralong-Duration Balloon (ULDB) program, 33, 45, 135, 195 Chandra X-ray Observatory, 20, 70, 71, 118, 194, 198 committee recommendations, 11, 12, 13, 14-15, 24-25, 28-29, 32, 40, 41, 43, 45, 193-195 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), 13, 20, 40, 73, 74, 75, 120, 194, 198 Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment, 13, 40, 83, 120 coordination with other federal agencies, 8, 29-30, 204-205 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 28, 88, 89, 90, 129, 195 Discovery program (NASA), 22, 35 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 73, 85, 98, 120-122, 195 Explorer program (NASA), 7, 22, 28, 34, 35, 73, 113, 120, 135, 194, 195 funding, 5, 14-15, 24-26, 32, 33, 34-35, 44, 45-46, 133-134, 146, 163, 178 Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 54, 73, 83, 98, 119-120, 195

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 5, 9, 20, 24, 30, 36, 69, 74, 75, 83, 84, 86, 100, 102, 109, 113, 118, 133, 142, 147, 149, 194, 198, 216 International Space Station Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), 14, 33, 45, 123-124 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 73, 85, 98, 120-122, 195 Keck telescopes, 74, 75, 100, 101-102, 103, 105, 110, 111, 118, 178, 181 laboratory astrophysics, 134 Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40-41, 54, 83, 98, 122, 195 mission operations and data analysis, 5, 25, 27 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program (NASA/NSF), 33, 44-45, 133 professional education, 33, 44, 133, 198-199 public education, 143, 146, 160, 163-164, 165-166, 175, 176, 204 Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), 10, 13, 33, 37, 41, 54, 68, 98, 115, 116-117, 195 space debris, 196-197 Space Science Advisory Committee, 8, 30, 205 see also Great Observatories National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), 6, 27, 180, 181 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program (NASA/NSF), 33, 44, 133 National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), 6, 20, 21, 27, 143, 151, 179, 181, 183-184 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 6, 26, 151, 179-180, 181, 184 National science education standards, 142-143 National Science Foundation, xvi, xvii, 5, 6, 20, 108, 201, 203 Advanced Solar Telescope (AST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 49, 54, 66, 68, 98, 114-116 committee recommendations, 12-13, 27, 29-30, 32, 40-41, 45, 49, 179-193 competitive reviews, 6, 27, 34, 185-186, 188, 189, 205, 206 coordination efforts, 7, 29-30, 180, 181-182, 204-205 Division of Astronomical Sciences (AST), 27, 175, 179, 182, 186, 188, 190-191, 193, 206 funding, xvii, xviii, 5, 6, 25, 26, 29, 33, 38, 44, 45, 48-49, 108, 133, 134, 146, 160-161, 163, 178, 179, 181-182, 185, 186-188, 189-193, 199, 205-206 competitive reviews, 6, 27, 34, 185-186, 188, 189, 190, 205, 206 Gemini optical-infrared telescopes, 20, 30, 101, 103, 118, 178, 180, 181, 183, 184 Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT), 10, 11, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 72, 76, 77-78, 79, 97, 100, 101-106, 118 Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG), 180, 204 Green Bank Telescope (GBT), 125, 189 laboratory astrophysics, 134 National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), 6, 27, 180, 181 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program, 33, 44, 133 National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 6, 20, 21, 27, 143, 151, 179, 181, 183-184 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 6, 27, 151, 179-180, 181, 183-184 professional education, 160, 162-163, 175, 181, 198, 200 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program (NASA/NSF), 33, 44, 133 public education, 48-49, 143, 145, 160-161, 163-164, 169, 175, 181, 204 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), 8, 13, 30, 116, 134, 204 Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP), 10, 12-13, 26, 33, 37, 40, 54, 108-109 theoretical studies, 5, 25, 29, 186, 187-188, 193 Very Large Array (VLA), 11, 38, 74, 75, 84, 125, 126, 140, 180, 187

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), 14, 81, 84, 125, 126, 127 National Solar Observatory (NSO), 6, 27, 116, 140, 184 National Virtual Observatory, 10, 12, 14, 33, 34, 37, 39, 44, 132-133 Naval Research Laboratory, 45 Near-Earth objects (NEOs), 58, 61, 38-39, 58, 61, 107, 108 see also Comets and asteroids; Kuiper Belt objects Neptune, 58, 61 Netherlands, 14, 45, 73, 125, 131 Neutralinos, 94, 124 Neutrinos, 19, 44, 65, 91, 96, 117, 123, 155, 156, 179 defined, 219 Neutron stars, 38, 42, 55, 68, 70, 72, 73, 76, 117-118, 121-122, 155, 156 New Zealand, 101 Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 33, 35-39 (passim), 54, 57, 72, 76-78, 83, 85, 87, 97, 100-102, 104, 106, 110, 112 NOAO, see National Optical Astronomy Observatories Nobeyama Radioheliograph, 115, 130, 131 Northern Hemisphere Auger project, 44 NRAO, see National Radio Astronomy Observatory NSO, see National Solar Observatory Nuclear physics, xvii, 27-28, 38, 155, 193, 195, 205 Numerical simulation, 7, 29, 106, 116, 152 153 O Office of Management and Budget, 22 Office of Science and Technology Policy, 8, 30 One Hectare Telescope, 127 Optical astronomy, general, 96-99, 148-149, 179 defined, 220 Optical astronomy, ground-based, xvii, 6, 11-12, 39-40, 76, 113, 180, 181, 182, 183, 189, 204 Advanced Solar Telescope (AST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 54, 66, 68, 98, 114-116 Gemini optical-infrared telescopes, 20, 30, 101, 103, 118, 178, 180, 181, 183, 184 Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT), 10, 11, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 72, 76, 77-78, 79, 97, 100, 101-106, 118 Keck telescopes, 74, 75, 100, 101-102, 103, 105, 110, 111, 118, 178, 181 Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), 10, 11-12, 33, 37, 38-39, 42, 54, 58, 61, 72, 87, 92, 97, 106-108, 132, 154 Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), 101, 111 National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), 6, 20, 21, 27, 143, 151, 179, 181, 183-184 Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP), 10, 12-13, 26, 33, 37, 40, 54, 108-109 see also Adaptive optics Optical astronomy, space-based, xvii, 15, 113-114 Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 5, 9, 20, 24, 30, 36, 69, 74, 75, 83, 84, 86, 100, 102, 109, 113, 118, 133, 142, 147, 149, 194, 198, 216 Solar Dynamics Observatory, 10, 13, 33, 37, 41, 54, 68, 98, 115, 116-117, 195 Organizational and institutional factors, xv, 26-28 education, general public, 140-141 federal agency coordination, 7-8, 15, 27-28, 29-30, 181-183, 204-205 ground-based facilities, 6, 180, 181-183, 188-190 international collaboration, 8, 30-31 mission operations, 5, 25, 27 see also Cost factors; Funding; Universities and colleges Orion Nebula, 57-58, 59 Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), 41, 128, 130, 206 (n.4) see also Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy OWL telescope, 31

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium P Palomar Observatory, 74, 75, 178 Palomar Testbed Interferometer, 110 Particle astrophysics, xvii, 22, 42, 43-44, 65, 80, 85, 92, 123-124, 154, 155, 195 Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), 44, 123 axions, 94, 124 neutralinos, 94, 124 neutrinos, 19, 44, 65, 91, 96, 117, 123, 155, 156, 179, 219 photons, 40, 42, 72, 83, 85, 99, 100, 115-116, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124, 148 see also Cosmic rays Photometry, 55, 56-57 gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 Photons, 40, 42, 72, 83, 85, 99, 100, 115-116, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124, 148 Planck Surveyor, see European Planck Surveyor Planetariums, see Museums and planetariums Planets, xv, 10, 11 extrasolar, 2, 3, 8-9, 18, 21, 24, 32, 55-62, 138 see also Terrestrial Planet Finder infra; Terrestrial planets infra formation and evolution, 9, 11, 