by establishing these collaborations, which are not really collaborations, but are just internships in an academic lab.

Michael Doyle, Research Corporation and the University of Arizona: I was going to say about the same thing with regard to industry. There aren’t enough industrial opportunities. What I would like to go back to is that the one individual that Dr. Jelinski said lacked confidence had an experience in which the results were brought into question and finally solved the problem in a marvelous way. Unfortunately, I think that the experience that we expect, both at the graduate level and, increasingly, at the undergraduate level is that you find your own way. You are not really a full participant until you have proven yourself. That is a concern. We are throwing a lot of money into research, and we are saying a lot about its role as education. But the process of how you develop an answer to a problem is still an issue that we have to confront.

Victor Vandell: I would like to address the issue of how we can institutionalize some of the ideologies that are coming through in meetings like this. One suggestion is that organizations that have the power of influence, such as the ACS, take fundamental concepts like mentoring, outreach, and teamwork and promulgate those ideologies to the individuals who are their members and to universities. If they devoted their time to promoting these ideas, these particular ideologies will eventually become a common theme in the institution and in the workplace.

Christopher J. Cramer, University of Minnesota: I have been a subcontractor on a National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Technology Program grant to Phillips Petroleum. I would like to point out that each October I waited around until Congress passed that program by about three votes, usually two months into the fiscal year, because it is “corporate welfare” and therefore not a good thing. For those policy makers in the audience, I would like to point out that there is a certain amount of dissonance at the highest levels about how good these industrial/academic collaborations are. It would be nice to have more harmony.

Thomas Edgar, University of Texas: In that light, I received a note from Steve Berry a while ago. He says that the National Academy of Sciences, through its Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, has published a report on mentoring called On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research, Second Edition. It is available in full text on the Web via the National Academy Press <>.

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