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APPENDIX TAElLE B2. First-Year Graduate Enrollment in the B'omedical Sciences, 196~87 Total Flrst-Year Fiscal FIrst-Year FulFTime Year Enroll'T - nt 1/ Enrollment 2/ 1960 5,370 n/a 1961 6,025 n/a 1962 6,642 nia 1963 7,137 n/a 1964 8,542 n/a 1965 10,430 rVa 1966 12,034 rVa 1967 12,5t 1 n/a t968 13,301 n/a 1969 13,343 nJa 1970 14,835 n/a 1971 15,845 n/a 1972 16,722 nla 1 973 1 7,511 n/a 1974 17,538 n/a 1975 18,876 9,382 1976 18,756 9,918 1977 18,073 9,763 1978 n/a 9,612 1979 r/a 8,836 1980 n/a 8,348 1981 n/a 8,279 1982 n/a 8,105 1983 n/a 8,043 1984 n/a 8,320 1985 n/a 8,451 1986 n/a 8,529 1987 n/a 8,609 1/ From the U.S. Depar~nent of Education (1959-79). 2/ From the l~lational Science Foundation (1 973-88a). Represents doctorate~ranting institutions only. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Bhmedical and Bettavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 37

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APPENDIX TABLE B3. Biomedical Science Degrees Awarded in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control, and Postdoctoral Appointments in All Employment Sectors, 1 960-1 987 8.A. Degrees Awarded 1/ (excluding first professional) Ph.D. Degrees Awarded 21 Fiscal Year Total Public Private Total Public Pr vate Postdoctoral Appoinunents 3/ Academ~ 4J Total Public Prhrate Nonacademic 1960 nJa n/a nla t ,096 n/a nfa 1961 15,588 n/a n/a 1,136 n/a n/a 1962 16,424 n/a n/a 1,272 n/a n/a 1963 18,704 n/a n/a 1,341 n/a nJa 1964 22,207 n/a n/a 1,552 n/a n/a 1965 24,612 n/a n/a 1,753 n/a nfa 1966 26,336 n/a nla 1,961 n/a n/a 1967 28,157 n/a n/a 2,181 n/a n/a 1968 31,221 rVa nta 2,545 n/a nfa 1969 34,795 20,338 14,457 2,854 n/a n/a 1970 36,868 22,382 14,486 3,171 n/a n/a 1971 40,000 24,611 15,389 3,482 n/a n/a 1972 42,000 26,208 15,792 3,460 2,385 1,075 1973 45,000 28,236 16,764 3,520 2,466 1,054 3,607 2,883 1,636 1,247 724 1974 47,434 29,881 17,553 3,417 2,327 1,090 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1975 50,493 31,841 18,652 3,515 2,401 1,114 5,369 4,361 2,530 1,831 1,008 1976 52,642 33,244 19,398 3,578 2,447 1,131 n/a nta nfa n/a n/a 1977 51,783 32,789 18,994 3,465 2,386 1,079 6,312 5,211 2,836 2,375 1,10t 1978 49,701 30,968 18,733 3,518 2,440 1,078 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1979 47,717 29,241 18,476 3,644 2,466 1,178 7,268 5,974 3,543 2,431 1,294 1980 45,106 27,279 17,827 3,823 2,632 1,191 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1981 42,297 25,380 16,917 3,846 2,599 1,247 8,026 6,740 4,064 2,676 1,286 1982 40,750 24,167 16,583 3,960 2,673 1,287 n/a nfa n/a nla n/a 1983 38,322 n/a n/a 3,788 2,621 1,166 7,827 6,208 3,287 2,921 1,619 1984 37,115 n/a n/a 3,902 2,665 1,236 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 uu~ 37,364 n~a nta 3,787 z,569 J ,217 8,3" nJa ~a ~a ~a 1986 37,597 n/a nJa 3,864 2,621 1,240 n/a nla nJa n/a n/a 1987 37,284 n/a n/a 3,969 2,650 1,318 8,172 n/a n/a nia n/a 1/ Figures for 1961-68 were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education (1948-81 ); those for t 969-82 from the U.S. Department of Education (1948-88); those for 1983-87 from the U.S. Department of Education (1974~7). Fgures for 1971-73 were estimated by the committee in order to remove the distortion produced in the series by the change In the survey taxonomy in 1971 . Health professions are not included. 2/ From the National Research Council's Doctorate Records ~le (1958-88~. Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included. 3/ Figures are based on the most recent data available from the National Research CounciPs Sun'ey of Doctorate Recipients (1973-88). Fore~n nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included. 4/ Public and private flgures were adJusted by the committee to include a small number of indivWuals for whom control of institution could not be determined. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Bfomedical and Behaworal Research PersonneJ, Volume 2 38

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APPENDIX TABLE B4. Total Undergraduate Degre+Credit Enrollment, Total 8.A. Degrees Awarded, and Ratio of Biomedical Science B.A.s to Total B.A.s, by Type of Institutional Control, 1960-87 Ratio of Total Undergraduate Degree~::redit Enrollment (thousands) 11 Biomed. Scl. B.A. Degrees Awarded 4t B.A.'s to 1ncluding Flrst Professhnal 2/ Excluding First Professional 3/ (excluding first professional) Total B.A.s 5/ Fiscal Year Total Public Private Total Pubitc Private Total Public Private Total 1960 3,402 n/a rJa 3,334 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1961 3,610 nla nta 3,538 rJa n/a 365,337 nla r,Ja 0.0427 1962 3,891 n/a n/a 3,813 rla nia 382,822 nfa n/a 0.0429 1963 4,207 n/a n/a 4,123 n/a n/a 410,421 n/a n/a 0.0456 1964 4,529 rJa n/a 4,438 rVa n/a 460,467 n/a n/a 0.0482 1965 4,342 2,802 1,54t 4,255 n/a rala 492,984 n/a nJa 0.0499 1966 4,829 3,184 1,645 4,732 nJa n/a 524,117 nfa rla 0.0502 1967 5,160 3,451 1,709 5,057 3,408 1,649 562,369 rVa n/a 0.0501 1968 5,557 3,810 1,747 5,437 3,758 1,679 636,863 n/a n/a 0.0490 196g 6,043 4,308 1,735 5,905 4,248 1,657 734,002 466,133 267,869 0.0474 1970 6,529 4,749 1,780 6,377 4,685 1,692 798,070 523,442 274,628 O.Q462 1g71 6,889 5,076 1,813 6,719 5,004 1,715 846,110 562,345 283,765 0.0473 1972 7,104 5,302 1,802 6,913 5,221 1,692 894,110 604,471 289,639 0.0470 1973 7,199 5,401 1,799 6,998 5,316 1,682 930,272 636,378 293,894 0.0484 1974 7,396 5,58g 1,807 7,187 5,501 1,686 954,376 657,455 296,921 0.0497 1975 7,833 5,986 1,847 7,610 5,892 1,718 931,663 640,524 291,139 0.0542 1976 8,468 6,520 1,948 8,234 6,423 1,811 934,443 640,799 293,644 0.0563 1977 4/ 8,786 n/a nta 8,540 n/a n~a 928,228 635,909 292,319 0.0558 1978 9,022 nJa n/a 8,769 nJa nia 930,201 633,183 297,018 0.0534 1979 8,963 n~a n/a 8,705 n/a n/a 931,340 627,084 304,256 0.0512 1980 9,211 n/a n/a 8,946 rVa n/a 940,251 629,338 310,913 0.0480 1981 9,672 n/a n/a 9,393 n/a nJa g46,877 632,168 314,709 0.0447 1982 9,914 nla nJa 9,638 nJa nia 964,043 641,751 322,292 0.0423 1983 10,050 n/a rVa 9,770 n/a n/a 969,510 n/a n/a 0.0395 1984 10,140 nla rJa 9,860 n/a n/a 974,309 n/a n/a 0.0381 9,928 n/a n/a 9,647 rJa n~a 979,477 nJa r`/a 0.0381 9,838 nia n/a 9,561 n/a n/a 987,823 n/a n/a 0.0381 10,168 nJa nla 9,894 n/a n/a 991,264 659,260 332,004 n/a 1/ The Department of Educabon last collected data on ~degree-credit" enrollment in FY 1976; bQginning in FY 1977, the survey collected data on "unclassified undergraduates-, defined as non-degree-seeking students. Beginning in FY 1977, undergraduate degree-credR enrollment ~ deflned as total undergraduate enrollment excluding uncJassifled undergraduates. 2/ Figures for 1960-64 were obtained from thQ U.S. Department of Education (1961-84), those for 1965-75 from the U.S. Department of Education, (1973-82), and the one for 1976 from the U.S. Department of Education (1974-87). Figures for 1977~7 are from the U.S. Department of Educathn (1961-88). 