18, 32, 38, 39, 52, 54, 55-62, 63, 68, 100, 106, 108, 114 protoplanetary disks, 11, 38, 39, 57, 63 giant planets, 3, 19, 54, 55, 57, 58, 61, 62, 106, 109, 112, 220 gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 life on, 3, 9, 18, 32, 52, 53, 131-132, 157-158 Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), 9, 10, 12, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 57, 97, 110-112 terrestrial planets, other, 3, 9, 10, 12, 20, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 55, 138 see also Solar systems; specific planets Plasma physics, 27-28, 41, 80, 134, 153, 155 solar, 114 Poland, 101 Pollution, see Environmental pollution Postdoctoral fellowships, 5, 14, 25, 26, 33, 34, 44, 133, 172, 198, 199, 200 Private sector, xv-xvi, 197 ground-based astronomy, 6, 27, 39-40, 101, 108, 127, 182, 183 Professional education, 4, 9, 48, 132, 160, 162, 170-174, 178, 181, 194-195, 197-203 computer technology, 171, 172 elementary and secondary teachers, 4, 15, 48, 54, 138-143 (passim), 160, 164, 165, 167, 169, 175, 202 funding, 5, 15, 25-26 see also postdoctoral fellowships infra minorities, 200-201 NASA, 33, 44, 133, 198-199 NSF, 160, 162-163, 175, 181, 198, 200 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program (NASA/NSF), 33, 44, 133 postdoctoral fellowships, 5, 14, 25, 26, 33, 34, 44, 133, 172, 198, 199, 200 women astronomers, 199-200 see also Internet; Universities and colleges Professional societies, 201-203 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 160 American Association of Variable Star Observers, 143 American Astronomical Society (AAS), xxvii, xviii, 2, 21, 139-140, 142, 145, 160, 164, 166-167, 169, 171, 173, 199, 201-202 American Physical Society, 202 Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), 142, 145, 160, 164, 166-167, 169, 173, 202 International Dark Sky Association, 196 Project ARIES, 145 Project ASTRO, 145, 160-161, 164 Protoplanetary disks, 11, 38, 39, 57, 63, 106, 109, 112 defined, 220 Public education and outreach, 4, 9, 15, 18, 22, 44, 47-49, 132, 138-146, 158, 160-170, 174-176, 181 elementary and secondary teachers, 4, 15, 48, 54, 138-143 (passim), 160, 164, 165, 167, 169, 175, 202 funding, 15, 146, 160-161, 163-164, 167, 175 Internet, general, 48, 49, 140, 142, 146, 163

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium mass media, 141-142, 163 minority scientists, 201 museums and planetariums, 140-141, 143, 163-164 NASA, 143, 146, 160, 163-164, 165-166, 175, 176, 204 National Science Education Standards, 142-143 NSF, 48-49, 143, 145, 160-161, 163-164, 169, 175, 181, 204 see also Internet Pulsars, 42, 155 Q Quasars, 11, 20, 38, 77, 80, 126 defined, 220 gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 R Radio astronomy, general, 124-132, 150, 153 cosmic microwave background, 4-5, 20, 24, 28, 42, 43, 87, 88-91, 128-131, 214 defined, 220 extraterrestrial intelligence, 131-132 intergalactic media, 80 search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), 131-132 see also Centimeter-wavelength astronomy; Millimeter-wavelength astronomy; Submillimeter-wavelength astronomy Radio astronomy, ground-based, 6, 13, 14, 46, 180, 182, 189, 204 Arecibo telescope, 125-126 Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), 4, 8, 11, 12, 20, 24, 30, 31, 38, 42, 54, 57, 72, 75, 110, 130, 189 Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA), 41, 128, 130, 206 (n.4) Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 130, 206 (n.4) Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), 10, 13, 26, 33, 37, 41-42, 54, 72, 98, 130, 189 Expanded Very Large Array (ELVA), 8, 10, 11, 31, 33, 37, 38, 54, 78, 83, 85, 97, 125, 126, 127 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO), 130 Frequency Agile Solar Radio telescope (FASR), 10, 13, 33, 37, 42-43, 54, 98, 115, 116, 189 HALCA, 127 Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, 130 Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), 14, 33, 45, 54, 78, 126, 127 Millimeter Array (MMA), 4, 20, 24 National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), 6, 27, 180, 181 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 6, 27, 151, 179-180, 181, 184 Nobeyama Radioheliograph, 115, 130, 131 Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), 41, 128, 130, 206 (n.4) South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SPST), 10, 13, 33, 37, 43, 54, 75, 98, 128-129, 131 Square Kilometer Array (SKA), 8, 10, 26, 31, 33, 37, 41, 46, 54, 78, 125, 127, 132, 189 Very Large Array (VLA), 11, 38, 74, 75, 84, 125, 126, 140, 180, 187 Very Long Baseline Array, 14, 81, 84, 125, 126, 127 very long baseline interferometry, general, 30 Radio astronomy, space-based, 150 Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth (ARISE), 10, 14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 81, 83, 98, 127, 195 Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 33, 35-39 (passim), 54, 57, 72, 76-78, 83, 85, 87, 97, 100-102, 104, 106, 110, 112 Red giants, 68, 72 white dwarf binaries, 40-41, 68, 72, 117 Redshifts, 12, 19, 36, 38, 39, 75, 77, 78, 83, 86, 88, 100 defined, 220 Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, 134-135 Relativistic phenomena, 40, 84, 87, 119, 120, 155

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 see also Cosmic rays Research-Based Science Education (program), 143 Research methodology image analysis, 101, 143, 151 international collaboration, 8, 30-31, 182 see also Technology development; Theory Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE), 74, 75 Roentgen Satellite, 120 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), 28 S SAFIR, see Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory Satellites, see Spaced-based programs Scientific Assessment Group for Experiments in Non-Accelerator Physics, 7-8 SDO, see Solar Dynamics Observatory Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), 131-132 Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet, 19, 61, 62, 142 SIM, see Space Interferometry Mission Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR), 9, 10, 33, 35, 37, 39, 54, 75, 83, 85, 97, 109-110 SIRTF, see Space Infrared Telescope Facility SKA, see Square Kilometer Array Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 88, 132 SMA, see Submillimeter Array SOFIA, see Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), 8, 13, 30, 115, 116, 134, 204 Solar astronomy, xvii, 6. 14, 65-68, 114-117, 135, 155, 180, 189, 204 Advanced Solar Telescope (AST), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 54, 66, 68, 114-116 Dunn Solar Telescope, 115 Earth, climate and, 9, 66, 150, 153-154 Earth, ultraviolet radiation effects, 154 Frequency Agile Solar Radio telescope (FASR), 10, 13, 33, 37, 42-43, 54, 98, 115, 116, 189 High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI), 115 magnetic phenomena, 65-66, 114-117 (passim), 135 National Solar Observatory (NSO), 6, 27, 116, 140, 184 seismic activity, 19, 65, 218 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), 8, 13, 30, 116, 134, 204 Solar-B telescope, 115 Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), 10, 13, 33, 37, 41, 54, 68, 98, 115, 116-117, 195 Solar Probe program (NASA), 22 Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), 115 Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigation of the Sun (SOLIS), 14, 33, 45, 114, 115 Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), 67, 68, 115 Yohkoh telescope, 115 see also Stars Solar-B telescope, 115 Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), 10, 13, 33, 37, 41, 54, 68, 98, 115, 116-117, 195 Solar Probe program (NASA), 22 Solar systems, 2, 9, 55-62, 112 comets and asteroids, 19, 58, 61, 62, 108, 128, 142, 154 formation, 3, 12, 19, 32, 54, 55 protoplanetary disks, 11, 38, 39, 57, 63, 106, 109, 112, 220 Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), 2, 12, 19, 36, 39, 58, 60, 100, 107, 128 near-Earth objects (NEOs), 58, 61, 38-39, 58, 61, 107, 108 see also Planets; specific planets Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), 115 SOLIS, see Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigation of the Sun Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), 101 Southern Hemisphere Pierre Auger Observatory project, 44, 85, 123 South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SPST), 10, 13, 33, 37, 43, 54, 75, 98, 128-129, 131 Southwestern Consortium of Observatories for Public Education, 140

