Index

A

Abstract reasoning, 74, 78, 89

Accountability, 20, 271–272

Action research, 191, 199–200, 257

Active learning, 10, 12–13, 80, 182, 218

Adaptive expertise, 45–46, 50, 51, 73, 133, 140, 233

Administrators, schools, 243, 248, 251, 252, 259, 265, 266

Adult learning, 26–27.

See also Teacher learning

African Americans, 72, 73, 109, 110, 135

Algebra, 58, 63, 65, 137–138, 198, 213–214, 225

Alice in Wonderland/Through the Looking Glass books, 105–107

American Association of Physics Teachers, 191

Analogical reasoning, 62, 64, 65–66, 110

Annenberg Critical Friends Project, 197–198

Apprenticeship learning, 109, 191, 214, 220– 221

Assessments, 233, 244–245.

See also Methodologies, learning assessment;

Self-assessment

accountability, 20, 271–272

alternative, 192

conditionalized knowledge and, 43

content-process framework, 143–144

cultural sensitivity in, 72, 110–111, 146

with feedback, 19, 43, 140–141, 154

formative, 19, 24–25, 140–141, 142, 152, 154, 167, 217, 219, 257–258, 268, 277

grading practices, 146

of initial learning, 55, 56, 57

learning environments centered on, 139– 144, 154, 188, 196–197

learning goals and, 18–19

memorization focus, 9, 140, 141, 152, 189, 245

multiple-choice tests, 140

portfolio, 142, 220

principles, 139–140

research recommendations, 251, 254–257, 258–259, 261–263

science education, 143–144, 277

standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272

state education standards, 271

of strategic competence, 97

summative, 140, 141, 154, 189

teacher training, 27, 197–198, 246–247, 264–266, 267–268

certification programs, 197, 272–273

theoretical frameworks, 142–144

of understanding, formats for, 56, 141, 142, 143

uses, 140

Astrocytes, 119, 126

Automaticity of skills, 139

Axons, 116

B

Bank Street College, 208, 227

Bay Area and National Writing Project, 195, 197

Behaviorism, 6–8

Beliefs, teachers, 48, 72, 73, 158, 159, 160– 161, 164, 170, 171, 195, 199, 203

Belvedere system, 214

Biological causality, 4, 88–89, 90, 112, 233

Biology, 68, 70–71, 174–177, 184–186, 187, 193, 216, 227, 233

Brain development, 235

basics, 116–117

blood vessel formation, 118–120, 126

environments for learning and, 119

exercise and, 117–119, 120



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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Index A Abstract reasoning, 74, 78, 89 Accountability, 20, 271–272 Action research, 191, 199–200, 257 Active learning, 10, 12–13, 80, 182, 218 Adaptive expertise, 45–46, 50, 51, 73, 133, 140, 233 Administrators, schools, 243, 248, 251, 252, 259, 265, 266 Adult learning, 26–27. See also Teacher learning African Americans, 72, 73, 109, 110, 135 Algebra, 58, 63, 65, 137–138, 198, 213–214, 225 Alice in Wonderland/Through the Looking Glass books, 105–107 American Association of Physics Teachers, 191 Analogical reasoning, 62, 64, 65–66, 110 Annenberg Critical Friends Project, 197–198 Apprenticeship learning, 109, 191, 214, 220– 221 Assessments, 233, 244–245. See also Methodologies, learning assessment; Self-assessment accountability, 20, 271–272 alternative, 192 conditionalized knowledge and, 43 content-process framework, 143–144 cultural sensitivity in, 72, 110–111, 146 with feedback, 19, 43, 140–141, 154 formative, 19, 24–25, 140–141, 142, 152, 154, 167, 217, 219, 257–258, 268, 277 grading practices, 146 of initial learning, 55, 56, 57 learning environments centered on, 139– 144, 154, 188, 196–197 learning goals and, 18–19 memorization focus, 9, 140, 141, 152, 189, 245 multiple-choice tests, 140 portfolio, 142, 220 principles, 139–140 research recommendations, 251, 254–257, 258–259, 261–263 science education, 143–144, 277 standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272 state education standards, 271 of strategic competence, 97 summative, 140, 141, 154, 189 teacher training, 27, 197–198, 246–247, 264–266, 267–268 certification programs, 197, 272–273 theoretical frameworks, 142–144 of understanding, formats for, 56, 141, 142, 143 uses, 140 Astrocytes, 119, 126 Automaticity of skills, 139 Axons, 116 B Bank Street College, 208, 227 Bay Area and National Writing Project, 195, 197 Behaviorism, 6–8 Beliefs, teachers, 48, 72, 73, 158, 159, 160– 161, 164, 170, 171, 195, 199, 203 Belvedere system, 214 Biological causality, 4, 88–89, 90, 112, 233 Biology, 68, 70–71, 174–177, 184–186, 187, 193, 216, 227, 233 Brain development, 235 basics, 116–117 blood vessel formation, 118–120, 126 environments for learning and, 119 exercise and, 117–119, 120

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School experiences and, 117–119, 120, 121, 124– 125, 126–127, 233 functional organization, 120–121, 122–123, 126 instruction and, 121–123 language and, 121–124, 127 learning and, 4, 114–115, 119–121 misconceptions about, 114 neural activity and, 119–120, 127, 276 plasticity, 123, 233, 276 social interaction and, 119, 126 synaptic connections, 116–118, 119–120, 122, 126 timetable for, 121–122, 126–127 Brain processes memory and, 124–126 silent areas, 114 Breadloaf Writing Project, 198 BreadNet, 198 Bridging strategy, 179, 180, 187 Bruer, John, 127 Bush, Vannevar, 213 C Calculus, 66 Case-based learning, 62, 77 Cat learning, 6–8 Causality biological, 4, 88–89, 90, 112 physical, 84–88 Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, 222 Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241 Chess, 32, 34–36, 43, 56 Chicago Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science, 195 Children’s learning, 234–235. See also Infant cognition biological causality, 4, 88–89, 90, 112, 233 caregiver-child interactions, 103–104, 112– 113 children’s conceptions of intelligence and, 82, 101–102 choosing strategies, 99–101 community environments, 82, 111, 113 conversational, 109–110 cultural factors, 23, 108–111, 113, 233, 276 eavesdropping, 109–110 guided learning, 102–111 inquiry-based, 107, 110–111 language, 4, 91–95, 102, 109, 112, 121 mathematics, 4, 12, 69, 71, 91, 92, 112, 137–138, 196 memory capacity and, 18, 58, 95–96 metacognition, 18–19, 21, 47, 82, 97–98 motivation, 61, 77, 101–102, 112 multiple intelligences and, 82, 101 multiple-strategy usage, 98–101 non-self-directed, 102 number concepts, 4, 91, 92, 112 observational, 109 physical concepts, 87–88, 102, 112 preconceptions, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236–237, 255, 261–262, 263 prior knowledge, 10–11, 14, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78, 233 privileged-domain competencies, 81–82, 84–95, 102, 112 processing time, 58 reading, 105–108 reasoning complexity, 99, 138, 153 science, 138, 183–186 self-directed, 102 story-telling, 108 strategic competence, 82, 95, 96–98, 112 television and, 26, 82, 150 tool use, 87–88 Chunking/clustering technique, 32–33, 38, 52, 96–97 Classroom Action Research Network, 199 Classrooms communications technology for, 182, 219, 247 community connections, 25–26, 207–208, 224–226, 246 competitiveness of students, 146 environments for learning, 23–24, 144– 147, 154, 246, 247 Global Lab, 209 norms and expectations, 145–147, 188 research based in, 199–200, 248, 252–254, 255, 259 Classtalk, 182, 219 Coaching, 42, 68, 177–178, 180–182, 222–223 Cognitive and motivational factors, 280 representations and strategies, 65, 144, 145, 243 science, 8, 234, 244–245, 276, 279 Cognitively Guided Instruction Project, 197