3/ F~ures for 1960-66 were eshmated at 98% of total undergraduate degree-credR enrollment (including first professional). Those for 1967-76 were obtained by subtracting flrst professional enrollment from total degree~redit undergraduate enrollment (including first professional). Flrst professional enrollment data for 1967-76 were obtained from the U.S. Oepartment of Education (1959-79), data for 1977-87 from the U.S. Department of Education (1961-88). 4/ F~ures for 1961 -68 were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education (1948-81), those for 1969-82 from the U.S. Department of Educatlon (t 948-88); those for 1983-87 trom the U.S. Department of Education (1974-87). 5/ See Appendix Table El3 for number of baccalaureate degrees awarded In the biomedical sciences. The 1989 Report of the Committee on BhmedJca/ and Behavioral Research Personne/, Volume 2 39

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APPENDIX TABLE BS. Ph.D.s Employed in the Biomedical Sciences, 1973-87 1/ Total Total Academia Fiscal Labor (excluding Pos~oc. FFRDC Hospitals Nom SeN- Unennptoyed Year Force po~ocs.) Apses. Business GoVt. Ws Clinics Prom Ennployed cHher and Seeking 1973 43,688 25,47t 3,607 5,369 4,338 1,031 1,431 1,293 518 186 444 1974 Ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma 1 g75 50,620 28,332 5,369 6,662 4,517 994 1,948 1,232 840 194 532 1976 ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma t977 55,031 30,384 6,312 6,893 4,568 1,040 2,297 1,543 862 335 797 1978 ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma t979 62,332 33,566 7,268 8,455 5,080 1,079 2,726 1,858 1,185 439 676 1980 ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma 1981 68,806 36,482 8,026 9,928 5,398 1,236 2,799 2,088 1,857 225 767 1982 ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma 1983 71,423 36,963 7,827 11,819 5,988 661 2,946 2,102 1,910 255 952 1984 ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma 1g85 79,515 41,032 8,364 13,706 6,479 783 3,307 2,460 2,254 302 828 1986 rile Ma n/a nta n/a n/a n/a n/a Ma Eta n/a 1987 85,339 4S,025 8,172 15,928 7,049 909 3,629 2,651 2,634 437 905 1t Figures are based on We most recent data available from the National Research Councilts Survey of Doctorate Recipients (1973-88). Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 40

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APPENDIX TABLE Be. National Expenditures for Health-Related R and D, 1960-89 1/ ($ millions) Current Dollars 1972 Dollam I - lick Price Fiscal Private Private Deflator ~ Year Tool Federal Industry C4her Toml Federal Industry Over (1972 = 100.0) 1960 886 448 253 t 85 1,2gO 652 368 269 68.70 196t 1,087 574 312 201 1,569 828 450 290 69.30 1962 1,333 782 336 215 1,891 1,109 477 305 70.50 1963 1,526 919 375 232 2,131 1,284 524 324 71.60 1964 1,698 1,049 400 249 2,336 1,443 550 343 72.70 965 1,890 t ,174 450 266 2,544 1,580 606 358 74.30 1966 2,111 1,316 510 285 2,749 1,714 664 371 76.80 1967 2,345 1,459 580 306 2,968 1,847 734 387 79.00 1968 2,568 1,582 661 325 3,109 1 ,915 800 393 82.60 1969 2,785 1,674 754 357 3,212 1,931 870 412 86.70 1970 2,847 1,667 795 385 3,115 1,824 870 421 91.40 197t 3,168 1,877 860 431 3,300 1,955 896 449 96.00 1972 3,536 2,147 934 455 3,536 2,147 934 455 100.00 1973 3,750 2,225 1,048 477 3,544 2,103 991 451 105.80 1974 4,443 2,754 1,183 506 3,830 2,374 1,020 436 116.00 1975 4,701 