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Space-based programs, xv, 2, 13-14, 15, 32, 33, 34-35, 46, 47, 178 Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), 8, 10, 13, 31, 33, 37, 40-41, 54, 83, 98, 122, 195 spacecraft communications, 15, 46, 47, 152 see also High-energy astrophysics; Infrared astronomy, space-based; International Space Station; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Optical astronomy, space-based; Radio astronomy, space-based; Ultraviolet astronomy, space-based Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 4, 20, 24, 36, 54, 75, 100, 110 Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), 4, 12, 20, 24, 35, 54, 55, 93, 109, 110, 111 Space Science Advisory Committee (NASA), 8, 30, 205 Space Station, see International Space Station Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) survey, 197, 199 Space weather, 9, 66, 106, 116-117 Spain, 101 SPST, see South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope Square Kilometer Array (SKA), 8, 10, 26, 31, 33, 37, 41, 46, 54, 78, 125, 127, 132, 189 Starbursts and starburst galaxies, 39, 73, 84-85, 110, 112, 126 defined, 221 Stars, 2, 3, 10, 11, 63-73, 117 brown dwarfs, 19, 20, 63, 109 evolution, 40-41, 52, 63, 68-73, 107, 117, 134; see also Black holes; Supernovae formation, 3, 8, 11, 18, 32, 36, 38, 52, 53, 54, 57, 63-66, 68, 75, 76-77, 78, 83, 100, 102, 104, 106, 109, 112, 113, 127, 128; see also Protoplanetary disks gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 late stages stellar evolution, 3 neutron stars, 38, 42, 55, 68, 70, 72, 73, 76, 117-118, 121-122, 155, 156 pulsars, 42, 155 quasars, 11, 20, 38, 77, 80, 126, 220 gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 red giants, 68-69 white dwarf binaries, 40-41, 68, 72, 117 see also Black holes; Galaxies; Interstellar and intergalactic media and processes; Solar astronomy; Supernovae STEREO, see Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory Strategic Defense Initiative, 149 Strategy for Ground-based Optical and Infrared Astronomy, A, 108 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), 24, 54, 100, 109, 110 STScI, see Space Telescope Science Institute Subaru telescope, 101, 206 (n.1) Submillimeter Array (SMA), 130 Submillimeter-wavelength astronomy, xvii, 25, 65, 75 Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 130, 206 (n.4) Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, 130 list of telescopes, 130-131 South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SPST), 10, 13, 33, 37, 43, 54, 75, 98, 128-129, 131 Submillimeter Array (SMA), 130 Supernovae, 12, 39, 42, 68, 70, 72, 87, 88, 106, 107, 121, 123, 134 interstellar and intergalactic gas, 3, 78, 80 nucleosynthesis, 134, 219 see also Black holes; Neutron stars Superstring theory, 94 Swedish Vacuum Tower, 115 Swift mission (Explorer program), 120 Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigation of the Sun (SOLIS), 14, 33, 45, 114, 115 T Taiwan, 130 Technology development, xvii, 8-11 (passim), 14-15, 26, 31-41 (passim), 45-47, 99-135, 174, 186, 194-195, 205-206 practical contributions to society, 146-154, 178

