C

Class discussions, 19, 23-24

Class size, 101-102

Classroom assessment, 7-58

case for strengthening, 11-21

equity principle in, 52-55

formative, 13-15, 25-26, 30-32

goals for, 32-33, 49-52

and high standards, 19-20

key points, 21, 58

multiple purposes of, 20-21

present situation, 33-49

school's role in, 18-19

student's role in, 17-18

teacher's role in, 15-17

validity and reliability of, 55-58

vignettes of, 5, 26-30, 43-47, 89-95

Collaboration, in professional development, 81-82

Committee on Science Education (COSE K-12), 3

Communicating achievement, 64-65, 68-69

Community involvement, and parents, 103

Conceptions of learning, 87-88

Conversations for assessment, 19

in vignettes of classrooms, 27

Criteria-setting, 1, 9, 32-33

Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs), 72

Cumulative assessment.

See Summative assessment

Current reform

in Connecticut, 76-77

in Delaware, 89-95

in Douglas, Colorado, 77

in Kentucky, 75

learning from, 74-76

in Queensland, Australia, 76

in Vermont, 75

D

D Data.

See Assessment data

Design of assessment, 16-17, 37

“Disclosure” issues, 54

District level, 99-102

administrative support, 102

class size, 101-102

professional development, 100

testing policies, 2, 98-99

time, 100-101

E

Embedded assessment, 31

Equity principle, 52-55

Esteem.

See Self-esteem

Evidence and Tradeoffs (ET) Variable, in SEPUP, 68

Experiments, assessment of scientific, 40-47

External assessment

for consistency, 2

large-scale, 2, 69, 71-73

standards-based summative, 73-74

F

Feedback

cognitive and affective, 15-16

giving to students, 86-87

Formative assessment, 4, 25-26, 30-32

defined, 12, 20, 25

framework for, 13-15

grading and communicating achievement, 64-65, 68-69

relationship to summative, 59-77

in scientific experimentation, 40-47

Forms

to match purpose, 35-38

performance assessments, 60-61

portfolios, 61-62

summative assessment in the classroom, 60-64

traditional tests, 62-64

Framework for formative assessment, 13-15

and science content, 14-15

G

Goal achievement, 1, 49-52

assessment consistent with pedagogy, 51

assessment data management, 52

use of assessment data, 51-52, 56

Goals

establishing, 83-84

learning, 39

Grading

of achievement, 64-65, 68-69

to convey information, 16



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