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Collaborative learning, 279–280 action research, 199 computer technology and, 209, 212–213, 219, 221 scientist-student partnerships, 209, 217 students, 74, 108, 141, 152, 182, 192, 222– 223 teachers, 195, 197–199 Communication. See also Internet cultural differences, 73, 108–111, 113 interactive, 207–208, 219, 262–263 mass media, 275–276 network, 220–221 research recommendations, 252, 253, 254, 262–263, 274, 282–283 Communities of learners, 100, 156–157, 168, 182, 199, 204 Communities of practice, 183–184, 197–198, 207–208, 209, 227–229, 243 Community learning environments broad community connections, 61, 147– 149, 154, 224–226, 245–246, 274 children’s learning and, 82, 111, 112 classrooms, 25–26, 144–147, 154, 246 computer technology and, 82, 212–213, 224–226, 227–228 schools, 147, 154 student-scientist partnerships, 209 for teachers, 27, 197–199, 204, 227–229 Competence, 237–238. See also Expert performance; Strategic competence zone of proximal development, 70–71, 72, 108 Competitiveness of students, 146 Comprehension-fostering activities, 107–108 Computational modeling research, 14 Computer language tasks, 53, 55, 60, 65 Computer programming experts, 33 Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILE), 219–220, 221, 227 Computer technology classroom communications systems, 182, 247 classroom-community connections, 82, 207–208, 209, 224–226 curriculum innovations, 4, 21, 68, 207– 213, 262–263 feedback through, 178, 182, 216–224, 243, 258 games, 16 importance, 206–207, 229–230, 233, 243, 247 Internet, 27, 209, 220, 224–226, 227–228, 243, 270, 282 recommendations, 243–244, 247, 255–256, 257, 258, 262–263, 269, 270, 277, 284 scaffolds and scaffolding, 68, 213–216, 243 science of learning, databases, 278–279 teacher learning opportunities, 194, 195, 198, 226–229, 269 tools, 21, 68, 74, 207, 213–216, 243–244, 247, 257 tutoring environments, 178, 221–224, 225 Concepts knowledge organized around, 9, 33, 36, 38, 42–44, 49, 181–182 representations of, 63, 65–66, 276 Conceptual change. See also Preconceptions science, 179–180, 184–186, 187 understanding, 70–71 Conceptual learning, 14–15, 16–17, 20, 50, 165–166, 260–261 conceptual structures, 9, 33, 36, 38, 40, 42–44, 49, 59, 65–66, 87, 181–182 Conditionalized knowledge, 42–44, 49, 59–60, 62, 197 Consciousness studies, 6 Constructivism, 10–11, 192, 195, 199, 277 Content knowledge. See Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge Content-process assessment framework, 143– 144 Context and access to knowledge, 9, 42–44, 49, 77 and language development, 94–95 and transfer of learning, 53, 62–63, 64, 78, 185, 236 Contextualized reasoning, 74–75, 78 Contrasting-cases strategy, 60, 78 Conversational learning, 109–110, 220, 225– 226 Cooperative learning, 192 Counting, 71, 78, 83, 91, 92, 98–99, 100, 165– 166, 167, 169, 196 Cultural practices children’s learning and, 23, 108–111, 113, 233, 276 classroom norms and, 146–147 communications, 73, 108–111, 113 enrollment demographics, 264 ethnography, 110–111 misinterpretation of, 151

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School school culture, 273–274 sensitivity of teachers to, 23, 133–134, 135–136, 153 transfer of learning and, 4, 71–83, 88, 109–111 Curricula computer-based innovations, 4, 68, 207– 213, 262–263 design approaches, 43, 138–139, 153, 262–263 limitations of traditional approaches, 136– 137, 138, 139 metacognition, 21 multiple-intelligences basis, 101 with real-world contexts, 69, 74–76, 169, 171, 207–213 research recommendations, 251, 254–259, 260–263, 273–274 scaling-up, 273–274 scope and sequence charts, 138 D Dade Academy of the Teaching Arts, 198 Dart-throwing experiments, 56 Dendritic fields, 116 Descriptive Review, 198 Developmental psychology, 24, 82–84, 91, 234, 244, 267, 279–280 Dewey, John, 75, 132, 147 Diagnostic teaching, 134–135 Diagraming by experts, 38 Discourse, classroom, 72, 135, 183, 187, 199, 204 Doctrine of formal discipline, 51 Dodgson, C.L. (Lewis Carroll), 105–107 E Eavesdropping, 109–110 Education goal changes, 4–5, 131–133 science of learning and, 4–5, 13–14 teacher preservice, 200–203, 204, 228, 229 Elaboration, 96 Entity theories, 102 Environments for learning, 4, 23–26, 233, 243–247, 273–274, 276 alignment of goals, 151–152, 154 assessment-centered, 139–144, 154, 188, 196–197 and brain development, 119 classrooms, 23–24, 144–147, 154, 246, 247 community-centered, 25–26, 144–149, 154, 188, 197–199, 245–246 educational goal changes, 131–133 family, 26, 103–104, 108–111, 112–113, 148–149, 153, 154, 245–246 interconnected components, 133, 134, 136, 138, 154 knowledge-centered, 24, 136–139, 153, 188, 194–195 language development and, 93–95 learner centered, 23–24, 133–136, 138, 153, 188, 192–194, 212–213, 233 for teachers, 4, 192–199 television, 26, 149–151 Ethnography, 110–111 Exercise, and brain development, 117–119, 120 Experiences and brain development, 117–119, 120, 121, 124–125, 126–127, 233 prior, and transfer of learning, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78 Expert performance, 237–238, 258, 261 adaptive, 45–48, 50, 51, 73, 133, 140, 233 content/subject matter knowledge and, 16–17, 24, 45, 50, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188 context and access to knowledge, 9, 42– 44, 49, 77 metacognition and, 18, 47–48, 50 organization of knowledge, 4, 16–17, 36– 42, 45, 48, 49, 50, 56, 125, 136, 139, 155, 233, 237–238, 239, 242 pattern recognition, 17, 32–36, 44, 48, 50, 56 principles of, 31, 36–38, 272 retrieval of knowledge, 32–33, 44, 49, 50, 56 segmentation of perceptual fields, 36 talent and, 58 teaching ability, 4, 33, 36, 37, 44–45, 46, 49–50, 155–157, 159–161, 188, 228–229, 241–242, 258 time investment for, 56, 58 Extracurricular clubs and organizations, 149

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School F Family internet linkages with schools, 224–225 learning environment, 26, 103–104, 108– 111, 112–113, 148–149, 153, 154, 245– 246, 274 popular version of study at hand, publication, of, 275–276 Feedback, 47 assessments with, 19, 24–25, 43, 140–141, 154 computer technology, 178, 182, 216–224, 243, 258 importance, 77–78, 243 interactive lectures, 180, 187, 219 peer, 19, 219–220, 222–223, 243, 279–280 teacher learning from, 196–197, 203, 268 tutoring environments, 177–178, 221 types of, 158, 160–161 Fish Is Fish, 10–11, 70, 136 Formative assessments, 19, 24–25, 140–141, 142, 152, 154, 167, 217, 219, 257–258, 268, 277 Functional magnetic resonance imaging, 115, 124, 125 G GenScope Project, 216 Geographic information systems, 17, 215 Geometry, 12, 57, 138, 170, 224 Geometry Tutor, 224 Global Lab, 209, 220 Grading practices, 146 H Hamlet, 46 Hawaiian children, 108, 135 Heuristic problem-solving strategy, 67–68 Hippocampus, 124 History, 132 curricula (existing), 136 dates-facts teaching method, 157, 158, 160–161 debating evidence, 161–163, 241 experts, 38, 41–42, 47, 158 interpreting events, 158 misconceptions about, 15 teachers’ differing views of, 158, 160–161 teaching, 157–164, 241 Holmes Group, 200 HumBio Project, 227 I Ideal student initiative, 100 Impetus theory, 70 Incremental theories, 102 Infant cognition active learning, 10 assessment methods, 79, 82–84 biological causality, 88 habituation paradigm, 83, 84, 85–86, 88, 91 language, 73, 81, 93, 105 memory, 83 non-nutritive sucking, 83 number concepts, 89, 91 physical concepts, 84–88 schema use, 87 social interactions and, 103 theories of, 79–82 transfer of learning, 87 visual expectation, 83, 87, 91 Inferencing processes, 124 Information processing theories, 80, 91, 95– 96 Information systems design, 45–46, 262–263 Initial learning. See also Preconceptions assessment of, 55, 56, 57 elements that promote, 53, 55–61 memorization and, 55–56, 57 monitoring and feedback, 58–60 motivation and, 60–61 tests of, 66 time allowed for, 56, 58 and transfer of learning, 51, 53, 55–61, 66, 68, 77, 203 understanding and, 55–56, 57, 236 Inquiry-based instruction, 11–12, 16–17, 19, 21, 68, 107, 110–111, 156–157, 217 Institute for Research on Learning, 213 Instruction abstract, 65–66 and brain development, 121–123 bridging strategy, 179, 180, 187 case-based, 62, 64 changes in methods, 132–133

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School coaching technique, 42, 68, 177–178, 180– 182, 222–223 cognitively guided, 102–111, 138, 197, 240 conceptual change strategies, 179–180 direct or lecture forms, 71 fluency development, 44 inquiry-based, 11–12, 68, 107, 110–111, 156–157, 217, 228–229 interactive, 179–180, 182, 187, 209, 216, 219 in large classes, 182, 219 metacognitive approaches, 12, 21, 57–68, 78, 140, 217 modeling, 67, 68, 185 pattern recognition, 44 problem-based, 62, 63, 64 progressive formalization, 137–138, 139 prompting technique, 66 research recommendations, 251, 254–256 scaffolding, 67, 68 strategic development and, 100–101 time, 58 video archives, 228–229 Instructional design, 21–22, 24, 42, 43, 138– 139, 153 Intelligence. See also Multiple intelligences children’s conceptions of, 23, 82, 101–102 Internet, 27, 209, 220, 224–226, 227–228, 243, 270, 282 Inuits, 146 J Japanese classroom culture, 147 language development, 121–122 sushi experts, 45 Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series, 208, 209, 210–211, 216–217 K Kamehameha School, 135 KEEP program, 108 Kids as Global Scientists research project, 226, 228 Knowing, theory of, 11 Knowledge, 252. See also Organization of knowledge access to, 9, 42–44, 49, 77 competence and, 16–17 conditionalized, 42–44, 49, 59–60, 62, 197 content. See Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge cultural, 72 environments for learning, 24, 136–139, 153, 188, 194–195 expertise and, 4, 9, 16–17, 24, 36–44, 45, 48, 49, 125, 237–238 facets, 181–182 pedagogical content, 45 pre-existing, 10–12, 14, 69, 78, 233. See also Preconceptions representations, 65–66, 78, 276. See also Schemas retrieval fluency, 32–33, 44, 49 standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272 teacher learning environments, 20, 27, 194–195, 198 Knowledge Forum, 219 L Labeling, 104, 107 LabNet Project, 198, 227 Language development and abstract thought, 79 adult-infant interactions, 73, 104 and brain development, 121–124, 127, 235 Chèche Konnen approach, 241 context and, 94–95 cultural differences in, 109–110, 135–136 early, 4, 73, 81–85, 102, 112, 235 eavesdropping and, 109–110 environments for learning and, 93–95 sign language, 122–123 situated, 94, 109 story-telling, 73, 105, 108 Learner-centered environments, 23–24, 133– 136, 138, 153, 188, 192–194, 212–213, 233 Learning-oriented learners, 61 Learning theories, 3, 14, 48, 51, 53, 63, 65, 131, 199, 203, 204, 250 assessment linked to, 142–144 infants’ capabilities, 79–82 Learning Through Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project, 212, 215, 221 Levin, James, 227–228

