INDEX

A

Aardvark (Oryceteropus afer), 151

Acacias (Acacia spp.), 161, 374

Acadia National Park (Maine), 183

Acid rain, 22, 25, 75

Adaptive radiation, 150, 182

Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), 243

Afforestation, 60

Africa

biogeographic setting, 249

conservation approaches, 248–259

deforestation projections, 64–65

dry tropical regions, 130

endemism centers, 249–252

extinction rates, 64–65

fragility and vulnerability of ecosystems, 258

grasslands, 176, 177

Great Lakes, 252

heathland shrubs, 251

introduced species, 251, 252

monitoring of ecosystems, 257–259

protected areas, 11, 254–257, 259

rain forest replacement by savannas, 56

Sahelian area, 177

Serengeti, 176

species diversity, 31, 64–65, 249–252

see also East Africa;

West Africa;

and specific countries

African eggplants (Solanum spp.), 244

African invader (ant), 251

African tilapia (Tilapia spp.), 347

African Wildlife Foundation, 147

Afrotropical realm, 249–251, 254

Agency for International Development, U.S.

conservation strategy, 16, 410, 414, 416

developmental assistance in conservation, 405, 413–414

Panama natural resources project, 415

Agouti (Dasyprocta spp.), 356, 375

Agriculture

conversions of grasslands, 176–177, 179

desert-farming module, 346–351

developing world, 79–80, 406

exchange economy growth, 206–210

intensification of productivity, 394, 406

peasant, 79–80, 114, 363–366

slash-and-burn, 141, 151, 327–328, 371, 413

tropical forest plant contribution, 107

see also Crops;

Cultivation

Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), 84

Agroecology, 134, 136, 207, 208, 346–352, 357–358, 361–369

Agroforestry, 373–374, 395–396, 406

Alder (Alnus spp.), 171

Algae, red (Digenea simplex), 86

Allelic diversity, see Genetic diversity

Allelochemicals, 111

Alligators (Alligator spp.), 201, 203, 264, 266

Alpacas (Lama pacos), 100

Altieri, Miguel A., 361–370

Amazonia

Brazilian, 29, 114, 120, 124, 126–127, 138–142, 329, 406

conservation of tropical forests, 32, 406

deep ecology, 8

deforestation projections, 120

Ecuadorian, 79

forest fires, 67, 326–327

history, 124–125

human disturbances, 327–328

hunting, 139, 146

Indians, see Amerindians

natural disturbances, 326–327

natural pesticides, 111



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BioDiversity INDEX A Aardvark (Oryceteropus afer), 151 Acacias (Acacia spp.), 161, 374 Acadia National Park (Maine), 183 Acid rain, 22, 25, 75 Adaptive radiation, 150, 182 Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), 243 Afforestation, 60 Africa biogeographic setting, 249 conservation approaches, 248–259 deforestation projections, 64–65 dry tropical regions, 130 endemism centers, 249–252 extinction rates, 64–65 fragility and vulnerability of ecosystems, 258 grasslands, 176, 177 Great Lakes, 252 heathland shrubs, 251 introduced species, 251, 252 monitoring of ecosystems, 257–259 protected areas, 11, 254–257, 259 rain forest replacement by savannas, 56 Sahelian area, 177 Serengeti, 176 species diversity, 31, 64–65, 249–252 see also East Africa; West Africa; and specific countries African eggplants (Solanum spp.), 244 African invader (ant), 251 African tilapia (Tilapia spp.), 347 African Wildlife Foundation, 147 Afrotropical realm, 249–251, 254 Agency for International Development, U.S. conservation strategy, 16, 410, 414, 416 developmental assistance in conservation, 405, 413–414 Panama natural resources project, 415 Agouti (Dasyprocta spp.), 356, 375 Agriculture conversions of grasslands, 176–177, 179 desert-farming module, 346–351 developing world, 79–80, 406 exchange economy growth, 206–210 intensification of productivity, 394, 406 peasant, 79–80, 114, 363–366 slash-and-burn, 141, 151, 327–328, 371, 413 tropical forest plant contribution, 107 see also Crops; Cultivation Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), 84 Agroecology, 134, 136, 207, 208, 346–352, 357–358, 361–369 Agroforestry, 373–374, 395–396, 406 Alder (Alnus spp.), 171 Algae, red (Digenea simplex), 86 Allelic diversity, see Genetic diversity Allelochemicals, 111 Alligators (Alligator spp.), 201, 203, 264, 266 Alpacas (Lama pacos), 100 Altieri, Miguel A., 361–370 Amazonia Brazilian, 29, 114, 120, 124, 126–127, 138–142, 329, 406 conservation of tropical forests, 32, 406 deep ecology, 8 deforestation projections, 120 Ecuadorian, 79 forest fires, 67, 326–327 history, 124–125 human disturbances, 327–328 hunting, 139, 146 Indians, see Amerindians natural disturbances, 326–327 natural pesticides, 111

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BioDiversity new crops, 109–110 Peruvian, 5, 31, 124 projected species losses, 11, 31–32 restoration of degraded lands, 326–332 species richness, 39, 106 swamps, 110 valuation of plants, 106 Amberjack (Seriola dumerili), 45 American kestrel (Falco sparverius), 280 Amerindians Aztecs, 109, 279 Brazilian Amazonia, 114, 138–143 deforestation effects, 114, 142–143 Gavioes, 142 Kutchin, 279 Kayapo, 140, 141 management of forest resources, 79–80, 114, 138–143 Mayans, 80, 358 poison use, 87, 111 productivity, 142 Ramkokamekra Canela, 142 Yanomami, 138–142 see also specific Indian groups Ammonites, longevity, 7–8 Amphibians, 5, 131, 167, 170, 266; see also specific species Andes mountains agroecological practices, 367 conservation value, 133 deforestation, 120 habitat destruction, 229 uplifts, 124–125 wild tomato, 99, 110 Andropogon spp. (grasses), 186, 314 Angkor rain forest, 9 Angola birds, 252 Giant Sable Integral Nature Reserve, 254 lowland forests, 254–255 Mount Moco, 252 primates, 149–150 Animals, 81, 290, 296, 313, 356–357; see also Birds; Fishes; Insects; Mammals; Primates; Reptiles; Vertebrates; and specific species Antarctica, 39 Antelope, pronghorn (Antilocarpa americana), 71 Ants, 6, 7, 9, 111, 132, 251, 329, 330, 357; see also specific species Aquaculture, 44, 347–352 Aquatic food webs, 40–41 Aquifers, 72, 341, 387 Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 265, 286, 290 Argentina, 176; see also South America Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), 81, 297 Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea), 374 Arthropods, pharmacologic interest, 93, 94 Artichoke (Cynara scolymus), 85, 107 Aru, 12 Ashton, Peter S., 9, 269–275 Asia agricultural productivity intensification, 394–395 closed tropical forest status, 393–394 conservation policies, 396–398 deforestation rates, 64–65, 120, 393 development agencies, 398 extinction rates, 64–65 protected forests, 11 solutions to deforestation, 394–396 species diversity, 31, 64–65 wildlands of concern, 438–439 see also Southeast Asia; and specific countries Asimov, Isaac, 129 Aspen (Populus spp.), 167 Auk, Great (Penguinus impennis), 45 Australia avian reintroductions, 281 biological invasions, 163, 182 dry tropical regions, 130 grasslands, 176 mapping vegetation, 228 Queensland, 228 Southwest, 269 woody plant diversity, 159 Austria, 75 Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), 146, 150, 264 Avocado (Persea americana), 111 Azalea, yellow (Rhododendron molle), 88 Azores, 161 Aztec Indians, 109, 279; see also Amerindians B Babassú palm (Orbignya spp.), 113 Bacabá (Oenocarpus bacaba), 113 Bacteria, 7, 15, 22, 93 Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 201, 222, 264–265, 280–282 Banana poka (Passiflora mollissima), 187 Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), 84 Barley, cross-breeding, 110 Barro Colorado Island (Panama), 12, 375

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BioDiversity Bay checkerspot (Euphydryas editha bayensis) butterflies, 22 Beans, 87, 111, 243, 244; see also specific species Bearded pigs (Sus barbatus), 356 Bears (Ursus spp.), 71, 75 Beech (Fagus sylvatica), 451 Beetles, 123, 127–128, 215; see also specific species Belding’s Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi), 319, 323 Belladonna (Atropa belladonna), 84 Bering Sea, 46 Betel-nut palm (Areca catechu), 84 Beza-Mahafaly project, 152 Biodiversity aquatic, 171–172 benefits of, 21, 73, 81–82, 103, 296; see also Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived burning effects, 80, 177–178 causes and consequences of losses, 14, 21–26, 59, 63, 72–73, 131, 197, 231, 263–264, 280–281, 446; see also Deforestation; Habitats destruction characteristic, 42, 44, 45 Christian view, 481–485 classification, see Taxonomy coevolution, 203, 207–210 communicating the importance of, 82, 465–469 costs of research, 102 crises in geologic past, 51–57; see also Extinctions current state, 3–18 in dance, song, story, and poetry, 470–480 definition, 3, 36, 71 diversification, 160, 209–210, 275 economic considerations, 14–16, 79–82, 114–115, 206–210, 212–213, 415, 441, 443; see also Resource economics endemic, see Endemism estimating losses, 10–14, 22, 26, 44, 58–69 ethical considerations, 16, 80–81 extinction, see Extinction; Extinction rates formation, 209 gene pool reductions, 7, 11–12, 22, 32, 81 global role, 3, 10–12, 21–35, 48, 409 human dependence, 3, 21, 58, 81–82, 99 industrial uses, 112 information management, 231–238 interdependence among species, 203, 275 log factor, 169–171 medicinal uses, see Drugs and pharmaceuticals; Medicine; Traditional medicine Mediterranean-climate region, 160–162 megadiversity countries, 145, 152–153 monitoring, 227–230, 231–239, 257–259 moral value, 201–202, 215–216 patterns, 422–423 prevention of losses, 13–17, 22, 25–26; see also Conservation; Preservation productivity correlation, 42, 44 research goals, needs, and challenges, 14, 38–40, 46 serendipity and exploration, 98–105 species numbers and richness, 3–7, 14, 42, 64–65, 68, 131, 200, 232 structural dynamics, 160, 169–171 taxonomy, see Taxonomy tropical compared to temperate regions, 158–160 urban area, 71–76 valuation, 47, 98–105, 193–222; see also Resource economics Vavilovian centers, 242–243 see also Genetic diversity Biogeography island, 6, 11, 12–13, 29–32, 42, 100, 269–270, 275 marine, 37–38, 41–43 shallow-time data use in, 52 Biological engineering, 377–389 Biomass production, 23, 61, 359, 377–386 Biophilia, 16–17, 99 BioSciences Information Service (BIOSIS), 246 Birch (Betula spp.), 167, 451 Bird’s beak, salt marsh (Cordylanthus maritimus), 317, 322 Birds African, 251–252 as analogs of filter feeders, 39 artificial insemination, 281, 303 breeding success, 186, 280–282 diurnal raptors, 280–282 diversity, 5, 9, 39, 131, 150, 250, 266 ecology, 22 extinction, 11, 12, 45, 63, 66, 71, 74, 151, 181, 183, 279–288, 317–319 forest habitats, 170 grassland species, 178 ground-nesting, 186 habitat size, 178 human-imprinted, 281 Madagascar, 150

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BioDiversity North American, overwintering, 22, 135 reintroductions, 282–284 resilience of species, 66 rookeries, offshore, 75 Santa Rosa National Park species, 131 urban losses, 71, 74 see also specific species Birthwort (Corydalis ambigua), 89 Bishop’s weed (Ammi majus), 90 Bison (Bison spp.), 7, 71, 264, 282 Black-footed cat (Felis nigripes), 300 Black Forest (Federal Republic of Germany), 75 Black mustard (Brassica nigra), 84 Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), 88, 313 Bluestem, big (Andropogon gerardi), 314 Blue whale (Sibbaldus musculus), 213 Boars, wild (Sus scrofa), 188 Boggle unit of ignorance, 204–205 Bolivia, 148, 149–150, 367 Borneo, 9, 31, 67 Botanical gardens conservation methods, 271–273 genetic consequences of conservation, 273–275 role, 114, 276–277 see also specific botanical gardens and museums Botanochemicals, 112 Brady, Nyle C., 409–418 Brazil Acre State rubber tappers, 139 Amerindians, 114, 138–144 Atlantic coastal forest, 10, 29–30, 72, 145, 147–149 colonization program, 143 conservation programs, 405–406 extinction of birds, 13 Manaus, 124, 126 new crops, 111–113 Para State, 142 primates, 146, 149–150 Rondonia project, 15, 29, 126 São Paulo, 72, 148 tropical forest area, 147–148 Tucurui Dam construction, 15 Brazil nuts, 142 Brazilian Shield, 125 Brome grass (Bromus tectorum), 162 Bronx Zoo (New York City), 282 Brookfield Zoo (Chicago), 147 Broom, Scotch (Cytisus scoparius), 89 Brown, Lester R., 446–449 Buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa), 109–110, 114 Burley, F.William, 227–230; 403–408 Burma, 29, 148, 397, 400 Burning effects on biodiversity, 80, 177–178 forests, 79, 130 prescribed, 173 see also Fires Butterflies, 22, 72, 75, 131, 238; see also specific species C Caa-hê-hê (Stevia rebaudiana), 89 Caboclos (forest-dwellers), 139 Cacti, 100 Cade, Tom J., 279–288 Caffeine, as a natural insecticide, 112 Cairns, John, Jr., 333–343 Calabar beans (Physostigma benenosum), 87, 111 California barley, 110 Berkeley, 75 exotic species invasion, 161, 163 floristic diversity, 159, 161, 163–164 grasslands, 161 loss of diversity, 71, 73, 75, 161 parks and reserves, 161 San Francisco Bay Area, 71, 73, 75 wetlands restoration, 317–325 California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), 45, 201, 215, 222, 280, 282, 284, 288 California least tern (Sterna albifrons browni), 317, 322, 323 Calvaria major (tree), 357 Cameroon, 29, 148 Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), 85 Canary Islands, 161, 163 Cancer treatment, 85–90, 92, 94; see also Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived Cape Floristic Kingdom (Africa), 251 Captive breeding, see Preservation; Zoological parks; and specific zoos and parks Carabid beetle (Agra arrow), 128 Caribbean islands, 10, 65–67; see also specific islands Carp, Chinese, 347 Caryodaphnopsis theobromifolia (tree), 111 Cassava (Manihot spp.), cross-breeding, 110 Cat, black-footed (Felis nigripes), 300 Catastrophes, natural, 65, 67, 169 Catfish, North American (Ictalurus spp.), 347

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BioDiversity Ceanothus (Ceanothus spp.), 171 Cedar (Thuia spp.), 456 Cenozoic era, 8, 51 Central African Republic, 148–150 Central America deep ecology, 79 deforestation rates, 120 new crops, 109 rain forest species diversity, 9 see also Latin America; and specific countries Cerrado, 140 Challinor, David, 493–496 Channel Islands National Park (California), 182–183 Chaparral, inland, 75 Chargaff, Erwin, 216 Charismatic megavertebrates, 145, 258, 293 Cheetahs (Acinoynx jubatus), 286 Chestnut, American, 215 Chestnut, horse (Aesculus hippocastanum), 84 Chile, 159, 164, 367 Chimpanzees (Pan spp.), 145–146, 264; see also specific species China, see People’s Republic of China Chinampas (kitchen gardens), 336 Chinese carp, 347 Chinese maiden hair tree (Ginko biloba), 66–67 Chinese snake gourd (Trichosanthes kirilowii), 90 Chipmunks, 71 Chmielewski, Tadeusz, 101 Choco forest (Colombia), threat to, 31 Chordates, pharmaceutical interest, 93, 94 Cichlidae, 252 Cinnamon, yellow (Ocotea glaziovii), 86 Cinquefoil (Potentilla fragarioides), 85 Citrus (Citrus spp.), 86, 89, 244 Classification systems biogeographic, 229 biotic, in Africa, 253–254 habitat, 42–43 Holdridge Life Zone, 61 mapping centers of endemism, 253–254 Climate ecological responses, 451–459 effects, 24, 25, 32, 56, 65, 73, 209, 451–459 human-induced, 22 Pleistocene epoch, 52 projected, 451–452 rainfall correlated with tree species richness, 62 species range shift in response, 453 see also Greenhouse effect Club of Earth, 448–449 Coastal zones characteristics and extent, 37, 42 classification, 42–43 ecological diversity, 36–49 forests, 37 human population, 45, 48, 75 marshlands, 75 productivity, 37 research needs, 48–49 see also Marine environments Cobb, John B., Jr., 481–485 Coca (Erythroxylum coca), 85 Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), 89 Coevolution, 203, 207–210 Coffee (Coffea spp.), 66, 110 Coiba (Panama), 12 Cold water spirit, 476–480 Coleoptera, see Beetles Coles (Brassica spp.), 244 Colombia Choco forest, 31 new crops, 109, 113 primates, 149–150 Commodities, see Crops; Drugs and pharmaceuticals; Fats; Oils Comoros Islands, 150 Compass plant (Silphium laciniatum), 314 Competition, interspecies, 184, 275; see also Exotic species Condor, California (Gymnogyps californianus), 45, 201, 215, 222, 280, 282, 284, 288 Coneflower, yellow (Ratibida pinnata), 314 Congo, closed tropical forest area, 148 Conifers, 167–169, 174, 378 Conservation acquisition of land, 135 aesthetic reasons, 73 African examples, 248–259 benefits, 194–222, 267–268 costs, 267 debt forgiveness/economic assistance, 15 economic and political considerations, 74, 80, 121, 193–199, 213–214, 429–432 economic development, 14–16; see also Resource economics environmental impact analysis, 237 ethical issues, 80–81, 194 ethnobotanist role, 114 European policies, 75 focus, 106 forest, 396–398; see also Reforestation