2,832 1,319 550 3,696 2,226 1,037 432 127.20 1976 5,107 3,059 1,469 579 3,814 2,285 1,097 432 133.90 1977 5,568 3,396 1,614 558 3,929 2,397 1,139 394 141.70 1978 6,262 3,811 1,800 651 4,118 2,506 1,184 428 152.05 1979 7,133 4,321 2,093 719 4,31 t 2,612 1,265 435 165.46 1980 7,935 4,723 2,459 754 4,447 2,647 1,378 423 178.42 1981 8,703 4,848 2,998 856 4,460 2,484 1,536 439 195.14 1982 9,483 4,970 3,561 952 4,584 2,402 1,721 460 206.88 1983 10,634 5,399 4,145 1,089 4,932 2,504 1,922 505 215.63 1984 12,014 6,087 4,643 1,284 5,377 2,724 2,078 575 223.43 1985 13,408 6,791 5,244 1,374 5,809 2,942 2,272 595 230.80 1986 t4,801 6,895 6,166 1,740 6,244 2,909 2,601 734 237.04 1987 16,827 7,827 7,130 1,871 6,872 3,197 2,912 764 2~.86 1988 (est.) 18,729 8,454 8,260 2,016 7,462 3,368 3,291 803 250.98 g89 (proj.) 20,575 9,207 9,259 2,109 Ma alla n/a Ma Ma 1/ From NIH Data Book (1966-88, and pre~ublicatlon). Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 2/ From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1988a,b). The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behaviorai Research Personnei, Volume 2 41

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APPENDIX TABLE B7. NIH Research Grant Expenditures, 1965-88 1/ ($ millions) Total NIH Research NIH Research Grant Expenditures In U.S. Colleges and Universitles Grant Expenditures Current Dollars 1972 Doilars 2 Fiscal Current 1972 Year Dollars Qollars2/ Total Public Prhate Total Public . . 1965 492.1 662.3 n/a n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a 1966 551.2 717.7 n/a n/a n/a nta n/a n/a 1967 618.4 782.8 n/a n/a rVa n/a nia n/a 1968 647.0 783.3 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1969 649.1 748.7 n/a nJa rJa nfa n/a ~Va 1970 624.3 683.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1971 699.7 728.9 n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a n/a 1972 826.5 826.5 676.7 339.7 337.0 676.7 676.7 676.7 1973 838.5 792.5 680.7 332.2 348.5 643.4 314.0 329.4 1974 1,100.8 949.0 885.0 448.7 436.3 762.9 386.8 376.1 1975 1,148.0 902.5 927.3 469.1 458.2 729.0 368.8 360.2 1976 1,275.8 952.8 1,025.4 516.1 509.3 765.8 385.4 380.4 1977 1,435.7 1,013.2 1,148.8 577.5 571.3 810.7 407.6 403.2 1978 1,638.0 1,077.3 1,322.4 668.4 654.0 869.7 439.6 430.1 1979 1,951.7 1,179.6 1,579.7 808.6 771.1 954 7 488.7 466.0 1980 2,161.1 1,211.2 1,742.6 893.2 849.5 976.7 500.6 476.t 1981 2,331 .4 ~ ,194.7 1,882.6 963.7 918.9 964.7 493.9 470.9 1982 2,407.7 1,163.8 1,937.8 991.2 946.6 936.7 479.1 457.6 1983 2,702.3 1,253.2 2,175.7 1,097.4 1,078.3 1,009.0 508.9 500.1 1984 3,087.0 1,381.6 2,470.1 1,254.9 t,217.9 1,105.5 561.7 545.1 1985 3,591.3 1,556.0 2,870.2 n/a n/a 1,243.6 n/a n/a 1986 3,739.1 1,577.4 2,974.9 n/a n/a 1,255.O n/a n/a 1987 4,401.2 1,797.4 3,477.6 n/a n/a 1,420.2 n/a n/a 1988 4,727.3 1,883.5 3,731.0 rVa n/a 1,486.6 rVa nla 1/ From NIH Data Book (1966-88, and pre~ublicatlon). Items may not sum to totals dUe to rounding. 2/ From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1988a,b). The 1989 Repon of the Commmee on Biomedica/ and Behavioral Researet, Personnet, Volume 2 42