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Literacy, changes in definition of, 132, 133 Literature, teaching, 46 Little Planet Literacy Series, 214 LOGO programming experiment, 53, 55, 60 M Mass media, 275–276 Math Their Way, 194 Mathematics, 132 algebra, 58, 63, 65, 137–138, 198, 213– 214, 225 assessments, 141, 210–211 attitudes about, 210–211 calculus, 66 children’s knowledge of, 12, 69, 71, 81, 92, 112, 137–138, 196 computer-based tools and scaffolds, 213– 216, 225, 227, 229 contextualized reasoning, 74–76 counting-based arithmetic, 78, 98–99 curricula (existing), 137 experts, 33, 41, 50 fractions, 71, 72, 74, 91, 112 girls’ participation in, 145 guided discussion, 168–170, 240 instruction time, 58 Jasper Woodbury series, 208, 209, 210–211 Math Their Way curriculum, 194 misconceptions, 15, 261 model-based reasoning, 170–171, 215, 240 multiplication, 165–166, 167 negative numbers, 166, 168 number concepts, 4, 91, 92, 112 PUMP curriculum, 225 real-world applications, 69, 74–76, 169, 171, 213–214, 225 software tools, 213–214 standards, 136 strategic activities, 98–99 teacher learning opportunities, 194, 195, 197, 198 teaching, 50, 62, 63, 67–68, 108, 137–138, 141, 164–171 transfer of competence, 65 video archives, 228–229 Mathematics in Context, 136 Mathematics Learning project, 227 Mathline, 198 Measures of learning, 51, 77, 78, 140. See also Assessments Medawar, Peter, 183 Media. See Mass media Medial frontal cortex, 118 Memorization, 8–9, 17, 239 assessments based on, 9, 140, 141, 152, 189, 245 and transfer of learning, 55–56, 57, 59, 77, 235, 236 Memory. See also Organization of knowledge; Retrieval of knowledge and brain processes, 124–126 children’s capacity, 18, 58, 95–96 declarative, 124 experiments, 34–35 experts vs novices, 17 false, 125 infants, 83 procedural, 124 short-term, 33, 34–35, 48 strategies, 96–97 synaptic connections and, 117 Metacognition children’s learning and, 18–19, 21, 47, 82, 97–98, 233 defined, 12, 47 expertise and, 18, 47–48, 50 instruction approaches, 12, 21, 22, 67–68, 78, 137, 140, 217, 258 Methodologies, learning assessment graduated prompting, 66 infants, 79, 82–84 think-aloud, 32, 184 standardized tests, 132 Microgenetic studies, 100 Microworlds, interactive computer, 216 Middle School Mathematics Through Application Projects, 213–214 Minds on Physics, 193, 194–195 Misconceptions, 14–15, 78, 178–179, 185–186, 187, 240 about brain development, 114 cultural, 151 mathematics, 15, 261 science, 15, 70, 179–180, 218, 229, 237, 240–241 about teaching, 156, 163, 188, 242, 264, 265, 266–267 Model-based learning, 10, 63, 67–68, 166, 168, 170–171, 215, 240, 243 Modeling, 67, 68, 258–259, 265 computational modeling research, 14 technology-based tools, 20–21, 215, 216

