The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.

This report was prepared by a working group representing the Royal Society of London, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Brazilian Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy, Mexican Academy of Sciences, and Third World Academy of Sciences. The individual members of the working group are listed at the end of this report. The co-sponsoring academies wish to thank the Royal Society of London for providing staff coordination, meeting facilities, and travel support for academy delegates. The Council of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences has discussed this report and commends it to interested parties.

The report also is available online at

Information about the participating academies is available at

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