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APPENDIX TABLE Be. Biomedical Science R and D Expenditures in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control, 196~87 ($ millions) - Weighted Sum of Current Dollars 1/ 1972 Dollars 2/ Biomed. Sci. R and D Fiscal Expend. in Last 3 Ym. 3/ Year Total Public Prvate Total Public Prvate (Total, 1972 Dollars) 1960 287.4 nJa nJa 418.3 n/a Ma 363.5 1961 339.4 n/a no 489.8 n/a Ma 422.6 1962 402.2 n/a n/a 570.5 nJa n/a 492.1 1963 480.9 n/a Ma 671.6 n/a n/a 575.6 1964 565.7 n/a rVa 778.1 n/a nfa 673.0 1965 638.0 nta n/a 858.7 n/a n/a 771.6 1966 724.0 n/a n/a 942.7 n/a n/a 859.5 1967 795.0 n/a n/a 1,006.3 n/a n/a 937.6 1968 860.7 n/a nla 1,042.0 n/a Ma 999.3 1969 917.3 n/a Ma - 1,058.0 n/a n/a 1,037.1 1970 991.2 nta n/a 1,084.5 n/a n/a 1,060.6 1971 1,054.7 n/a nJa 1,098.6 n/a n/a 1,081.4 1972 1,102.2 600.5 501.7 1,102.2 600.5 501.7 1,096.0 1973 1,252.9 691.2 561.8 1,184.2 653.3 531.0 1,121.8 1974 1,284.3 691.4 592.8 1,107.2 596.0 511.0 1,144.4 1975 1,517.0 825.5 691.5 1,192.6 649.0 543.6 1,147.8 1976 1,688.8 937.9 750.9 1,261.2 700.4 560.8 1,188.4 1977 1,798.2 1,002.3 795.9 1,269.0 707.3 561.7 1,246.0 1978 2,038.8 1~158.3 880.5 1,340.9 761.8 579.1 1,285.0 1979 2,230.0 1,238.5 991.5 1,347.8 748.5 599.2 1,324.6 1980 2,538.8 1,433.1 1,105.7 1,422.9 803.2 619.7 1,364.8 1981 2,906.9 1,669.5 1,237.4 1,489.6 855.5 634.1 1,420.8 1982 3,151.1 1,806.8 1,344.2 1,523.2 873.4 649.7 1,481.3 1983 3,386.5 1,968.0 1,418.6 1,570.5 912.7 657.9 1,526.6 1984 3,760.0 2,216.4 1,543.6 1,682.9 992.0 690.9 1,586.8 1985 4,223.0 2,490.6 1,732.4 1,829.7 1,079.1 750.6 1,691.5 1986 4,750.3 2,803.9 1,946.4 2,004.0 1,182.9 821.1 1,836.6 1987 5,309.2 3,119.4 2,189.7 2,168.3 1,274.0 894.3 2,001.5 1/ Figures for 1972~7 were obtained from the National Science Foundation (1975-88). The 1978 figures are NSF estimates. Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 2/ 1972 dollars were obtained by using the Implicit GNP Price Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census--see Appendix Table Am. Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 31 Cor~uted by the formula 1/4(Rt + 2Rt-1 + Rt-2), where R = total biomedical science R and D expenditures (1 972 dollars). The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 43

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APPENDIX TABLE B9. Average Biomedical Science R and D Expenditures per School in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control, 1972-87 1/ (1972 $, thousands) Fiscal Average R and D Expenditures Number of Schools Reporting 21 Year Total Public Private Total Pubilc Private . . _ . . 1972 1,865 1,793 1,960 5g1 335 256 1973 2,004 1,950 2,074 591 335 256 1974 1,858 - 1,774 1,966 596 336 260 1975 2,225 2,009 2,552 536 323 213 1976 2,357 2,175 2,633 535 322 213 1977 2,368 2,197 2,625 536 322 214 1978 2,386 2,301 2,507 562 331 231 1979 2,385 2,255 2,572 565 332 233 1980 2,532 2,419 2,683 562 332 231 1981 2,665 2,577 2,745 559 332 231 1982 2,730 2,631 2,813 558 332 231 1983 2,795 2,757 2,848 562 331 231 1984 3,000 n/a nla - 561 rVa n/a 1985 3,262 nla nla 561 n/a n/a 1986 3,572 n/a n/a 561 n/a n/a 1987 3,858 n/a n/a 562 n/a n/a . . . .. . 1/See Appendix Table B9 for supporting data. 21From the National Science Foundation (1975-88). For 1978, the number of doctorate granting institutions was obtained from NSF; the number of master's~ranting institutions was estimated by the committee. Beginning in FY 1984, data were collected from a sample of 400 institutions and inflated to produce universe estimates. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 44

