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I. Opportunities for Research, Study, and Teaching in China To live and work in China; is a prospect that has intrigued Americans for more than a century, but opportunities to do so were foreclosed for nearly 30 years. Fortunately, the situation changed dramatically fol- lowing normalization of relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China on January 1, 1979. Once again, Americans are able to study and teach in Chinese academic and research insti- tutions. A small number of students and scholars are selected each year through national competitions administered by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC). Many students, scholars, and teachers are placed through formal and informal exchange arrangements between individual institutions in the United States and China. Others are "recruited" by colleagues in China or apply to the State Education Commission of China (formerly the Ministry of Education), the Foreign Experts Bureau of the State Council, the Embassy of the People's Republic of China, or other organizations in the United States involved in the placement of students and scholars or in the recruitment of Americans to teach in China. Those interested in studying or teaching in China should explore each of these and other possibilities to ascertain which is most suitable for them. Those who have already been accepted by a Chinese institution should be aware that they will be in contact with people who have traveled to China by many different roads and under many different arrangements. *The terms China and Chinese, as used in this book, apply only to the People's Republic of China and residents of the China mainland.

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2 CHINA BOUND RESEARCH AND STUDY The Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Re- public of China administers the major nationwide student and scholarly exchange programs between the United States and China, including the National Program for Advanced Study and Research in China and the Visiting Scholar Exchange Program. For more information about these programs, write to: Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 A limited number of Fulbright awards also are available for study and research in China. For further information, contact: International Education Program U.S. Department of Education Washington, DC 20202 Many U.S. colleges and universities have formal or informal exchange agreements with Chinese institutions for short- or long-term programs (see Appendix A). Many programs are limited to students and faculty at the signatory school, but questions of eligibility should be directed to the individual college or university. In addition to exchange programs conducted under agreements be- tween U.S. and Chinese institutions, there are a number of summer and/or semester or year-long Chinese-language programs, as well as other short-term programs, some with courses taught in English. These may be sponsored by individual U.S. institutions or by such organi- zations as: Council on International Educational Exchange 205 East 42nd Street New York, NY 10017 Information about these programs should be available in most study- abroad offices at U.S. academic institutions. Individual Chinese insti- tutions also offer short-term courses; for information, see Appendix B. Individuals wishing to study or conduct research in China also may apply directly to the State Education Commission of China. For pro- cedures and other pertinent information, see Appendixes B. C, and D. A copy of "A List of Specialities in Chinese Universities and Colleges Open to Foreign Students" can be obtained for $2.50 postage and han- dling charges from: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs 1860 19th Street, NW Washington, DC 20009

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH, STUDY, AND TEACHING 3 TEACHING For the first several years after normalization of relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Foreign Experts Bureau (FEB) was responsible for overall recruitment policy and day-to-day administration for foreigners going to China to teach at institutions of higher education. In 1986 the Foreign Experts Bureau, which now reports directly to the State Council, continues to be re- sponsible for overall policy concerning foreigners teaching in China, but recruiting and administration are now carried out by various agen- cies and institutions depending on whether an individual is consid- ered a "foreign expert" or a "foreign teacher." Detailed descriptions of the distinctions in qualifications, salaries, and benefits between foreign experts and foreign teachers are on pages 18-22. Information about the recruitment of foreign experts and foreign teachers is briefly described below. FOREIGN EXPERTS The Foreign Experts Bureau recruits foreign experts only for smaller universities not under the authorization of the State Education Commission. In addition, it recruits English-language specialists to train young interpreters and write articles for the Xinhua News Agency, Beijing Review, China Reconstructs, and other English- language publications produced in China. The Bureau of Foreign Affairs of the State Education Commission is responsible for recruiting foreign experts for all other universities and for overseeing the administration of their stay in China. The regulations outlined in FEB's 1985 brochure, Information on the Recruitment of Foreign Experts, apply to all foreign experts traveling to China. Appendix E is a copy of the FEB brochure, which includes an application form, for teaching in China. (Also required is a health cer- tificate, which is the same as the student health certificate in Appendix B. pp. 166-167.) Applications should be sent to: Foreign Experts Bureau of the State Council P.O. Box 300 Beijing, People's Republic of China FOREIGN TEACHERS Foreign teachers are recruited directly by Chinese institutions of higher learning, university departments, or local provincial or municipal departments or bureaus of education. Appli- cations for such teaching positions should be sent directly to the in- terested agency.

