three concept vehicles described in Chapter 4 show the results to date of these substantial efforts. Major achievements for specific components are detailed below.
A number of accomplishments have been achieved in vehicle engineering, including the following:
the fabrication and testing of a lightweight hybrid material body to validate weight reduction of more than 40 percent
the completion of an energy-efficient occupant-comfort project with a 75 percent reduction in required energy achieved, for example, by reduced thermal mass of the vehicle interior, improved efficiency of the heating and cooling systems, and optimized thermal management
the completion of a lightweight interior project demonstrating a 157-lb (71-kg) interior weight reduction
initiation or continuation of projects to address issues for a high (42 percent) payload/curb weight ratio, low rolling resistance (run-flat) tire, underbody airflow management, and energy-efficient side window development
The following accomplishments have been achieved in the engines and fuels areas:
New collaborative projects have been initiated in advanced combustion and emission controls (e.g., Detroit Diesel and Johnson-Matthey; Cummins Engine Company and Engelhard). Other continuing projects are advancing the understanding of catalysts, as well as defining fuels issues.
SNL has developed a new catalyst with lower “light-off” temperature and better NOx reduction. SNL is also pursuing a novel means for reducing PM emissions, improving the effectiveness of EGR, and gaining a better understanding of combustion processes.
LANL has developed a new zeolite-supported catalyst to improve NOx reduction and has formed promising microporous catalysts.
A project by Industrial Ceramic Solutions has resulted in a PM filter that can remove up to 90 percent of diesel particulates and can be regenerated at idle using microwave techniques.
Southwest Research Institute has demonstrated that fuel formulation could reduce diesel PM emissions by 50 percent and NOx by 10 percent. ORNL is using its refinery models to evaluate the impact of various formulations on the cost of diesel fuel.