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BioDiversity funding, 45, 145, 258, 406–407, 425, 441–442 impediments, 14, 68, 73, 197–198, 424–426 in situ, 105, 246, 253, 269, 293, 361–368; see also Ecological Reserves; Preserves land administration, 236 Latin American perspectives, 428–436 major areas worldwide, 411 motivation, 467–469 movements and organizations, 74, 79–82 planning for climate change, 457–459 prioritization, 44–49, 80, 227–230, 236, 248–249, 269, 416–417 secondary forest role, 60, 62 size of populations and ecosystems, 228–229, 271, 412 stewardship, 172–173, 231, 236 strategies, 68, 82, 149, 169, 171, 253, 263–268, 270–273, 289–294, 396–398, 411–412, 434–436 systematic, 411–412 Third World responsibility-sharing with developed nations, 434–436 urban area, 73, 74 utilitarian reasons, 80–82, 198 wetlands, 256 worthiness of species/habitats, 131–134, 221, 269 see also Ex situ conservation; Preservation Conservation Data Centers, 229, 414 Contingent valuation, 201, 218–220, 222 Contour hedgerows, 387–389 Conway, William, 263–268 Cook Islands, biological invasions, 185 Coral reefs exploration, 5 productivity, 44 Scleractinia dominance, 55 threat, 8, 24, 33 see also Deep sea; Marine environments Cordgrass (Spartina foliosa), 320, 323 Corn, 110, 202–203, 222; see also Maize; Teosinte Costa Rica, 131, 158–159, 338, 346, 357, 415 Cotton (Gossypium spp.), 86 Cotton-top tamarin (Sageunus oedipus), 146, 296 Cougars (Felis concolor), 71 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), 243 Coyotes (Canis latrans), 132 Crab, horseshoe (Limulus spp.), 40 Cranes, 222, 255–256, 264, 266, 285, 286; see also specific species Crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis), 280 Creosote bush (Larrea divaricata), 87 Cretaceous-Tertiary Period, 52, 54–55, 121 Crocus (Colchicum autumnale), 85 Crops Amerindian, 138 cross-breeding, 101–102, 110–111, 241, 244, 274 disease resistance, 110, 242, 361 fuelwood, 395 genetic diversity, 15, 81, 208 genetic resource activities, 242 germplasm, 242–244, 363–365 inefficient use, 23, 108 landraces, 241–243, 246, 276, 362, 365 loss of potential species, 81, 365 new, 107–110 origins, 15, 81, 99–100, 107–108, 110–111, 132, 207, 242–244, 273–274, 362–363 resources for genetic conservation, 244–245 tree, 394–395 Vavilovian centers, 242–243 yields, 25, 241 Cross-breeding characteristics controlled, 241 crops, 101–102, 110–111, 241, 244, 274 embryo rescue techniques, 244 potatoes, 102, 110 primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools, 244 tomatoes, 101–102, 110 Cryptococcus (Cryptococcus spp.), role and value, 423 Cryopreservation embryos, 292, 302–303 seed, 272 semen, 303–304 Cubé root (Lonchocarpus nicou), 88 Cultivation acid latosols, 395 alley-cropping, 395 broad-scale, 30, 271 effects on oceanic islands, 181 habitat conversion, 75 medicinal plants, 95 plantation, 271, 378–386, 394 shifting, 29, 138, 140–142 small-scale, 29 strip-cropping, 363 Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum), 90, 111 Curcurbits, 244

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BioDiversity Curtis, John, 312 Cushion plants, 100 Cypress (Chamaecyparis spp.), 456 D Daisy (Chrysanthemum cinerarialfolium), 111 Darwin, Charles, 10 DDT, 280, 282 Deep ecology movement, 79–82 Deep sea, 5, 38; see also Coral reefs; Marine environments Deer, 71, 132, 264, 346, 455; see also specific species Deforestation alternatives, 370–375 causes, 10, 120, 124, 394 climatic effects, 32 closed and open forests, 60–61 costs to remedy, 16 effects generally, 24, 103, 120–121 effects on Amerindians, 114, 142–143 extinctions, 31, 60, 62–64, 120, 121 rates, 8, 11, 29, 60–65, 119–122, 124, 148, 393–394 remote-sensing surveys, 29 solutions, 15–16, 394–396; see also Conservation; Forests; Rain forests; Reforestation; Temperate forests; and specific forests Desert-farming module, 346–351 Desmodium ovalifolium (vine), 374 Developing countries, see Third World Development assistance, see Agency for International Development; World Bank Diamond, Jared, 12 Diego Garcia Island, 183 Dinosaurs, 55, 200, 249 Diversification, see under Biodiversity DNA flux theory, 245 libraries, 272, 292 structure in house mouse, 7 Dodo (Raphus cuculatus), 357 Doolittle, Ford, 487 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga spp.), 75, 167–168, 453 Dresser, Betsy L., 296–307 Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived abortifacient, 90 adrenergic blocker, 90 amebicides, 86 analeptic, 88 analgesic, 85, 87–89 anesthetic, 85, 111 anthelmintic, 84, 88 anti-gout, 85 antiarrhythmic, 88 antibiotic, 84, 86–87, 93 anticholinergic, 84, 86 anticholinesterase, 87 antidepressant, 86 antidysentery, 84 antiemetic, 89 antifungal, 89 antihemorrhagic, 86, 89 antihepatotoxic, 89 antihypertensive, 85, 88–89 antiinflammatory, 84–85 antimalarial, 88 antiparkinsonism, 86 antipyretics, 85–88 antitumor, 85–87, 89–90, 92, 94 antitussive, 84–88 aphrodisiac, 90 ascaricide, 86, 89 astringent, 86 bronchoconstrictor, 89 bronchodilator, 87–88 cardiotonic, 84–87, 89 chemical information, 93–94 choleretic, 85 cholinesterase inhibitors, 86 contraceptive, 86 costs of development, 83, 91, 95 dental plaque inhibitor, 89 detoxicant, 87 discovery programs, 83, 94–96 diuretic, 89 emetics, 86 escharotic, 88 expectorant, 88 folkloric claims, 84–90, 93, 95 hemostatic, 85, 86 herbal, 91–92 importance globally, 83–92, 97 laxative, 85, 89 mucolytic, 85, 87 muscle relaxant, 84, 87, 90 ocular tension reducer, 89 oxytocic, 87, 89–90 parasympathomimetic, 88 pharmacological information, 93–94 proteolytic, 86, 87 rubefacient, 84–85, 87 screening, 92–95

