INDEX

A

Ability, defining, 85

Accountability, 8

Achievement, grading and communicating, 1, 64-65, 68-69

Administrative support, 102

Advanced Placement examinations, 2

Alternative assessment, 31.

See also Science Education for Public Understanding Program

American College Testing (ACT) Program, 2

American Federation of Teachers (AFT), 69

Assessment, 33-49.

See also Formative assessment;

Summative assessment

at any time, 24

beyond a single test, 74

changing emphases in, 19

creating opportunities for, 42

defined, 12

design, selection and participation in, 16-17, 37

form matching purpose, 35-38

and high standards, 19-20

multiple purposes of, 20-21

nature and form of feedback, 39-40

providing time for, 101

questioning, 35

reflective practice in, 34

in scientific experimentation, 40-47

subject-matter goals, 38-39

in teaching standards, 50

terms used in, 31

timing of, 40

using to inform teaching or influence learning, 12

variety in, 30, 34-35

Assessment activities, 19, 60-64

table of, 63

Assessment-centered professional development, 83-88

articulating a plan, 86

establishing goals, 83-84

exploring conceptions of learning, 87-88

giving feedback to students, 86-87

identifying student understanding, 84-86

understanding of subject matter, 87

Assessment data

collecting, 49

involving teachers in using, 1, 9, 12, 24

managing, 52

uses for, 51-52, 56

Assessment in the classroom, 4, 7-58

consistent with pedagogy, 51

equity principle in, 52-55

examination of student work, 35

external standards-based summative, 73-74

formative, 13-15, 25-26, 30-32

goals for, 32-33, 49-52

key points, 21, 58

present state of, 33-49

school's role in, 18-19

strengthening, 11-21

student involvement in, 42, 48-49

student's role in, 17-18

teacher's role in, 15-17

validity and reliability of, 55-58

Authentic assessment, 31



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Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards INDEX A Ability, defining, 85 Accountability, 8 Achievement, grading and communicating, 1, 64-65, 68-69 Administrative support, 102 Advanced Placement examinations, 2 Alternative assessment, 31. See also Science Education for Public Understanding Program American College Testing (ACT) Program, 2 American Federation of Teachers (AFT), 69 Assessment, 33-49. See also Formative assessment; Summative assessment at any time, 24 beyond a single test, 74 changing emphases in, 19 creating opportunities for, 42 defined, 12 design, selection and participation in, 16-17, 37 form matching purpose, 35-38 and high standards, 19-20 multiple purposes of, 20-21 nature and form of feedback, 39-40 providing time for, 101 questioning, 35 reflective practice in, 34 in scientific experimentation, 40-47 subject-matter goals, 38-39 in teaching standards, 50 terms used in, 31 timing of, 40 using to inform teaching or influence learning, 12 variety in, 30, 34-35 Assessment activities, 19, 60-64 table of, 63 Assessment-centered professional development, 83-88 articulating a plan, 86 establishing goals, 83-84 exploring conceptions of learning, 87-88 giving feedback to students, 86-87 identifying student understanding, 84-86 understanding of subject matter, 87 Assessment data collecting, 49 involving teachers in using, 1, 9, 12, 24 managing, 52 uses for, 51-52, 56 Assessment in the classroom, 4, 7-58 consistent with pedagogy, 51 equity principle in, 52-55 examination of student work, 35 external standards-based summative, 73-74 formative, 13-15, 25-26, 30-32 goals for, 32-33, 49-52 key points, 21, 58 present state of, 33-49 school's role in, 18-19 strengthening, 11-21 student involvement in, 42, 48-49 student's role in, 17-18 teacher's role in, 15-17 validity and reliability of, 55-58 Authentic assessment, 31

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Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards C Class discussions, 19, 23-24 Class size, 101-102 Classroom assessment, 7-58 case for strengthening, 11-21 equity principle in, 52-55 formative, 13-15, 25-26, 30-32 goals for, 32-33, 49-52 and high standards, 19-20 key points, 21, 58 multiple purposes of, 20-21 present situation, 33-49 school's role in, 18-19 student's role in, 17-18 teacher's role in, 15-17 validity and reliability of, 55-58 vignettes of, 5, 26-30, 43-47, 89-95 Collaboration, in professional development, 81-82 Committee on Science Education (COSE K-12), 3 Communicating achievement, 64-65, 68-69 Community involvement, and parents, 103 Conceptions of learning, 87-88 Conversations for assessment, 19 in vignettes of classrooms, 27 Criteria-setting, 1, 9, 32-33 Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs), 72 Cumulative assessment. See Summative assessment Current reform in Connecticut, 76-77 in Delaware, 89-95 in Douglas, Colorado, 77 in Kentucky, 75 learning from, 74-76 in Queensland, Australia, 76 in Vermont, 75 D D Data. See Assessment data Design of assessment, 16-17, 37 “Disclosure” issues, 54 District level, 99-102 administrative support, 102 class size, 101-102 professional development, 100 testing policies, 2, 98-99 time, 100-101 E Embedded assessment, 31 Equity principle, 52-55 Esteem. See Self-esteem Evidence and Tradeoffs (ET) Variable, in SEPUP, 68 Experiments, assessment of scientific, 40-47 External assessment for consistency, 2 large-scale, 2, 69, 71-73 standards-based summative, 73-74 F Feedback cognitive and affective, 15-16 giving to students, 86-87 Formative assessment, 4, 25-26, 30-32 defined, 12, 20, 25 framework for, 13-15 grading and communicating achievement, 64-65, 68-69 relationship to summative, 59-77 in scientific experimentation, 40-47 Forms to match purpose, 35-38 performance assessments, 60-61 portfolios, 61-62 summative assessment in the classroom, 60-64 traditional tests, 62-64 Framework for formative assessment, 13-15 and science content, 14-15 G Goal achievement, 1, 49-52 assessment consistent with pedagogy, 51 assessment data management, 52 use of assessment data, 51-52, 56 Goals establishing, 83-84 learning, 39 Grading of achievement, 64-65, 68-69 to convey information, 16

