Possible Answers for Critical Problems (7, 8, 10, 11)

Problem

Einstellung Solution

Direct Solution

7

49−23−3−3=20

23−3=20

8

39−15−3−3=18

15+3=18

10

48−18−4−4=22

18+4=22

11

36−14−8−8=6

14−8=6

Performance of Typical Subjects on Critical Problems

Group

Einstellung Solution (percent)

Direct Solution (percent)

No Solution (percent)

Control (Children)

1

89

10

Experimental (Children)

72

24

4

Control (Adults)

0

100

0

Experimental (Adults)

74

26

0

 

SOURCE: Adapted from Luchins and Luchins (1970).

Mayer, 1988). However, many of these studies failed to assess the degree to which LOGO was learned in the first place (see Klahr and Carver, 1988; Littlefield et al., 1988). When initial learning was assessed, it was found that students often had not learned enough about LOGO to provide a basis for transfer. Subsequent studies began to pay more attention to student learning, and they did find transfer to related tasks (Klahr and Carver, 1988; Littlefield et al., 1988). Other research studies have shown that additional qualities of initial learning affect transfer and are reviewed next.

Understanding Versus Memorizing

Transfer is affected by the degree to which people learn with understanding rather than merely memorize sets of facts or follow a fixed set of procedures; see Boxes 3.3 and 3.4.

In Chapter 1, the advantages of learning with understanding were illus-



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement