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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems Uninhabited Air Vehicles Enabling Science for Military Systems Committee on Materials, Structures, and Aeronautics for Advanced Uninhabited Air Vehicles National Materials Advisory Board Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Publication NMAB-495 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was conducted under a contract with the Department of Defense and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: Courtesy of Ryan Aeronautical Center International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06983-1 Copies of this report are available from: National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 firstname.lastname@example.org Copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS, STRUCTURES, AND AERONAUTICS FOR ADVANCED UNINHABITED AIR VEHICLES GORDON SMITH (chair), Vanguard Research, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia DANIEL ARNOLD, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington DANIEL BACKMAN, GE Aircraft Engines, Lynn, Massachusetts ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RICHARD F. GABRIEL, McDonnell Douglas Corporation (retired), San Clemente, California CHIH-MING HO, University of California at Los Angeles ANTHONY K. HYDER, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana ILAN KROO, Stanford University, Stanford, California W. RAY MORGAN, AeroVironment, Simi Valley, California THOMAS P. QUINN, consultant, Temple Hills, Maryland DANNY L. REED, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia GUNTER STEIN, Honeywell Technology Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota TERRENCE A. WEISSHAAR, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana DIANNE S. WILEY, Northrop Grumman, Pico Rivera, California National Research Council Staff THOMAS E. MUNNS, study director, National Materials Advisory Board (until December 10, 1999) ARUL MOZHI, senior program officer, National Materials Advisory Board ALAN ANGLEMAN, senior program officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board TERI THOROWGOOD, research associate, National Materials Advisory Board JANICE PRISCO, senior project assistant National Research Council Liaisons ANTHONY G. EVANS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (National Materials Advisory Board) GRACE M. ROBERTSON, The Boeing Company, Long Beach, California (Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Government Liaison BRIAN SANDERS, U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, D.C.
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD EDGAR A. STARKE (chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville JESSE L. BEAUCHAMP, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena EARL DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ALASTAIR GLASS, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN A.S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Washington, D.C. SIEGFRIED S. HECKER, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico JOHN H. HOPPS, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Piscataway SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, SRI International, Menlo Park, California SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development, Warren, Michigan LIAS KLEIN, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, Motorola, Schaumberg, Illinois JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg JAMES WAGNER, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois BILL G.W. YEE, Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, Florida RICHARD CHAIT, director
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD WILLIAM W. HOOVER (chair), U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia A. DWIGHT ABBOTT, Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California RUZENA BAJSCY, NAE, IOM, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland ANTHONY J. BRODERICK, aviation safety consultant, Catlett, Virginia AARON COHEN, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station DONALD L. CROMER, U.S. Air Force (retired), Lompoc, California HOYT DAVIDSON, Donaldson, Lufkin, and Jenrette, New York, New York ROBERT A. DAVIS, The Boeing Company (retired), Seattle, Washington DONALD C. FRASER, NAE, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts JOSEPH FULLER JR., Futron Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland ROBERT C. GOETZ, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, Palmdale, California RICHARD GOLASZEWSKI, GRA, Inc., Jenkintown, Pennsylvania JAMES M. GUYETTE, Rolls-Royce North America, Reston, Virginia FREDERICK HAUCK, AXA Space, Bethesda, Maryland JOHN K. LAUBER, Airbus Industrie of North America, Washington, D.C. GEORGE MUELLNER, The Boeing Company, Seal Beach, California DAVA J. NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES G. O’CONNOR, NAE, Pratt & Whitney (retired), Coventry, Connecticut WINSTON E. SCOTT, Florida State University, Tallahassee KATHRYN C. THORNTON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DIANNE S. WILEY, Northrop Grumman, Pico Rivera, California RAY A. WILLIAMSON, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. GEORGE LEVIN, director
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems Preface The development of effective and affordable uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) has become a priority for the U.S. Air Force because UAVs have the potential to perform autonomously under conditions that are not conducive to inhabited aircraft. UAVs will either save human operators from long or monotonous tasks or, more importantly, will preclude risking human pilots in dangerous situations. To be accepted by the military services, UAVs must provide these advantages at significantly lower life-cycle costs than current costs. The development of optimal UAVs is a complex systems engineering problem. Complicated trade-offs must be made among performance, survivability, autonomy, range, payload, and, perhaps most important, cost. The fundamental driving force behind the development of military UAVs is to reduce substantially the cost of weapon system acquisition and sustainment. The objectives of this joint study of the National Research Council National Materials Advisory Board and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board were (1) to identify needs and opportunities for technology development that have the potential to meet the Air Force’s performance and reliability requirements and reduce costs for “generation-after-next” UAVs and (2) to recommend areas of fundamental research in materials, structures, and aeronautical technologies. The committee focused on technological innovations likely to be ready for development and scale-up in the post-2010 time frame (i.e., ready for use in 2020–2025). The intent is to “leapfrog” current technology development. To complete its task, the committee reviewed proposed missions and design concepts for advanced UAVs that are anticipated to be operating in the long term and then reviewed key requirements for vehicle structures, flight control systems, propulsion systems, and power systems, based on a range of potential mission
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems scenarios. Finally, the committee identified the underlying technological advancements required to meet the performance targets. This report recommends fundamental and applied research for developing a tool box of UAV-unique or UAV-critical technologies that could provide the required performance and reliability while reducing costs. Comments and suggestions can be sent via electronic mail to email@example.com or by fax to NMAB at (202) 334-3718. Gordon Smith, chair Committee on Materials, Structures, and Aeronautics for Advanced Uninhabited Air Vehicles
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems Acknowledgments The committee would like to thank the presenters and participants in the committee’s data-gathering sessions for this study. Presenters were Peter Worch, consultant; Lt Col Michael Leahy, U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center; Michael Francis, Aurora Flight Sciences; CDR Michael Eilliamson, Naval Air Systems Command; Julieta Booz, Naval Sea Systems Command; James McMichael, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; Rand Bowerman, Army Battle Laboratory; Kevin Niewoehner, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Heinz Gerhardt, Northrop Grumman; James Lang, Boeing; Charles Kukkonen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and Lt Col Walter Price, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The committee would also like to thank the Air force liaison to the committee Maj Brian Sanders, AFOSR. This report has been reviewed (in draft form) by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Robert Crowe, Virginia Polytechnic and State University; James B. Day, Belcan Engineering Group; Earl Dowell, Duke University; Michael Francis, Aurora Flight Systems; George J. Gleghorn, TRW Space and Technology Corporation (retired); James Mattice, Universal
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems Technology Corporation; and Leland Nicolai, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the support of the staff of the National Research Council: Thomas Munns, study director, Teri Thorowgood, research associate, Arul Mozhi, senior program officer, and Jan Prisco, administrative assistant, National Materials Advisory Board; Alan Angleman, senior staff officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; and Carol R. Arenberg, editor, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems.
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 PART I INTEGRATED AIR VEHICLES 1 INTRODUCTION 9 Reconnaissance Programs, 10 Combat Program, 16 Study Scope and Objectives, 17 Study Approach, 18 2 THE UNINHABITED AIR VEHICLE AS A SYSTEM 20 Design Drivers, 22 Missions, 22 Vehicle Attributes, 24 System Design, 27 PART II VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES 3 AERODYNAMICS 39 Basic Research, 40 Promising Technologies, 44 Opportunities and Recommendations, 48
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems 4 AIRFRAME MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES 50 Structural Design, 51 Low-Cost Components, 54 Computational Design Processes, 56 Health Monitoring and Health Management, 57 5 PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES 59 Background, 59 Basic Research, 62 Unique or Enabling Applied Research, 67 Summary of Research Needs, 69 6 POWER AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES 71 Background, 72 Technology Needs, 76 Opportunities for Fundamental Research, 80 7 CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 82 Built-in Intelligence or Control “Smarts,” 84 Sensors and Actuators, 89 8 RESEARCH ON VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS 92 Crosscutting Vehicle Technologies, 92 Research on Specific Vehicle Types, 95 REFERENCES 97 LIST OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 101 ACRONYMS 107
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1 Major UAV Programs, 11 5-1 Total Propulsion System Mass for 50-Gram MAV, 66 5-2 UAV Propulsion Technologies, 69 6-1 Key Parameters for Space Power Components and Systems Applicable to UAVs, 75 6-2 Trade-offs among Interacting Technologies for Power Generation, 78 FIGURES 1-1 Pioneer UAV taking off from the deck of the USS Iowa, 12 1-2 Hunter reconnaissance and surveillance UAV, 13 1-3 Predator airborne surveillance, reconnaissance, and target acquisition vehicle, 13 1-4 Global Hawk during sixth test flight, 14 1-5 Darkstar high-altitude, long-endurance UAV, 15 1-6 Outrider tactical UAV, 16 2-1 Recommended approach to technology prioritization, 21 2-2 Missions and time frames for operational demonstration recommended by the USAFSAB, 23
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Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems 2-3 Range of vehicle attributes (from conventional mission to special applications), 25 2-4 UAV internal communications system, 28 2-5 Notional UAV external communications system, 29 2-6 Human performance measures, 32 3-1 Variation of Reynolds number with altitude, 41 3-2 Maximum lift-to-drag ratio vs. Reynolds number showing influence of aspect ratio and laminar flow, 41 3-3 Unconventional designs with challenging configuration aerodynamics, 46 5-1 Propulsion system weight (engine plus fuel) as a percentage of aircraft takeoff gross weight, 60 5-2 Characteristics of propulsion and power systems for UAVs, 61 5-3 Typical power requirements for propeller-powered MAVs, 64 5-4 System mass vs. energy for several advanced, small energy systems, 65 5-5 Typical engine specifications for externally applied forces on takeoff, landing, and maneuvers, 68 6-1 Options for a prime power source for a range of average power levels and flight durations, 73 6-2 Schematic representation of overall aircraft power system, 73 6-3 Comparisons of specific power of space-based technologies with a broad range of power outputs, 76 6-4 Electrical power system and primary subsystems, 77 7-1 Integrated UAV control scenario, 83 7-2 Functional hierarchy of vehicle control systems, 84 7-3 Comparison of (a) traditional engineering design process with (b) virtual engineering design process, 88