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium Telescopes, ground-based, see Ground-based programs; Infrared astronomy, ground-based; National Science Foundation; Optical astronomy, ground-based; Radio astronomy, ground-based; Ultraviolet astronomy, ground-based Telescopes, space-based, see High-energy astrophysics; Infrared astronomy, space-based; International Space Station; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Optical astronomy, space-based; Radio astronomy, space-based; Ultra-violet-astronomy, space-based Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP), 10, 12-13, 26, 33, 37, 40, 54, 108-109 Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), 9, 10, 12, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 57, 97, 110-112 Terrestrial planets, 3, 9, 10, 12, 20, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 55, 138 see also Earth; Extraterrestrial life Theory, 14, 19, 106, 133-134, 155 black holes, 19, 120, 122, 126 comets and asteroids, 108 computer technology, 7, 29 cosmological constant, 87 dust in the universe, 110 funding, 5, 7, 25, 29, 133-134, 187-188 galaxy formation and evolution, 106, 126, 127 gamma rays, 19 general framework, xv, xvii, 3, 7, 28-29, 33, 53, 96 giant planets, 57 massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), 93 NASA’s Astrophysics Theory Program, 14 National Astrophysical Theory Postdoctoral Program (NASA/NSF), 33, 44, 133 NSF role, 5, 25, 29, 186, 187-188, 193 numerical simulation, 7, 29, 106, 116, 152-153 planet formation, 106 relativity, 40, 84, 87, 119, 120, 155 gravitational lensing, 12, 19, 39, 55, 56-57, 93-94, 127, 217 stellar formation and evolution, 63-64, 106, 126, 127 stellar structure, 19, 63, 65 supernovae, 106 superstring, 94 Theory challenges, 7, 28-29, 106, 108, 110, 112, 116, 117, 119, 120, 122, 123, 126, 127, 129 Titan satellite of Saturn, 109 TPF, see Terrestrial Planet Finder Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), 67, 68, 115 Triad program, 122, 221 TSIP, see Telescope System Instrumentation Program Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), 132 U Ultralong-Duration Balloon (ULDB) program, 33, 45, 135, 195 Ultraviolet astronomy, general, 96-99, 148-149, 150 defined, 222 Ultraviolet astronomy, ground-based, 74, 75, 100, 101-102, 103, 105, 110, 111, 118, 178, 181 Ultraviolet astronomy, space-based, xvii, 15, 24, 46, 113-114 Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), 28, 113 Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Explorer (FUSE), 113 Galaxy Evolution Explorer, 113 International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), 28 Solar Dynamics Observatory, 10, 13, 33, 37, 41, 54, 68, 98, 115, 116-117, 195 United Kingdom, 101, 115, 125, 131 Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook, The, 143 Universe in the Classroom, 145 Universities and colleges, 5, 15, 25, 48, 167-174, 205 ground-based facilities, 6, 26-27, 39-40, 181, 183, 188, 189, 190, 191 see also Professional training Uranus, 58 U.S. Axion Experiment, 94, see Axions U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science, 30

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Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium V Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS), 10, 13, 33, 37, 42, 83, 98, 121 Very Large Array (VLA), 11, 38, 74, 75, 84, 125, 126, 140, 180, 187 see also Expanded Very Large Array Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLT), 101, 111 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), 14, 81, 84, 125, 126, 127 W Weather, see Climate and weather, planetary; Space weather WFC3, see Wide Field Camera 3 Whipple Observatory, 120, 140 White dwarves, 40-41, 68, 72, 117 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), 103 WIMP, see Neutralinos Women scientists, professional development, 199-200 World Wide Web, see Internet X X-ray astronomy, 10, 11, 15, 46, 67, 75, 80, 117-118, 148, 149, 150 Astro-E, 118 Chandra X-ray Observatory, 20, 70, 71, 118, 194, 198 Constellation-X Observatory, 10, 11, 33, 37, 38, 53, 54, 72, 75-76, 80, 83, 85, 89, 91, 97, 118-119 defined, 222 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 42, 54, 73, 85, 98, 120-122, 195 High-Energy Astronomical Observatory (HEAO-1), 42, 98 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), 28 X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton), 8, 30, 118 Y Yohkoh telescope, 115