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Model-It, 216 Monitoring of learning, 58–59, 67–68, 78 Motivation to learn achievement/competence, 61, 102, 103, 212–213 behaviorism, 6 children’s, 61, 77, 101–102, 112 cognitive ability and, 280 competence, 60 computer technology and, 210–211, 212– 213, 224, 227 learning orientation and, 61 performance orientation and, 61 social opportunities and, 61 Motor skills, 56, 65, 119, 121 Multiple-choice tests, 140 Multiple intelligences, 82, 101 Multiple strategies concept, 98–101 Multiplication, teaching, 165–166 N National Board for Professional Teaching Standards , 259 National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 202 National Research Council, 138 National Science Foundation, 192 Navajos, 146 Neostriatum, 124 Nerve cells, 116, 126 Neural activity, 119–120, 127, 235, 276 Neuroimaging, 115, 124, 125 Non-self-directed learning, 102 Novices accomplished, 48 experts compared with, 31–50 Numbers early concepts, 4, 89–91, 92, 112 negative, 166–168 rational, 71, 72, 74, 91, 112 O Observational learning, 109, 146 Oral skills, oral tradition, 73, 105, 108 Organization of knowledge, 4, 238–239, 281 chunking/clustering technique, 32–33, 38, 52, 96–97 cognitive activity and, 143–144 conceptual, 9, 38, 42–44, 49, 181–182 experts, 4, 16–17, 36–42, 45, 48, 50, 56, 125, 136, 139, 155, 233, 237–238, 239, 242 hierarchical structures, 173–177, 216 in schemas, 33, 36, 38, 40, 59, 65–66 P Parallel distributed processing, 14 Parental involvement. See Family Pattern recognition, expertise and, 17, 32–36, 44, 48, 50, 56 Pause times, 38, 49 Pedagogical content knowledge, 45, 50, 155– 156, 163–164, 166, 168, 188, 242 research, 199, 258 teacher learning opportunities, 194, 199 Pedagogy generic, 194 research laboratories, 268–269 theory of, 11 Perceptual learning, 60, 70 Performance-oriented learners, 61, 245 Phenomenological primitives, 181 Philadelphia Teachers Learning Cooperative, 199 Phonemes, 121 Photosynthesis, 71–72 Physical causality, 102 Physical concepts, 84–88 children’s competencies, 84–88, 102, 112 Physical models, 185 Physics, 11–12 assessments of understanding, 141, 142, 143 calculus and, 66 computer tools, 21, 68, 216, 217, 218, 227 databases, 278–279 experts, 33, 37–38, 39, 171–172 hierarchical analyses, 172–173 metacognition and, 19 Minds on Physics curriculum, 193, 194– 195 misconceptions, 15, 70, 179–180, 218, 237 qualitative strategies, 171–172 teacher learning opportunities, 193, 194– 195, 197, 199 teaching strategies, 172–182, 187

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Physics Teacher Action Research Group, 199 Physics Teacher Resource Agent Project, 191 Piaget, Jean, 80, 85, 87 Plausibility judgments, 99 Policy makers, 248, 251, 265–266, 270–275 Portfolio assessment, 142, 220 Positron emission tomography, 115, 124 Practice and brain development, 122, 123, 125 enhanced normal, 199 importance of, 53, 95, 177–178, 236 language, 95, 122 monitoring and feedback with, 58–59 time required for, 56, 58 Preconceptions policy makers, 274 student, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236–237, 255, 261–262, 263 teacher, 264, 265, 266–267 Principled conceptual knowledge, 165–166 Prior knowledge, 10–11, 14, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78, 153, 233, 236–237 Privileged domains, early competencies, 81– 82, 84–95, 102, 112, 234 Problem-based learning, 62, 77, 239–240 Problem representations, 53, 63, 78, 165–166, 167, 237 Problem solving, 23, 234, 236, 244, 250, 279– 280 collective, 67–68 expert’s approach to, 37–38, 39, 41, 43, 50, 56 heuristic, 67–68 hierarchical analysis, 173–177 human need for, 102, 103 metacognition, 19, 21 trial and error, 6–8 workplace simulations, 209 Procedural facilitation strategy, 67 Professional development. See Teacher learning Progressive formalization, 137–138, 139 Project GLOBE, 212 Project Rightstart, 91, 100 Project SEED, 195 Project Zero, 198 Prompting, 66, 67 Public opinion, 275–276 Pueblo Indian children, 109 PUMP curriculum, 225 Q Questions, questioning, question-asking, 11– 12, 68, 107, 110–111, 156–157, 217 QUILL network, 227 R Radical behaviorism, 8 Radiology experts, 33 Readiness to learn, 81 Reading, 67, 99, 105–108, 132, 133, 229 Real-world learning computer technology and, 207–213, 225 mathematics, 69, 74–76, 169, 171, 208, 225 workplace simulations, 209 Reasoning abstract, 74, 78, 79 analogical, 62, 64, 65–66, 110 causal, 99 contextualized, 74–75, 78 generic, 182 model-based, 170–171, 185 scientific, 99, 186–187 spatial, 99 strategies of children, 99, 138, 153 Reciprocal teaching, 18, 67, 100, 105 Referential communications, 99, 106 Reflection, 12, 97–98, 203 Rehearsal activities, 96, 98, 99 Reminiscing, 108 Representations, 106, 276, 281 cognitive, 65, 144, 145 computer technology, 243 of concepts, 63, 65–66 problem representations, 53, 63, 78, 165– 166, 167, 237 virtual models, 215 Research, action, 191, 199–200, 257 Research on learning. See also Science of learning focus, 5–6 recommendations, 248–270, 276 Retrieval of knowledge chunking technique, 32–33, 38, 52 context of original learning and, 62 cueing, 98 expertise and, 32–33, 44, 49, 50, 56 practice, 98 schematic organization and, 66

