that resulted in near-zero life-cycle emissions of carbon dioxide. Expansion of the Vision 21 Program at the DOE Office of Fossil Energy was suggested, as well as the development of technologies to make hydrogen from carbonaceous feedstocks and to recover by-product carbon dioxide for safe disposal.


DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1995. Final Report of the Task Force on Strategic Energy Research and Development. Washington, D.C.: Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, U.S. Department of Energy.

DOE. 1997. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy (October). Also available on line at:

EERE (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy). 1997. Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions: Potential Impacts of Energy Technologies by 2010 and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.

PCAST (President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology). 1997. Federal Energy Research and Development for the Twenty-First Century. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President.

PCAST. 1999. Powerful Partnerships: The Federal Role in International Cooperation on Energy Innovation. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement