Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences—Issues for the 21st Century

REPORT OF A WORKSHOP

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences—Issues for the 21st Century REPORT OF A WORKSHOP Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the workshop organizing committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-9630106, the National Institutes of Health under Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER14556. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Energy. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07130-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology NAS 273, National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 202-334-2156 Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE RICHARD C. ALKIRE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Chair MARION C. THURNAUER, Argonne National Laboratory, Vice Chair ALEXIS T. BELL, University of California, Berkeley DARYLE H. BUSCH, University of Kansas MARCETTA Y. DARENSBOURG, Texas A&M University MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Research Corporation BRUCE A. FINLAYSON, University of Washington RICHARD M. GROSS, The Dow Chemical Company ESIN GULARI, Wayne State University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. ANDREW KALDOR, Exxon Mobil Corporation FLINT LEWIS, American Chemical Society ROBERT L. LICHTER, The Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. MARY L. MANDICH, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies ROBERT S. MARIANELLI, Office of Science and Technology Policy TOBIN J. MARKS, Northwestern University JOE J. MAYHEW, Chemical Manufacturers Association WILLIAM S. MILLMAN, U.S. Department of Energy KAREN W. MORSE, Western Washington University NORINE E. NOONAN, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency JANET G. OSTERYOUNG, National Science Foundation NANCY PARENTEAU, Organogenesis, Inc. GARY W. POEHLEIN, National Science Foundation MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institute of General Medical Sciences HRATCH G. SEMERJIAN, National Institute of Standards and Technology PETER J. STANG, University of Utah D. AMY TRAINOR, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals JEANETTE M. VAN EMON, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory ISIAH M. WARNER, Louisiana State University Staff DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer SUSAN R. MORRISSEY, National Research Council Intern

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY LARRY E. OVERMAN, University of California, Irvine, Co-chair JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-chair BARBARA J. GARRISON, Pennsylvania State University ALICE P. GAST, Stanford University LOUIS C. GLASGOW, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company KEITH E. GUBBINS, North Carolina State University NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories JIRI JONAS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GEORGE E. KELLER, Union Carbide Corporation (retired) RICHARD A. LERNER, Scripps Research Institute GREGORY A. PETSKO, Brandeis University WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor Corporation KENNETH N. RAYMOND, University of California, Berkeley PAUL J. REIDER, Merck Research Laboratories LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Inc. JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company CHRISTINE S. SLOANE, General Motors Research Laboratories PETER J. STANG, University of Utah JOHN T. YATES, JR., University of Pittsburgh STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky Staff DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Staff Officer SUSAN R. MORRISSEY, National Research Council Intern CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian ERIM International, Inc., Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair WILLIAM BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California, Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA M. MCDUFF, State University of New York, Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former Commissioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the NRC’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. The CSR does this primarily by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention. Graduate education in the chemical sciences was identified by the CSR as an area of broad interest to the chemical sciences community, which has expressed concern about how it should respond to evolving expectations for universities, both in education and research, and to changing patterns in professional employment of advanced degree holders—both in the short and long term. To provide a forum for exploring these concerns, an organizing committee was formed and a workshop was planned for December 1999. The workshop, “Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences: Issues for the 21st Century,” brought together scientific leaders in government, industry, and academia to explore and discuss the various features of graduate education in chemical science and technology. Using case histories and their individual experiences, speakers examined the current status of graduate education in the chemical sciences, identified problems and opportunities, and discussed possible strategies for improving the system. The discussion was oriented toward the goal of generating graduates who are well prepared to advance the chemical sciences in academia, government, and industry in the next 5 to 10 years. The papers in this volume are the authors’ own versions of their presentations, and the discussion comments were taken from a transcript of the workshop. The workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on problems and challenges identified by the speakers. By providing an opportunity for leaders in each of the areas to share their experience and vision, the organizing committee intended that the other workshop partici-

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop pants—as well as readers of this proceedings volume—would be able to identify new and useful ways of improving graduate education and better preparing students for the workforce. We believe that the workshop was successful in meeting this goal. Workshop Organizing Committee Rober L. Lichter, Chair Richard C. Alkire Daryle H. Busch Thomas F. Edgar Andrew Kaldor Janet G. Osteryoung Michael E. Rogers Matthew V. Tirrell III D. Amy Trainor Francis A. Via Isiah M. Warner

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: R. Stephen Berry, University of Chicago, William A. Lester, Jr., University of California, Berkeley, Lynn F. Schneemeyer, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and John T. Yates, Jr., University of Pittsburgh. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring group and the NRC.

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop Contents Summary   1 1   The Challenges to American Graduate Education Peter M. Eisenberger (Columbia University)   7 2   Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences Edel Wasserman (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company)   18 3   Graduate Education in Chemistry: A Personal Perspective on Where It Has Been and Where It Might Go R. Stephen Berry (University of Chicago)   27 Panel Discussion   37 4   External Research Collaborations Enrich Graduate Education Lynn W. Jelinski (Louisiana State University)   45 5   Portals to Knowledge: Information Technology, Research, and Training Eric G. Jakobsson (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)   56 6   The Graduate Student in the Dual Role of Student and Teacher Angelica M. Stacy (University of California, Berkeley)   73 7   Keeping an Eye to the Future in Designing Graduate Programs Marye Anne Fox (North Carolina State University)   91

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Graduate Education in the Chemical Sciences — Issues for the 21st Century: Report of a Workshop 8   The Graduate Student Perspective Karen E.S. Phillips (Columbia University)   106 9   The Making of a Chemist: My Adventures in Graduate School Jonathan L. Bundy (University of Maryland, College Park)   111 10   A Perspective from a Former Graduate Student Judson L. Haynes III (Procter & Gamble)   114 11   New Students, New Faculty, and New Opportunities: Preparing Future Faculty Richard A. Weibl (Association of American Colleges and Universities)   119 Panel Discussion   124 12   Broadening the Scientific Ph.D.: The Princeton Experience François M.M. Morel (Princeton University)   130 13   Across the Disciplines: Center-based Graduate Education and Research J. Michael White (University of Texas at Austin)   135 14   Training Grants in the Chemical and Biological Sciences Ronald T. Borchardt (University of Kansas)   144 Closing Remarks   159 Appendixes     A   List of Workshop Participants   163 B   Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers   166 C   Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable   170