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School S Scaffolding, 67, 68, 104, 108, 182, 213–216, 226, 243, 276 Schemas infant push-pull, 87 organization of knowledge in, 33, 36, 38, 40, 59, 65–66 Schools, 23–24, 251, 266 administrators, 243, 248, 251, 252, 259, 265, 266 alignment of goals within, 152 as communities, 26, 82, 224–226 school culture, 273–274 transfer of learning to everyday life, 73– 77, 78 transparent, 224 Science education, 132–133, 250. See also Biology; Physics assessment of understanding, 143–144, 277 Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241 coaching technique, 180–182 computer tools, 214, 216, 229 conceptual change, 179–180, 184–186, 187, 229 curricula (existing), 136–137 girls’ participation in, 145 interactive instruction in large classes, 182 language practices in, 135–136 public policy issues, 214 real-world learning approaches, 212–213, 214 research recommendations, 261, 277 scientific reasoning, 186–187 standards, 136 strategies, 138, 171–178 student-scientist partnerships, 209, 217 teacher learning opportunities, 193–194, 195 teaching, 171–187 for young and “at risk” children, 138, 183–186 Science of learning active learning, 12–13 development, 6–8 educational implications, 4–5, 13–14 evolution of, 3–4, 14 methodological research, 277–278 pre-existing knowledge, 10–12 research recommendations, 276, 277–279, 283–284 understanding, emphasis on, 8–9 Self-assessment, 12, 140, 244, 257 Self-directed learning, 68, 102 Self-regulation, 19, 97–98 Sense-making approaches, 12, 137, 159–161, 165, 183–184, 187, 198 Sesame Street, 151 Sherlock Project, 222–223 Situated learning, 88, 94, 104, 107–108, 109, 112, 134, 199 SMART Challenge Series, 217, 219 Social interactions, 103, 184, 233, 243 and brain development, 119, 126 caregiver-child, 103–104, 112–113 Social opportunities, and motivations to learn, 61 Social studies, 4, 61, 157, 219 Software, educational, 4, 68, 182, 207–213, 214, 215, 216, 219–220, 221, 227, 244 Spelling, 99 Spines, dendritic, 116 Standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272 State education standards, 271 STELLA modeling environment, 216 Stereotyping, 145, 151 Story-telling, 73, 105, 108 Strategic competence, 182 assessment of, 97 children’s, 82, 95, 96–98, 112 choosing strategies, 99–101 multiple strategies, 98–101 Stroke victims, 123, 235 Structural knowledge. See Organization of knowledge Student Conference on Global Warming, 212–213 Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge, 20, 45 and effective teaching, 45, 50, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188 expertise and, 16–17, 24, 45, 50, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188 teacher learning, 195, 199, 202–203, 267 Summarization strategy, 96 Summative assessments, 140, 141, 154, 189 SummerMath, 195 Synaptic connections, 116–118, 119–120, 122, 126