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BioDiversity sedative, 88–90 stimulants, 84–85, 87, 89–90 sympathomimetic, 86 testing on animals, 81 tranquilizer, 85, 87–88 vasodilator, 89 Dumoga Bone National Park (Indonesia), 397, 405, 440 Dushen (wood grass product), 359, 379–386 E Eagle owl (Bubo bubo), 282 Eagles, 201, 222, 264–265, 280–282; see also specific species Earth as a living organism, 486–489 Earth First! movement, 79 East Africa, 31, 438; see also Africa; and specific countries Echinoderms, 8; see also Marine environments Eckholm, Erik, 81 Ecological reserves Asian region, 396 butterfly survival, 72 climate change effects, 451–459 edge effects, 269 effectiveness, 174 management, 457–459 most favorable sites, 269 protection strategies, 120–121 size factor in success, 313, 451 studies, 339–340 see also specific reserves Ecological restoration, see Restoration of species Ecology, deep, 79–82 Economics, see Biodiversity, economic considerations; Global exchange economy; Resource economics Ecosystems alteration, 186–187 coevolution, 203, 207–210 gnotobiotic, 340–341 restoration, see Restoration of species Ecuador closed tropical forest area, 148 deep ecology, 79 deforestation, 11, 29–30 new crops, 109 timber trees, 111 urban areas, 79 woody plant diversity, 159 Eggplants, African (Solanum spp.), 244 Ehrenfeld, David, 212–216 Ehrlich, Paul R., 21–27 Elephant birds (Aepyornis spp.), 151 Elephants, 21, 258 Eli Lilly Company, 94, 95 Elk, 71, 75, 264, 290 Embryo transfer, 298–302, 264, 266, 298–302 Endangered species data base, 234 foster ecosystems, 62, 66 importance, 21, 106 loss of internal diversity, 7 number, 22 Endangered Species Act, 74, 289 Endemism African centers, 249–252 Brazilian Atlantic coastal forests, 72 exotic species and, 68, 160, 162–163, 181–188 Mediterranean-climate regions, 160–163 North American grasslands, 179 primates, 148–150 South American tropical forests, 29–31, 148–149 Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni)., 24, 455, 456 England, see Great Britain Equatorial Guinea, 149–150 Erosion, 73, 344–345, 447–448 Erwin, Terry L., 5, 123–129 Ethics conservation, 16, 80–81, 200–205, 212–216, 217–223, 294 economic valuation of biodiversity, 217–218 Ethiopia, 100, 110 Ethnobotany, 95, 114, 358, 363–367 Europe, see specific countries Everglades National Park (Florida), 182–183, 203 Evolution description of processes, 32–33 extinction effects, 32–34, 51, 54–55 geographic speciation, 6 geologic record, 51–57 Homo sapiens, 55 islands, 182 rates, 182 successional, 125 see also specific geological periods Ex situ conservation animals, 289–304 application of techniques and species, 264–265, 271–273 costs, 267

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BioDiversity crop genetic resources, 246 genetic consequences, 273–275 high technology, 289–294 hybridization, 274 plants, 265, 270–277 value, 312 see also Botanical gardens; Conservation; Restoration of species; Zoological parks; and specific botanical gardens and zoological parks Exotic species control, 185, 187 development of reproductive technology, 305 establishment and maintenance, 73 importance, 65–67 invasion by South African fynbos, 160 invasion of high-endemic areas, 68, 160, 162–163, 181–188 invasion of grasslands, 178 invasion of islands, 181–188 naturalized, in California, 161 pests, 67, 72 urban areas, 73, 74 Extinction biological proneness, 33, 74–75 causes, 3, 28, 29, 54, 59–60, 134, 181, 184, 196, 273, 454 climate changes, 209 deforestation-induced, 8, 60, 62–64, 181 dinosaur, 55, 121 disease factor, 184 episodic, 8, 52 evolutionary consequences, 32–34, 51, 54–55 habitat destruction, 3, 54, 59, 184 human population expansion, 59 geologic records, 26, 33, 51–57 grazing-induced, 184 insularization, 13, 74 invertebrate, 8, 72 islands, 181 Madagascar, 151 mass, 6, 8, 12, 26, 28, 33, 51–57, 63, 68, 134, 136 plants, 11, 12, 29, 33, 52, 63 predator factor, 66, 72, 184, 186 probability calculations, 7–8 rates, see Extinction rates recovery time, 54 research priorities, 13, 52, 54, 57 secondary events, 74 spasms, 28, 30, 32, 33, 52–53, 467 stepwise, 52 technological amelioration, 26 urban area, 71 Extinction rates animals, 29–30 area-species relationship, 6, 11, 12, 63 background, 28, 51, 52 current, 10, 13, 28, 29, 59, 63 deep-time, 54, 57 deforestation-related, 8, 62–65 estimation approaches, 10, 13, 29–32, 54, 59–60, 62–65 fossil lineages, 8, 13, 51, 54 future, 11, 30–32, 59–60, 63, 127, 289 islands, 181 Latin America, 64–65 marine, 7–8, 45 plants, 11, 12, 29, 33, 52, 63 primates, 120, 121 phytogeographical relationship, 62 shallow-time, 56 tropical forests, 10–13, 58–69, 121 Z factor, 63 F Faba bean (Vicia faba), 243 Falcons, peregrine (Falco peregrinus), 264, 280–288, 293 Fallow deer (Cervinae dama), 346 Famine, from climate change, 24, 25 Farnsworth, Norman R., 83–97 Faroe Islands, 163 Fats, vegetable, industry uses and new sources, 112–113 Fauna and Flora Preservation Society, 147 Feral pigs and cats, 186, 187 Ferrets, black-footed (Mustela nigripes), 22, 290, 293 Fescue, Arizona (Fescue montana arizonica), 335 Fevillea spp. (vine), 113 Field stations, 103, 334–337; see also specific field stations Filter feeders, 39, 41 Fir, Douglas (Pseudotsuga spp.), 75, 167–168, 453 Fire tree (Myrica faya), 186 Fires Andropogon grasses, 186 forest clearance, 67, 130, 134 forest recovery, 326–327 Volkswagen ranch, 141 see also Burning

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BioDiversity Fish berry (Anamirta cocculus), 88 Fishes African, 252 anadromous, 171 diversity, 40–41, 71, 171–172, 222, 266 ecology, 22, 39 exotic species in California, 162 exploitation, 24 extinction rates, 7–8 habitat requirements, 22 plants poisonous to, 88, 111 restoration, 222, 286, 346–347 value, 222 see also specific species Flagship species, 103, 145, 149 Flora, see Flowering plants; Plants Florida, 182, 203 Flowering plants Cenozoic, longevity, 8 cultivation for food, 121 determinants of genetic patterns, 271 number of genes, 7 tropical region, 121, 158 see also Crops; Plants Food and Agriculture Organization, 398, 404 Food chains, 40–41, 240–246 plants, 240–246, 358; see also Crops; Plants, edible production, 44, 81, 99 resources, 23 Foreign Assistance Act, conservation amendments, 15–16 Forest-dwellers (caboclos), 139 Forests acidification, 75 apete (patches), 140 boreal, 157 burning, 79, 130 closed, 60–61 development assistance, 404–406 coastal, 10, 29–30, 72 fallow, 61 formation, 125 gallery, 140 gardening, 373–374 logged, 60–61, 167 mature, 66 monsoon, 31 montane, 31 open, 60–61 patch dynamics, 75, 174 recovery, 60 remnant primeval, 169 research needs, 68 resilience, 61 secondary, 60–64, 66, 68, 141, 167; see also Temperate forests types, 61–62 see also Deforestation; Rain forests; Temperate forests; Tropical dry forests; Tropical forests; and specific forests Fossil records climate change, 456–457 extinction rates, 8, 13, 51, 54 gaps, 55 rain forests, 56 Foxglove (Digitalis spp.), 84–87 Frankfurt Zoological Society (Federal Republic of Germany), 147 Franklin, Jerry F., 166–175 Freezing, see Cryopreservation Freshwater habitats, see Rivers; Wetlands Fuelwood, 358, 403, 413 Fungi, 7, 93, 94, 214, 357, 374 Furbish lousewort, 127, 201 Fynbos, 159–161, 255 G Gabon, 148, 149–150 Gaia, 37, 48, 469, 486–489 Galapagos Islands, 183, 187 Game management, 374–376 Gatun Lake (Panama), 12 Gavio Indians, 142; see also Amerindians Genetic diversity allelic, 7 captive breeding populations, 290, 291 conservation, 240–241, 244–246, 270, 273–275, 361–368 crops, 81, 207–208, 240–246, 361–368 gene banks, 276, 361–362, 414 hamlet fishes, 40–41 importance, 24–25, 82, 388 islands, 184 monitoring, 240 old-growth forests, 167 population biology and molecular genetics, 291 reduction, 7, 11–12, 22, 32, 81, 179, 208, 378 research problem areas, 245–246 wild gene pools, 82 within species, 25 see also Biodiversity

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BioDiversity Genetic engineering, 110, 122, 134, 213 Geological records, 26, 33, 51–57 Geological time, 51–52, 54, 56–57; see also specific geological periods Germany, Federal Republic of, 75, 92 Germplasm, sources, 363–365; see also Crops; Genetic diversity; Restoration of species Giant Sable Integral Nature Reserve (Angola), 254 Gibson, R., 111 Ginger, wild (Asarum canadense), 313 Ginseng products, 91 Glaciation, 33, 56, 249 Global 2000 Report, 60, 63, 296 Global exchange economy agricultural transformation, 206 biodiversity losses, 206–210 comparative advantage, 208 neoclassical model, 208, 210 see also Biodiversity, economic considerations; Resource economics Gnotobiotic ecosystems, 340–341 Goats (Capra hircus), 183 God, 215–216, 469, 483–485 Golden Gate National Recreation Area (San Francisco), 73 Golden Gate Park (San Francisco), 73 Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), 146, 149, 264, 286 Golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), 86 Goldthread (Coptis japonica), 87 Goodland, Robert A., 437–445 Goosefish (Lophius americanus), 39, 40 Gorilla, mountain (Gorilla gorilla), 146, 222 Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 282 Grasses, 134, 178, 202–203, 222; see also Grasslands; Grazing; and specific species Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus sarannanum), 178 Grasslands agriculture conversions, 176–177, 179 annual, 75 characteristics, 176–177 dambos, 255–256 diversity, 22, 176–179 endemism levels, 179 grazing, 176–179 Highveld, 255 importance, 157 invertebrates, 179 management, 177 origin, 179 pampas, 176 patch dynamics, 75 perennial, 161 preservation, 75, 177 puna, 100 shifting cultivation, 141 species invasions, 162, 178 steppes, 176, 177 subtle impacts, 177–179 see also Grasses; Grazing; Prairies Grassle, J.F., 38 Grazing benefits, 179 grasslands, 176–179 oceanic islands, effects, 181, 186 plants adapted to withstand, 100 Great auk (Penguinus impennis), 45 Great Britain, 72 Great Lakes (Africa), 252 Great Lakes (North America), 252 Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina-Tennessee), 159, 183, 188 Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), 48 Greenhouse effect, 32, 450–452; see also Climate Green iguana (Iguana iguana), 356, 371–372, 435 Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), 282 Ground water, pattern changes, 72 Guanabana (Annona muricata), 109 Guanacaste National Park (Costa Rica), 159, 338 Guans, crested, 103 Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), 111–112 Guatemala, 29 Guava (Psidium spp.), 183, 187 Guppy, Nicholas, 15 Guyana 29, 148 H Habitats conversion to less-productive systems, 23, 25, 73–76 definition, 42 destruction, 10, 21–24, 25, 28, 30, 54, 56, 66, 73–75, 80, 187, 296, 317, 355, 410–411 disruption, 72, 74 diversity, 40–45, 75 forest structures, 170–171 fragmentation, 74, 338 Holdridge Life Zone Classification System, 61

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BioDiversity stability, 42 temperate communities, 42 threatened, 24, 33 tropical reefs, 42 wave energy, 46 see also Coral reefs; Deep sea Marshlands bay, 37, 75 restoration, 316–325, 341–342 Mather, Cotton, 99 Mauritius, 357 Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus), 280, 282, 382 May apple (Podophyllum peltatum), 86, 88–89 Mayan Indians, 80, 358; see also Amerindians McClure, Michael, 470–475 Meadowlark, eastern (Sturnella magna), 178 Medicine, see also Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived; Traditional medicine Mediterranean basin, transformation from native state, 161–162 Mediterranean-climate regions biological richness, 158–160 floristic diversity, 160–162 human impact on biodiversity, 160, 162 introduction of exotic species, 162–164 Megamouth sharks (Megachasma pelagios), 46 Memphis Zoo, 304 Mencken, H.L., 265 Merrick, Laura C., 361–369 Mesoamerican dry forest, 134 Mesozoic era, 8, 11–13, 51 Mexico closed tropical forest area, 148 conservation awareness, 429 crop germplasm resources, 363–364 deforestation rates, 120 environmental protection capabilities, 435–436 Jalisco, 103 kitchen gardens (chinampas), 366 maize, 103–104 Mayan farming, 80, 358 peasant agriculture, 363–364, 366 political environment, 431–432 Sierra de Manantlán, 103 socioeconomic environment, 429–431 Mice, 7, 71, 302; see also specific species Miocene age, 6 Misol, 12 Missouri Babler State Park, 159 tall-grass prairie, 178 TROPICOS system, 246 woody plant diversity, 158–159 Missouri Botanical Garden, 114, 152 Mittermeier, Russell A., 145–154 Modeling climatic effects on biodiversity, 52 predictive, 52, 237 refugium, 56 Monitoring techniques, 227–230, 231–239 Monkeys, see specific species Mooney, Harold A., 157–165 Moonseed (Menispermum spp.), 456 Moose, 71, 264 Morocco, 346, 349 Morton, Eugene, 39 Mount Ranier National Park (Washington), 183 Mount Roraima (Venezuela), 98 Mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), 146, 222 Mountain muhly (Muhlenbergia spp.), 335 Mouse lemur (Microcebus mirinus), 145, 150 Mozambique, 254–255 Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), 145, 149 Murphy, Dennis D., 71–76 Mustard, black (Brassica nigra), 84 Myers, Norman, 10, 28–35 N Nanaloricus mysticus (sediment organism), 46 NAPRALERT data base, 93 Naranjilla (Solanum quitoese), 109 Nasturtium (Rorrippa indica), 88 National Botanical Garden of Indonesia, 276 National Cancer Institute, plant screening for drugs, 92, 95 National Conservation Strategy Conference, 152 National Geographic Society, 114 National Heritage Data Centers applications of data, 235–237 contributors, 238 distribution geographically, 233 functions, 232–234, 237–238 networking and central data bases, 229, 234–235 National Museum of Natural History, 234 National Parks, see Parks and recreation areas; and specific parks National Research Council Board on Science and Technology for International Development, 15 Nations, James, D., 79–82 Natural selection, simulation ex situ, 274

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BioDiversity Nature Conservancy, 229, 232–238, 339, 414; see also National Heritage Data Centers Neon tetras (Paracheirodon innesi), 22 Nepal contour hedgerow project; 386–387 forest conservation policies, 397 World Bank forestry/agricultural projects, 401 Net primary production, 23–24, 26, 333 New Caledonia, 31 New Guinea closed tropical forest area, 148 food plants, 395 land bridges, 12 Papua, 29, 148, 374 New York City Botanical Garden, 114 Central Park, 73 Gateway National Recreation Area, 73 Zoological Society, 147 New Zealand avian reintroductions, 281 biological invaders, 163, 183 Niche formation, 205; see also Adaptive radiation; Speciation Nigeria, 29, 149–150 Nile perch (Lates nilotica), 252 Nimuendaju, Curt, 142 Norgaard, Richard B., 206–211 North America, exchange of land mammals between South America and, 6–7 North Atlantic, coastal and marine environments, classification, 43 Northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis), 167, 169 Norton, Bryan, 200–205 Nuts, 90, 142; see also specific species O Oats (Avena spp.), 162, 243 Ocana, Gilberto, 370–376 Oceanic islands atolls, 182 critical habitats, 187 ecological research, 187–188 ecosystem-level effects, 186–187 endemism, 182 evolution and speciation rates, 182 exotic species invasions, 181–188 extinction, 181–182 feral pigs and cats, 186–187 founder effects, 184 grazing, 181–182 habitat destruction, 182, 187 herbivorous mammals, 184–186 human colonization, 181–182 management and protection, 185 predators, 181–182, 184–186 rats, 186 susceptibility to invading species, 184–185 see also specific islands Ocelots (Felis pardalis), 103 Office of Endangered Species, 75, 236 Office of Technology Assessment, 14 Óhiá (Metrosideros polymorpha), 184 Oils, industry uses and new sources, 112–113 Oops unit of loss, 204–205 Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), 85, 87 Opler, Paul, 238 Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 291 Orchids, 150, 133, 314; see also specific species Oregon, 159, 170 Organization of Timber-Exporting Countries, 15, 404 Orinoco basin, 11 Oryx, Arabian (Oryx leucoryx), 265, 286, 290 Osage oranges (Maclura spp.), 453 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 282 Owls, 167, 169, 282; see also specific species P Pacas (Cuniculus paca), 356, 372–373, 375 Pagoda tree (Sophora pachycarpa), 87 Paleozoic era, 8, 11–13 Palms, 84, 109–110, 113, 114, 374; see also specific species Panama AID natural resources project, 415 alternatives to deforestation, 370–375 beetle species, 123 captive breeding of pacas, 372–373 forest gardening, 373–374 land bridge, 6 management of game animals, 374–375 management of green iguana, 371–372 woody plant diversity, 158 Panama Canal Zone, 12, 159 Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), 45, 106, 470 Papaya (Carica papaya), 85, 87 Paradise tree (Simaruba glauca), 86 Parks and recreation areas alien plants, 183 Central Park (New York City), 73

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BioDiversity Fairmont Park (Philadelphia), 73 Gateway National Recreation Area (New York City), 73 Golden Gate National Recreation Area (San Francisco), 73 Golden Gate Park (San Francisco), 73 Rock Creek Park (Washington, D.C.), 73 understory foliage removal, 75 value, 73 see also Zoological parks; and specific parks Parrot, Puerto Rican (Amazonia vittata), 286 Parrots, 39, 103, 286; see also specific species Parsley, prairie (Polytaenia nuttallii), 314 Patauá palm (Jessenia bataua), 113 Pawpaws (Asimina spp.), 453 Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), 109, 374 Peccaries (Tayassu spp.), 135, 375, 453 Pelicans, California brown (Pelicanus occidentalis), 322 Penguins, 42, 47 Pennywort, Indian (Centella asiatica), 84 People’s Republic of China crops, 108, 379 deforestation, 379 Dushen production, 384–386 forestry projects, 406 ginko tree preservation, 66–67 plant screening for drugs, 92 population, 92 traditional medicine, 91, 92 Peppermint (Mentha spp.), 87 Perch, Nile (Lates nilotica), 252 Peregrine Fund, 283, 285; see also Falcons Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus; Vinca minor), 90 Permian Period, 33, 52, 54 Persea spp. (trees), 111 Peru Amazonian rain forest, 5, 31 Andes, 100 Central Selva Resource Management Project, 414 closed tropical forest area, 148 contrasted with Brazilian forest, 126–127 crops, 364 Cuczo, 100 Curahuasi, 101 deforestation rates, 29 fiber-producing plants, 114 gap analysis, 228, 229 Manu Park, 120 Napo center of Amazonia, 31 Palcazu valley project, 414 primates, 149–150 puna (grassland), 100 species richness, 100 Tambopata Reserve, 9, 124 tomato discovery, 99–100 Pesticides caffeine, 112 DDT, 280, 282 ecosystem disruption, 72 methyl carbamate insecticides, 111 natural, from plants, 87, 107, 110–112, 357 pyrethrum insecticides, 111 rotenone, 88, 111 Peters, Robert L., II, 450–461 Petroleum substitutes, botanochemicals as, 112 Phanerozoic time, extinction data, 51–54, 57 Pharmaceuticals, see Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived Pheasant’s eye (Adonis vernalis), 84 Philippines, 31, 397, 400, 438 Phlox, smooth (Phlox glaberrima), 314 Photosynthesis, 23 Phyla, marine and terrestrial, 38–39 Pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii), 320, 323 Pigs bearded (Sus barbatus), 356 feral, 186, 187, 356 Pike’s Peak Research Station (Colorado), 336 Pineapple (Ananas comosus), 85 Pine trees (Pinus spp.), 75, 167, 335 Pinyin (Daphne genkwa), 90 Piquiá (Caryocar spp.), 111 Plankton, 39, 41, 46, 47 Plant Conservation, Center for, 238 Plant Genetic Resources, International Board for, 241–246 Plants Afrotropical realm species, 250–251 agricultural, 106, 112; see also Crops cellulose uses, 113 cultivation programs for new drugs, 95 defenses, 186 edible, 15, 107; see also Crops effects of climate change, 452 ex situ preservation, 265, 270–277 extinctions, 11, 12, 29, 33, 52, 63, 97 fats and oils, 112–113 fibers, 113–114 genetic resources, 97, 414; see also Genetic diversity human dependence, 106 in situ preservation, 105 industrial uses, 106, 112–114

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BioDiversity interactions with animals, 186–187 lysine-containing, 109 medicinal, see Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived; Traditional medicine number of species, 3–5, 265 pesticides, 87, 107, 110–112 pigmenting agent, 90 poisons, 87–88 population management, 270 potential applications, 15, 106–115 projected extinction rate, 11, 12 propagation, 270 screening for medicines, 81, 83–97 seed banks, 271–272, 275; see also Germplasm species-specific natural selection, 275 sweeteners, 86, 87, 89 terrestrial compared to marine, 39 tissue cultures, 272 toxins, 87, 88, 111 tropical urban usefulness, 73 see also Crops; Flowering plants; Grasses; Grasslands; Trees; Weeds; Woodlands; and specific species Pleistocene Epoch, 33, 52, 56, 57 Plotkin, Mark J., 106–116 Poisons, 87–88, 111 Polar regions, 39, 42, 46 Pollution air, 25, 72 biological, 67, 72; see also Exotic species marine, 24 selective pressure, 206, 423 water, 72 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 72 Polymorphism, genetic, 7 Polynesia, 10 Pondicherry vulture (Sarcogyps calvus), 280 Poplar, yellow (Liriodendron spp.), 456 Poppy, 85, 86, 87; see also specific species Population growth (human) coastal zones, 48, 75 conservation and, 425 effect on biodiversity, 21, 22, 25–27, 59, 63, 206 food supply and, 99 projected, 23, 63, 75 rare species response, 423–424 San Francisco Bay Area, 75 small-scale cultivators, 29 threat to rain forests, 10, 59, 80 Potatoes, 99–100, 110–111, 364; see also specific species Prairie chicken, greater (Tympanucus cupido), 178 Prairie parsley (Polytaenia nuttallii), 314 Prairies ferret dependence, 22 fires, 177–178 restoration, 312–314 tallgrass, 177–178, 312–314 see also Grasslands Predators/predation as extinction factor, 66, 72, 185, 186 control programs, misdirected, 72 marine, 39, 40, 41 seed, 330–331 Preservation of species animal marking and monitoring, 290, 375 artificial incubation, 264 artificial insemination, 264, 281, 303–304 artificial rearing, 264, 266 artificial selection controls, 274 breeding programs, 280–282, 290–291, 371–373, 396 captive management, 284–287, 289–293; see also Zoological parks cryogenic storage of seed, 272 disease management, 290 DNA libraries, 272 embryo cryopreservation, 302–303 embryo transfer, 264, 266, 298–302 fostering, cross-fostering, 264, 266, 283 gene banks, 276, 361–362, 414 germplasm, 242–244 hacking, 283 high-technology role, 263–268, 289–294 information management, 231–238, 291–293 limitations, 267–268, 363 long-term propagation, 264 primate, 146–148 relocation, 264 restraint and capture of animals, 289–290 role in conservation, 311 seed banks, 271–272, 275, 276, 363 short-term propagation and reintroduction, 264, 279–280 sperm and embryo banks, 297, 302–303, 304–305 sperm cryopreservation, 304–305 tissue cultures, 272, 274, 275 transplantation, 264 see also Conservation; Cross-breeding

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BioDiversity Preserves adequacy to prevent biodiversity losses, 22, 25 design, 232, 236 development, 74 grassland, 75 land administration, 236 oak woodlands, 75 selection, 232, 236 site management, 237 size considerations, 74, 75, 311 see also Ecological reserves; and specific preserves and reserves Primates Beza-Mahafaly project, 152 Brazilian, 146–150 Central African Republic, 148–150 Colombia, 149–150 conservation strategies, 146–147 diversity, 145–146, 149 embryo collections and transfers, 298–299, 301 endangered status, 146, 152 endemism, 148–150 extinctions, 120, 121, 151 geographic distribution, 149 hunting, 120, 146, 151 IUCN efforts, 146–147 live trapping, 146 Madagascar, 145–152 medical uses, 81, 146 orangutans, 291 Peru, 149–150 population decline, 147 protection, organizations supporting, 146–147, 152 threatened, 145–146 value, 146 World Wildlife Fund efforts, 146 see also specific species Pronghorn antelope (Antilocarpia americana), 71 Protists, 39 Protozoa, 93, 94 Public interest/awareness effect on resource allocation, 58 extinction issues, 65 increasing, 26, 404, 446–448 Puerto Rico, 63, 66, 67, 68 Puna (Peruvian grassland), 100 Pupunha (Bactris gasipaes), 109 Pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), 145 Purple milk vetch (Astragalus dasyglottis), 335 Q Quail, Japanese (Coturnix coturnix), 284 Quinine, wild (Parthenium integrifolium), 314 R Raccoon (Procyon lotor), 71 Rail, light-footed clapper (Rallus longirostris levipes), 317, 322, 323 Rain forests Amerindian management, 138–143 climate change effects, 209 conservation programs, 15–16, 135 definition and characteristics, 8–9 deforestation, 8–11, 28–29 ecology, 9 extent, 8 fossil record, 56 geographic distribution, 61 human population pressures, 80 logistic problems in studying, 126 lumbering, 15 New World tropical mainland, 11 Peruvian Amazon, 5; see also Amazonia refugia, 56 regeneration, 9, 60, 329; see also Reforestation soil, 9 species kills, 56 species richness, 3, 5, 8–10 threatened, 3, 9–10, 15, 16, 130; see also Deforestation value, 213 see also Tropical forests Ramkokamekra Canela Indians, 142; see also Amerindians Ramos, Mario A., 428–436 Randall, Alan, 217–223 Rangoon creeper (Quisqualis indica), 88 Rats, 186, 375; see also specific species Rattans (Demoncus spp.), 114, 406 Rattlebox (Crotalaria spectabilis), 87 Raup, David M., 51–57 Raven, Peter H., 119–122 Ray, C.Carleton, 36–50 Red Data Books, 127, 257–259, 289 Redwood forests, 75 Reforestation, 60, 140, 330–332, 378–379, 395–396

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BioDiversity Refugia maps, 56 Pleistocene, in Afrotropical realm, 251 rain forests, 56 secondary forests, 65, 66 tropical dry forests, 131 Reproduction artificial insemination, 264, 281, 303–304 breeding programs, 280–282, 290–291, 371–373, 396 breeding success of birds, 186, 280–282 cryopreservation, 272, 292, 302–305 embryo rescue techniques, 244 embryo transfer, 264, 266, 298–302 gene banks, 276, 361–362, 414 germplasm, 242–244 nonhuman primate, 298–299, 301 seed banks, 271–272, 275, 276, 363 sperm and embryo banks, 297, 302–303, 304–305 technological development, for exotic species, 305 tissue cultures, 272, 274, 275 see also Cross-breeding Reptiles diversity, 5, 131, 266 economic utilization, 356, 371–372 forest habitats, 170 see also specific species Reserva Biosfera de la Sierra de Manantlán (Mexico), 103 Reserves, see Ecological reserves; and specific reserves and preserves Resource economics anthropocentric, 21, 47, 217–218 contingent valuation, 202, 218–220, 222 cost-benefit analysis, 198, 221 decision-making criteria, 193–199 divide-and-conquer method, 201–205 empirical valuation techniques, 220–221 implicit pricing, 220 instrumentalist, 217–218 irreversibility problem, 195, 202–203 risk factor, 195, 219 safe minimum standard, 221 species aggregation level, 197, 214 utilitarian, 198, 217–219, 222–223 welfare change measurement approach, 194, 217–218 see also Biodiversity, economic considerations; Global exchange economy Resource management agencies, 74 decisionmaking, 194 economic factors, see Resource economics obstacles, 68, 197–198, 339 strategies, 68–69 Restoration ecology, see Restoration of species Restoration of species alternative ecosystems, 333 Amazonia, 326–332 effectiveness of projects, 314–316, 334–337 genetic consequences, 273–275 goal, 135, 344–345 Guanacaste National Park, 338–339 obstacles, 133–134, 328–330, 337–338 predictive modeling, 237 prospects, 341–342 socioeconomic factors, 314–316 strategies, 122, 134–135, 330–332, 344–352 technical, ecological feasibility, 313–314 tropical dry forests, 122, 133–135 University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum project, 312–314, 344 wetlands projects, 317–325 see also Preservation of species Rhinoceros, 21, 264 Rice, 107, 110, 121, 364 Rick, Charles, 101, 103 Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), 150 Rio Palenque Biological Station (Ecuador), 11 Risser, Paul G., 176–180 Rivers conservation needs in Africa, 256–257 diversity losses, 171 Robinson, Michael H., 355–360 Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Gothic, Colorado), 335, 336 Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado), 159, 183, 334, 339 Rodents, 356–357; see also specific species Rondonia (Brazil), 15, 29 Rodrigues Islands, 183; see also Islands Rubinoff, Ira, 370–376 Rye (Secale cereale), 243 S Sage (Salvia oppositifolia), 75, 100 Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), 171 St. Helena, 183 St. Mary’s milk (Silybum marianum), 89 Salamanders, 7, 167, 339 Salmon (Salmo salar), 71, 286

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BioDiversity Salt marsh bird’s beak (Cordylanthus maritimus), 317, 322 San Francisco Bay Area, 71, 73, 75 San Juan Mountains (Colorado), 172 Sandpiper, upland (Bartramia longicanda), 178 Santa Catalina Mountains (Arizona), 159 Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rica), 131 Savannas, 5, 56, 171, 255; see also Grasslands; Prairies Scleractinia order, 55; see also Coral reefs Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), 89 Sea-blite (Suaeda esteroa), 320 Sea poppy (Glaucium flavum), 86 Sea turtle, Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempi), 286, 304 Seal, golden (Hydrastis canadensis), 86 Seal, Ulysses S., 289–295, 297 Seals, 42, 47, 86; see also specific species Seas, see Deep sea; Marine environments Seed predation, 331–332 preservation, 240–247, 271–272, 276–277, 362 Senna (Cassia spp.), 85 Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park (California), 183 Seychelles, plant invaders, 163 Sharks, 46, 48; see also specific species Shen, Sinyan, 377–389 Shenandoah National Park (Virginia), 183 Shiner, striped, 222 Shrubland, 159, 171, 177; see also Grasslands Sierra de Manantlán (Mexico), 103 Sifakas (Propithecus spp.), 151 Sillen, Lars, 487 Silurian graptolites, 8 Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon), 159 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 370–376 Smooth phlox (Phlox glaberrima), 314 Smythe, Nicholas, 370–376 Snail darters, 127, 201, 222 Snakeroot, Indian (Rauvolfia serpentina), 84, 85, 88 Snow leopard (Felis undo), 472–473 Soil erosion, 73, 344–345, 386–387, 447–448 fertility loss, 24 organisms, extinction, 24 Solanum spp., 109–111, 244; see also specific species Soulé, Michael E., 465–469 Soursop (Annona muricata), 109 South Africa Cape Province, 269 fynbos, 159–161, 255 Karoo, 255 Kruger National Park, 258 plant species, 251, 269 South African hamster (Mystromys albicaudatus), 296 South America dry tropical regions, 130 exchange of land mammals with North America, 6–7 new crops, 109 projected plant extinction, 11 rain forests, replacement by savannas, 56 rain forests, species diversity, 9 river conservation needs, 256 see also Latin America Southeast Asia, 130, 145; see also Asia; and specific countries Southern Ocean, key species, 42, 47 Soya bean (Glycine spp.), 244 Sparrows, 178, 319, 323; see also specific species Spearmint (Mentha spp.), 87 Spears, John, 393–402 Speciation, 32, 100, 182, 208, 275 Species abundance, 63, 421–424 amenity value, 201 commodity value, 201 definition, 5–6, 39 diversity, see Biodiversity flagship, 103, 145, 149 geographically restricted, 56 indicator, 42, 44 interdependence, 203 introduced, see Exotic species keystone, 42, 44, 47, 203, 265 kills, 52–53, 56 levels, 39 longevity, 7–8, 52 multiplication, see Speciation numbers, globally, 3–6, 60, 200, 232 rare, response to stresses, 422–423 relationship to area, 11, 12, 63 replacement, 55 resilience, 51, 54, 58 restoration, 122, 133–135, 279–287 survival, obstacles, 263 value, 68, 79, 81, 201–202, 210, 215–216 Species Survival Plan, 266, 290, 293 Spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus), 375

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BioDiversity Spider monkeys, 132, 146, 264 Spotted leopard (Felis pardus), 21 Spruce, Engelmann (Picea engelmanni), 24, 455, 456 Squill (Urginea maritima), 89 Sri Lanka, 31, 37, 397, 402 Stanford Center for Conservation Biology, 238 Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), 45 Stewardship in conservation, 172–173, 231, 236, 352 Striped shiner, 222 Strychnos nux-vomica (tree), 89 Succession, floristic, 167–169, 327, 328 Sugarcane, cross-breeding, 110 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), 243 Suriname, 148 Svoboda, Gordon H., 94 Sweetgum tree (Liquidambar spp.), 456 Systematic Collections, Association of, 238 Systematics, 14, 424 T Tai Forest (Ivory Coast, Africa), 31, 120, 438 Tamarins, 146, 149, 264, 286, 296; see also specific species Tambopata Reserved Zone (Peru) ant species, 9 beetle species, 124, 127 location and characteristics, 124–125 number of insect species, 128 Tapirs (Tapirus spp.), 135, 453 Tarsiers (Tarsius spp.), 145 Tarutao National Park (Thailand), 415 Taxonomy and taxonomists, 13, 14, 38–40, 98, 99, 101, 243, 246 Taylor, Kenneth I., 138–144 Tea (Camellia sinensis), 85, 89 Temperate forests aquatic ecosystems, 170 maintaining structural and functional diversity, 169–171 management, 171, 173–174 Nature Conservancy and, 171 old-growth, 167–169 preservation, 167–168 protecting aquatic diversity, 171–172 restoration potential, 166, 334–337 stewardship programs, 172–173 successional states, 167–169 young, 167–168 see also Forests Temperate Zone, 159 Teosinte (maize), 103, 104 Terborgh, John, 12 Tern, California least (Sterna albifrons browni), 317, 322, 323 Thailand, 364, 394–395, 396, 410, 415 Third World causes of and alternatives to destruction, 355–356 deforestation rates, 410 economic assistance linked to conservation, 15, 198–199 indigenous plant drugs, 95 in situ conservation of native crop diversity, 361–368 landrace use in agriculture, 243 level of conservation information, 230 population pressures, 10, 75–76 traditional medicine, 91 see also specific Third World countries Thistle, holy (Silybum marianum), 89 Tigers (Felis tigris), 292 Tilapia, African (Tilapia spp.), 347 Timber, 111, 157, 169 Timber-Exporting Countries, Organization of, 15 Tobacco, Indian (Lobelia inflata; Nicotiana tobacum), 87 Tobago, 12 Todd, John, 344–352 Tomatillo (Lycopersicon peruvianum), 101 Tomatoes (Lycopersicon spp.), 99–101, 110 Toothpick plant (Ammi visnaga), 87 Torre, Ruiz de la, 162 Townsville clover (Stylosanthes guianensis), 374 Traditional medicine, 84–90, 91, 92; see also Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived Trees, 9, 61, 62, 66, 74, 161, 186, 395; see also Plants; and specific species Trinidad, 12, 374 Tristan da Cunha, 183 Triticeae (grasses), 244 Trophic relationships, 40–41 Tropical dry forests conditions and characteristics, 61–62, 130–131, 136 conserved wildland, 132 diversity, 131–133 endangered status, 130 fires, 130 future prospects, 136–137 hardiness, 136 location, 61, 130, 131 refugia, 131 restoration, 133–135

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BioDiversity seasonal changes, 130–131 species activities and interactions, 131–132, 159 threatened, 133–136 value, 132 see also Tropical forests Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 404–405, 406 Tropical forests Asian region, 393–402 canopy, 61, 66, 123–129 cataloging, 119, 120, 121 classification, 61–62 climate change, 32, 65 closed, 60–61, 148 conservation programs, 68–69, 396–398 deforestation, 8–11, 28–34, 60–64, 119–122, 393–394, 403 dry, 61–62; see also Tropical dry forests edible oils, 113 evapotranspiration, 62 extinction rates, 10–13, 58–69, 121 fires, 67 gardening, 373–374 human population pressures, 120 Ice Age depletions, 33, 56 insect diversity, 123–129 land conversion pathways, 61 land surface globally, 28–29, 60–61 moist, 61–62, 66–67, 159; see also Rain forests natural catastrophes affecting, 67 open, 60–61 patch dynamics, 67 productivity, 45, 61, 393, 395–396 rates of change, 60–61 recovery, 60, 61, 63 reductions in area, 62, 63, 66 regeneration, 60, 62, 67, 134–137, 404–408 solutions to deforestation, 394–396 species extinction rates, 10–13, 58–69, 121 species volume, 38, 59, 61, 63 tree species diversity, 61–62 types, 61–62 understory, 61 Trout (Salvelinus spp.), 22, 347 Trumpet flower (Mutisia), 100 Tucúm palm (Astrocaryum tucuma), 114 Tugela Basin (Natal), 256 Tumbleweed (Anabasis aphylla), 84 Tumeric (Curcuma longa), 85 Tundras, Andran, 100 Turtle, sea, Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempi), 286, 304 Twisted flower (Strophanthus gratus), 87 U Uganda, 146, 149–150 Ugent, Don, 99 Uhl, Christopher, 326–332 UNESCO Man in the Biosphere program, 103 United Nations Development Programme, 398 United States Bureau of Land Management, 74 Central Plains, 176, 177 edible plants, 107 Fish and Wildlife Service, 238 food crop production, 107, 110 Forest Service, 74 grasslands, 177–179 National Park Service, 238, 412 national parks, alien plants, 183 Peace Corps, 412, 415, 417 plant drug screening, 92, 93, 95–96 remnant secondary forest islands, 67 species diversity, 101 sugarcane industry, 110 see also specific states and locations University of California Natural Reserve System, 337 University of Michigan Biological Station (near Pellston), 334, 335, 336 University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum, 311–316 Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicanda), 178 Urban areas/habitats acidification, 75 aesthetics, 73 aquifer overdrafting, 72 biodiversity benefits, 73 biodiversity losses, 71–76 conversion, 73–75 development and conservation, 73, 75 ecological destabilization, 72 exotic species introduction, 73 natural, 73 pollutants, 72, 75 wetland destruction, 72 V Vavilovian centers, 242–243 Velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), 86 Venezuela Boca de Uchire, 159

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BioDiversity Calabozo, 159 closed tropical forest area, 148 woody plant diversity, 159 Vertebrates, 3, 5, 266; see also specific species Vetch, purple milk (Astragalus dasyglottis), 335 Vicunas (Lama vicugna), 100 Vinca alkaloids, 94–95 Vines, 88, 111–112, 113, 374; see also specific species Vitousek, Peter M., 181–189 von Humboldt, Alexander, 98 Vultures, 280, 282; see also specific species W Walruses, 39, 46 Warblers, 71, 457; see also specific species Washington, D.C., 71, 73 Watersheds, Pacific Northwest, 168 Watershield (Brasenia), 456 Wattled crane (Grus carunculata), 255–256, 266 Weeds introduction on oceanic islands, 181 threat to African heathland shrubs, 251 value, 134, 141 Werner, Dagmar, 370–376 West Africa, 111, 438; see also Africa; and specific countries West Indies, 12, 63, 65–68, 120; see also specific islands Wetlands coastal, threat to, 8, 33 conservation, 256 dambos, 255–256 destruction, 72 draining, 74 prospects, 324–325 restoration projects, 317–325, 333, 341–342 Whales, 21, 24, 42, 47, 213; see also specific species Wheat, importance, 107, 121, 244 Wheatgrass, crested (Agropyron cristatum), 178 White-footed mouse (Peromyscus spp.), 71 White-fringed orchid (Habenaria leucophaea), 314 White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 375 White-tailed hawk (Buteo albicaudatus), 281 White-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 282 Whooping cranes (Grus americana), 222, 264, 286 Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 147 Wild quinine (Parthenium interfolium), 314 Williams, J.Trevor, 240–247 Willis, E.O., 12 Willow, white (Salix alba), 89 Wilson, E.O., 3–18, 26 Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), 395 Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), 87 Wisconsin, 71, 312–314 Wolverine (Gulo luscus), 71 Wood grass (Sorghastrum nutans), 359, 379–386 Woodchuck (Marmoto monax), 297 Woodlands grazed, 159 preserves, 75 species extinctions in urban areas, 71 Wooly monkeys (Lagothrix spp.), 146, 264 World Bank Asian forestry/agricultural projects, 397, 399–402 conservation role, 16 wildlands policy, 405, 413, 437–445 World Conservation Strategy, 83, 248, 253 World Health Organization, 60, 83 World Resources Institute, 60 World Wildlife Fund biogeographic classification, 229 documentation of ethnobotanical lore, 114 expenditures for conservation, 407 Primate Program, 147–148, 152 Wormseed (Artemisia maritima), 89 X Xerces blue butterflies, 75 Y Yam, tuber-bearing (Dioscorea bulbifera), 374 Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus), 374 Yanomami Indians, 138–142; see also Amerindians Yapen, 12 Yellow poplar (Liriodendron spp.), 456 Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming-Montana-Idaho), 183 Yuán huā (Daphne genkwa), 90

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BioDiversity Z Z factor, 63 Zaire basin closed tropical forest area, 148 deforestation rates, 29 primate species, 146, 149–150 Zàng qiè (Anisodus tanguticus), 84 Zedler, Joy B., 317–325 Zimbabwe, Sengua Wildlife Research Area, 258 Zoological parks animal restraint and capture, 290–291 biomedical resources, 290 breeding programs, 266–267, 290–291 criteria for propagation programs, 266 funding, 267 inbreeding problems, 296–297 management problems, 289, 292 nutrition, 290 population control, 291 role in preservation, 266 spaces for animals, 266 see also International Species Inventory System; and specific zoological parks Zoological Parks and Aquariums, American Association of, 266