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4 CHINA BOUND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING Each year there are approxi- mately 700 positions available in the People's Republic of China for teachers of English, Japanese, German, and French. Of these 700 po- sitions, 380 to 400 are filled by English teachers 80 percent by content teachers of English; 20 percent by teachers of English as a second language (ESL) teaching advanced methodology and pedagogy. Of the approximately 400 English teachers needed each year, 250 are classified as foreign experts and 150 as foreign teachers. The English departments or departments of foreign languages at Chinese universities, colleges, or other institutions of higher learning where most Americans are placed offer a four-year course in English language, literature, and linguistics (including descriptive linguistics, sociolinguistics, and psycholinguistics). The basic aim of the Chinese in inviting native speakers of English to teach in China is to bring about a marked improvement in the English-language proficiency (listening, speaking, reading, and writing abilities) of Chinese undergraduates, postgraduates, and university instructors and to train them to teach the higher grades at tertiary-level institutions. From past experience, the Chinese have learned that content teachers of English from senior high schools and universities in English-speaking countries can teach effectively in Chinese colleges and universities. They expect such teachers to have had experience in classroom English lin- guistics and literature or other subject matter, as well as experience in teaching English as a second language or English for specific purposes (ESP) at an advanced level. Content teachers of English in China gen- erally teach literature (fiction, prose, poetry, and drama); major writers of modern and contemporary literature of English-speaking countries; writing (general writing skills, postgraduate essay writing, nonfiction or creative writing); rhetoric; analysis of spoken and written English, centering mainly on colloquial usage; and ESL or ESP at an advanced level. There are specific requirements for both teachers and students in English-language courses in China. Teachers must- in cooperation with Chinese professors and senior lecturers, select reading materials of various styles in contemporary American, English, or Canadian literature and other subject matter to increase students' comprehension and to expose them to a variety of stylistic features so they can improve their writing styles; focus on advanced approaches and methods of teaching ESL; provide students with well-balanced information about and vo- cabulary in as many fields as possible (e.g., U.S. history, literature, and society); give lectures on points of grammar and rhetoric;

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH, STUDY, AND TEACHING 5 provide background information about different styles of contem- porary English writing. Chinese postgraduate students must perform drills, both oral and written, based on their reading and in combination with other oral and written work; use, both in and after class, taped materials (including educational films) demonstrating different styles of contemporary English writing; and, in addition to taking both practical and theoretical courses and completing class assignments, read within a six-month period at least four or five contemporary English novels selected for excellence of style and content. AGENCIES IN THE UNITED STATES INVOLVED IN PLACING AMERICANS AS FOREIGN EXPERTS AND FOREIGN TEACHERS IN CHINA The agencies described below recruit both foreign ex- perts and foreign teachers. When applying for teaching positions, you should inquire whether the position is that of a foreign expert or foreign teacher and what the conditions of employment are. Refer to pages 18- 22 for more details. Personnel at the Education Division of the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Washington, D.C., recruit American educators and professionals to work in China. Specifically, they are interested in lec- turers and professors to teach English, science and technology, finance, banking, business management, and law in Chinese institutions of higher education. They also recruit individuals for editing, translating, and publishing positions in the press, radio, and publishing houses. Per- sonnel selected to teach in China are expected to perform the following assignments: upgrade the professional skills of Chinese foreign language teach- ers; teach both undergraduate and graduate students; counsel and guide Chinese teachers; offer advice on extracurricular language training activities and supervise graduate students in writing academic papers; compile and edit teaching and reference materials; and give lectures about the United States on such topics as culture, history, or other subjects as required. Applicants must hold a master's or higher degree, demonstrate rel- atively high attainment in their own field, and have some teaching or work experience, preferably at least three years.

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6 CHINA BOUND Persons who wish to apply for a teaching position in China should send an application and health certificate (see Appendix E), a detailed resume, and two letters of recommendation to: Education Division Embassy of the People's Republic of China 2300 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20008 In addition to the Chinese Embassy, there are a number of other organizations and institutions in the United States that recruit indi- viduals to teach in China. For example, a limited number of Fulbright awards are available for teaching in China. For further information, write to: Council for International Exchange of Scholars 11 Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036 In September 1980 the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) opened three training centers in China: one at Zhongshan University in Guangzhou under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Education (now the State Education Commission) and two in Beijing one under the sponsorship of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and one for the Foreign Trade Institute (now the Institute of International Economics arid Man- agement). UCLA currently is recruiting individuals with teaching/re- search interests to work at these centers for periods of one year. Of particular interest to the recruiters are persons qualified to teach Eng- lish for specific purposes; in addition, they prefer individuals who are currently in academic programs and who would use their experience in China to fulfill requirements for an academic degree (Americans going to one of the UCLA centers teach part time at the centers and have time to do pedagogical research in the classroom). If you are interested in this program, contact: Russell Campbell Coordinator, UCLA/PRC TESL Programs 1201 Campbell Hall University of California at Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90024 Americans who wish to teach in China should also contact the ap- propriate office at their institution to see whether a formal or informal agreement exists between their institution and one in China that in- cludes the exchange of faculty. If individuals have personal friends at specific Chinese institutions or have met Chinese scholars visiting the United States, they can also write directly to those individuals/insti- tutions requesting information about teaching opportunities.