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School T Tabula rasa theory, 79, 80 Taking turns, 67 Teacher learning, 20, 26–27, 242 action research, 191, 199–200, 257 assessment-centered environments, 20, 196–197 assessment methods, 27, 197–198, 246– 247, 264–266, 267–268 certification programs, 197, 272–273 collaborative group work, 195, 197–199, 277–278 community-centered environments, 27, 197–199, 204, 227–229, 243 computer technology and, 194, 195, 198, 226–229, 243–244, 269 environments for, 4, 192–199 feedback from colleagues, 196–197, 203, 268 inservice, 191, 204, 262–266, 267–268, 269–270 knowledge-centered environments, 20, 27, 194–195, 198 learner-centered environments, 27, 192– 194 mentoring, 191, 193, 195, 228 opportunities for practicing teachers, 191– 192, 204 paid time for, 200 preconceptions of teachers, 264, 265, 266–267 preservice education, 200–203, 204, 228, 229, 262–266, 267–269 quality of opportunities, 192–199 recommendations, 242, 243–244, 246–247, 252, 263–270, 272–273, 276 subject matter, 195, 199, 202–203, 267 and transfer of learning, 203, 242 workshops, 193–194, 204 Teacher Professional Development Institute (TAPPED IN), 228 Teaching, 21–23, 239–242, 279. See also Instruction accountability, 20 Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241 cultural sensitivity in, 133–134, 135–136, 153 diagnostic, 134–135 differential views of subject matter, 158 expert, 4, 33, 36, 37, 44–45, 46, 49–50, 155–157, 159–161, 188, 228–229, 241– 242, 258 goals-practices relationship, 12–13 history, 157–164, 241 knowledge of individual learners, 20, 168–170 learner-centered, 23–24, 133–134 left brain/right brain, 114 mathematics, 50, 164–171, 194 memory processes and, 125 metacognitive skills, 21 misconceptions about, 156, 163, 188 pedagogical content knowledge, 45, 50, 155–156, 163–164, 166, 168, 188, 194, 242 philosophical traditions of, 201 physics, 172–182, 187 preconceptions of students, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236– 237, 255, 261–262, 263 preconceptions of teachers, 264, 265, 266–267 reading, 67 reciprocal, 18, 67, 100, 108 science, 171–187, 191, 193–195, 240–241 subject-matter expertise, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188, 202–203 by telling, 11, 71 written composition, 67 Technologies. See Computer technology; Video-based learning programs Television, 26, 82, 95, 149–151 Text-editor experiment, 65, 66 Theoretical problem description, 175–176 Theory of mind, 82, 101–102 ThinkerTools Inquiry Curriculum, 21, 217 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 42, 137 Thorndike, Edward L., 6–8 Time capsules, 159 Time on task, 18, 56, 58, 77–78, 235–236, 239 Time to learn, 56, 58, 67–68 Tools infant use of, 87–88 research recommendations, 251, 255–256, 267–270 technology, 68, 74, 213–216, 268–269. See also Computer technology Transfer of learning, 4, 17, 233, 235–237, 238–239, 251, 258. See also Teaching active approaches, 66

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School conceptual change and, 70–71 conditions of transfer and, 4, 51, 53, 63– 66 context of learning and, 53, 62–63, 64, 78, 185, 236 cultural practices and, 4, 71–73, 78, 109– 111 defined, 51 feedback and, 59, 77, 78 flexible, 62–63, 64, 77, 78 by infants, 87 initial learning and, 51, 53, 55–61, 66, 68, 77, 203 knowledge base and, 69, 78 measures of, 51, 77 memorization and, 51, 55–56, 57, 77, 235, 236 metacognition and, 67–68, 78 motivation and, 50–51, 77 near, 53 negative, 53, 54–55 passive approaches, 66 practice and, 53, 58–59 previous experiences and, 53, 54–55, 68– 73, 78 problem representations, 53, 63, 78 from school to everyday life, 73–77, 78 teacher role to students, 226–227, 269 tests, 51, 236 time necessary for, 56–58, 77–78, 235–236 understanding and, 6, 55–56, 57, 60–61, 77–78, 136, 236 Tutoring environments, 178, 221–224, 225 U Understanding assessment formats, 56, 141, 142, 143 conceptual change, 70–71 contrasting-cases concept, 60 feedback on, 59 learning with, 6, 8–9, 136, 137–138, 139, 140, 180–181 memorization contrasted, 55–56, 57, 59 negative numbers, 166–168 physical causality, 84–88 and problem solving, 41 and transfer of learning, 55–56, 57, 59–60, 70–71, 77–78, 136 U.S. Department of Education, 192 Usefulness of information, 61 V Video-based learning programs, 208–209, 228–229, 258–259, 268, 270 Visible thinking, 82, 185–186, 220–221, 235 Visual cortex, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121 Visual learning, 65, 215, 276 Voyage of the Mimi, 208 Vygotsky, Lev, 10 W WEBCSILE, 227 Wisconsin Teacher Enhancement Program in Biology, 193–194 Woodrow Wilson Fellows, 191 Word problems, 43, 63, 169, 196 World Wide Web. See Internet Writing, 67, 132, 195, 214, 222–223, 227 Wundt, Wilhelm, 6 Z Zone of proximal development, 80–81, 92, 108