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Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards H High standards, maintaining, 19-20 Higher education for teachers, 102-103 How People Learn, 84 I Information, involving teachers in using, 1, 9, 12, 24 Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards, 86 Inservice training, 100 Intelligence, defining, 54, 85 J Journals, 19, 48 in vignettes of classrooms, 27 K Key points, 21, 58, 76-77 Knowledge, pedagogical, 14 L Large-scale external assessment, 2, 69 the current system and needed reform, 71-73 Learning exploring conceptions of, 87-88 lifelong, 33 not a solitary activity, 13 using assessment to influence, 12 Learning goals, 39 Lifelong learning, 33 M Multiple entry points, to professional development, 82-83 Multiple purposes of assessment, 20-21 Multiple roles teachers play, 55 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2 National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), 69 National Education Association (NEA), 69 National Research Council (NRC), 3 National Science Education Standards, 2, 7-9, 11-19, 24-26, 32-33, 52-55, 60, 97-98, 103 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 2 Nature and form of feedback, 39-40 Norm-referenced tests (NRTs), 72 NRC. See National Research Council NRTs. See Norm-referenced tests O Opportunities, creating, 42 P Parental involvement, and community, 103 Participation in assessment, 16-17, 37 Pedagogical knowledge, 14 Pedagogy, assessment consistent with, 51 Peer assessment by students, 19, 48-49 Performance assessments, 12, 19, 31, 60-61 Performance criteria, for teachers, 87 Placement, assessment for, 12 Plans for assessment, 16 articulating, 86 Policy impacts, 97-98 Portfolio assessments, 18-19, 31, 61-62 Practice, professional development rooted in, 80 Professional development, 4, 79-96, 100 agenda for assessment-centered, 83-88 articulating a plan for, 86 basic features of, 96 collaboration in, 81-82 establishing goals for, 83-84 exploring conceptions of learning, 87-88 giving feedback to students, 86-87 identifying student understanding, 84-86 key points for, 96

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Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards multiple entry points, 82-83 providing time for, 100-101 supporting student involvement in assessment, 88-96 and understanding of subject matter, 87 Project Zero, 95 Projects, 19, 24 in vignettes of classrooms, 26-27 Purposes of assessment, multiple, 20-21 Q Questioning assessment, 35 Quizzes, 19 R Rationale, for strengthening assessment in the science classroom, 11-21 Reflective practice, 19 in assessment, 34 in professional development, 80-81 Reform going beyond a single test, 74 involving teachers, 75-76 learning from, 74-76 Reliability concerns, 55-58 applying to classroom teaching, 71 in classroom terms, 57-58 defined, 56 in summative assessments, 69-71 Responding to students, 86-87 Responsibility for assessment, sharing, 1, 9 Roles played in assessment by schools, 18-19 by students, 17-18 by teachers, 15-17 S Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT), 2 School districts. See District level School level, 99-102 administrative support, 102 class size, 101-102 professional development, 100 role in assessment, 18-19 time, 100-101 Science content, 14-15, 29 complexity of, 12, 60 Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP), 65-69 Evidence and Tradeoffs Variable, 68 Selection in assessment, 16-17, 37 Self-assessment by students, 17-18, 48-49 Self-esteem, focusing on, 16, 30 Self-reflection, 19 SEPUP. See Science Education for Public Understanding Program Shared responsibility, 1, 9 Standards maintaining high, 19-20 teacher's role in implementing, 15 Standards-based summative assessment system, 60 external, 73-74 State level testing policies, 2, 98-99 Student-Involved Classroom Assessment, 37 Student involvement in assessment, 17-18, 42, 48-49 peer assessment, 19, 48-49 professional development for supporting, 88-96 self-assessment, 17-18, 48-49 Student understanding, identifying, 84-86 Student work, examination of, 35 Subject-matter goals, 38-39 and professional development, 87 Summative assessment, 4 in the classroom, 60-64 defined, 12, 20, 25 external standards-based, 73-74 grading and communicating achievement, 64-65, 68-69 relationship to formative, 59-77 serving the standards, 60 validity and reliability in, 69-71 Support administrative, 102 system-level, 97-104 System-level supports, 4, 97-104 from community and parents, 103 district and school level, 99-102 district and state testing policies, 98-99 external science assessments, 99 goal setting, 103-104 higher education, 102-103

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Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards T Teacher involvement, 15-17, 75-76 in developing and interpreting standards, 17 in implementing standards, 15 role in design, selection and participation, 16-17, 37 role in external science assessments, 99 role in feedback, cognitive and affective, 15-16 using assessment to inform teaching, 1, 9, 12-13, 24 Teachers higher education for, 102-103 performance criteria for, 87 playing multiple roles, 55 Teaching standards, 50 developing and interpreting, 17 implementing, 15 Testing criterion-referenced, 72 district and state policies, 2, 98-99 norm-referenced, 72 traditional, 19, 62-64 Testing policies, impacts of, 97-98 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2 Time for professional development, providing, 100-101 Timing of assessment, 40 Traditional tests and quizzes, 19 using differently, 62-64 U Understanding defining, 36, 85 identifying, 84-86 V Validity concerns, 55-58 applying to classroom teaching, 71 in classroom terms, 57-58 in summative assessments, 69-71 Variety in assessment, 30, 34-35 Vignettes of classrooms, 5, 26-30, 43-47, 89-95