experiences and, 117–119, 120, 121, 124– 125, 126–127, 233

functional organization, 120–121, 122–123, 126

instruction and, 121–123

language and, 121–124, 127

learning and, 4, 114–115, 119–121

misconceptions about, 114

neural activity and, 119–120, 127, 276

plasticity, 123, 233, 276

social interaction and, 119, 126

synaptic connections, 116–118, 119–120, 122, 126

timetable for, 121–122, 126–127

Brain processes

memory and, 124–126

silent areas, 114

Breadloaf Writing Project, 198

BreadNet, 198

Bridging strategy, 179, 180, 187

Bruer, John, 127

Bush, Vannevar, 213

C

Calculus, 66

Case-based learning, 62, 77

Cat learning, 6–8

Causality

biological, 4, 88–89, 90, 112

physical, 84–88

Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, 222

Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241

Chess, 32, 34–36, 43, 56

Chicago Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science, 195

Children’s learning, 234–235.

See also Infant cognition

biological causality, 4, 88–89, 90, 112, 233

caregiver-child interactions, 103–104, 112– 113

children’s conceptions of intelligence and, 82, 101–102

choosing strategies, 99–101

community environments, 82, 111, 113

conversational, 109–110

cultural factors, 23, 108–111, 113, 233, 276

eavesdropping, 109–110

guided learning, 102–111

inquiry-based, 107, 110–111

language, 4, 91–95, 102, 109, 112, 121

mathematics, 4, 12, 69, 71, 91, 92, 112, 137–138, 196

memory capacity and, 18, 58, 95–96

metacognition, 18–19, 21, 47, 82, 97–98

motivation, 61, 77, 101–102, 112

multiple intelligences and, 82, 101

multiple-strategy usage, 98–101

non-self-directed, 102

number concepts, 4, 91, 92, 112

observational, 109

physical concepts, 87–88, 102, 112

preconceptions, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236–237, 255, 261–262, 263

prior knowledge, 10–11, 14, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78, 233

privileged-domain competencies, 81–82, 84–95, 102, 112

processing time, 58

reading, 105–108

reasoning complexity, 99, 138, 153

science, 138, 183–186

self-directed, 102

story-telling, 108

strategic competence, 82, 95, 96–98, 112

television and, 26, 82, 150

tool use, 87–88

Chunking/clustering technique, 32–33, 38, 52, 96–97

Classroom Action Research Network, 199

Classrooms

communications technology for, 182, 219, 247

community connections, 25–26, 207–208, 224–226, 246

competitiveness of students, 146

environments for learning, 23–24, 144– 147, 154, 246, 247

Global Lab, 209

norms and expectations, 145–147, 188

research based in, 199–200, 248, 252–254, 255, 259

Classtalk, 182, 219

Coaching, 42, 68, 177–178, 180–182, 222–223

Cognitive

and motivational factors, 280

representations and strategies, 65, 144, 145, 243

science, 8, 234, 244–245, 276, 279

Cognitively Guided Instruction Project, 197



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