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APPEINIDIX TABLE B10. Indirect Costs of Nlld-Sponsored Research Grants at Institutions of Higher Education, 1970-88 1/ All Institutions of Higher Education Public Schools Private Schools . Fiscal % of Direct % of Total % of Direct % of Total % of Direct % of Total Year Costs Costs Costs Costs - Costs Costs 1970 25.7 20.5 26.6 21.0 24.9 19.9 1971 27.2 21.4 28.2 22.0 26.3 20.8 1972 28.7 22.3 28.9 22.4 28.5 22.2 1973 30.0 23.1 29.6 22.8 30.4 23.3 1974 31.8 24.1 30.4 23.3 33.2 24.9 1975 32.4 24.5 30.2 23.2 34.8 25.8 1976 34.6 25.7 31.7 24.1 37.6 27.4 1977 36.S 26.7 32.7 24.6 40.5 28.8 1978 37.4 27.2 33.0 24.8 42.1 29.6 1979 39.0 28.1 34.2 25.5 44.3 30.7 1980 40.8 29.0 34.7 25.8 47.8 32.3 1981 42.4 29.8 35.8 26.3 49.9 33.3 1982 43.3 30.2 36.3 26.6 51.4 34.0 1983 45.0 31.0 37.3 27.2 53.6 34.9 1984 45.8 31.4 38.5 27.8 54.0 35.1 1985 45.9 31.5 38.5 27.8 54.6 35.3 1986 46.2 31.6 39.3 28.2 54.3 352 1 987 46.0 315 39.6 28.4 53.6 34.9 1988 45.7 31.3 40.2 28.7 52.0 34.2 Average Annual Growth Rate 1970-88 3.2% 2.4% 2.3% t.8% 4.2% 3.1% 1/ From NIH Data Book (1966-88 and pre-publication). Represents awards, not obligations, Unobligated balances from prior years' awards are carried forward as direct costs and therefore excluded. Also excludes RCPAs, BRS and BRD grants, conference grants, NCI education grants, and awards to minority student apprentice programs. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behaviora/ Research Personnel, Volume 2 45

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APPENDIX TABLE B11. Ph.D.s Academically Employed in the Biomedical Sciences, by Employment Status and Type of Institution, 1973-87 1/ Type of Institution Fiscal Employment Year Status Total 4-Year 2-Year 1973 Total 25,471 24,960 511 Full-Time 24,724 24,241 483 Part-Tlme 747 719 28 , 1975 Total 28,332 27,709 623 Full-Time 27,487 26,919 568 Part-Time 845 790 55 1977 Total 30,384 29,604 780 Full-Time 29,473 28,768 705 Part-Time 911 836 75 1979 Total 33,566 32,744 822 Full-Time 32,550 31,802 749 Part-Time 1,015 942 73 1981 Total 36,482 35,644 838 Full-Time 35,462 34,701 761 Part-Time 1,020 943 77 1983 Total 36,963 35,973 990 Full-Time 35,781 34,884 897 - Part-Time 1,182 1,089 93 1985 Total 41,033 39,955 1,078 Full-Time 39,665 38,679 985 Part-Time 1,369 1,276 92 1987 Total 43,022 42,200 822 Full-Time 41,438 40,708 730 - Part-Time 1,584 1,4g2 92 Average Annual Total 3.8% 3.8% 3.5% Growth Rate Full-Time 3.8% 3.8% 3.0% from 1973-87 Part-Time 5.5% 5.4% 8.9% 1/ Based on the most recent data available from the National Research Council's Survey of Doctorate Recipients (1973-88). Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included. Ir~dwiduals on postdoctoral appointments are excluded. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 46

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APPENDIX TABLE B12-1. Permanent Attrition Rates of U.S. Medical School Faculty, by Department and Degree Type, 1970 88 1/ AllDeparUnents Clinical Departments BaslcScTence Departments Fiscal Year Total M.D.s Ph.D.s Over Total M.D.s Ph.D.s Other Total M.D.s Ph.D.s Other 1970 5.0 5.1 3.6 7.6 5.7 5.4 6.t 7.1 4.0 5.8 2.8 5.4 1971 5.3 5.6 3.8 7.0 6.1 5.9 5.6 7.3 4.6 6.4 3.5 5.2 1972 6.4 6.2 5.1 9.8 6.8 6.5 6.7 8.8 6.0 7.1 5.4 5.9 1973 6.0 5.6 4.5 11.0 6.4 5.7 6.0 1 1.9 5.5 7.2 4.5 7.7 1974 5.5 5.5 4.0 9.2 5.9 S.6 S.8 8.4 4.9 6.7 3.9 6.2 1975 5.7 5.4 4.7 9.9 5.9 5.5 6.0 8.7 5.5 6.9 4.6 8.1 1976 6.4 6.3 5.0 10.9 6.8 6.5 6.5 10.6 5.9 7.1 5.0 9.9 1977 6.6 6.6 5.2 10.3 7.0 6.8 6.8 9.3 5.7 7.6 4.6 9.7 1978 5.9 5.7 4.5 11.5 6.2 5.8 6.2 9.6 5.2 7.0 4.3 7.6 1 97g 5.7 5.6 4.6 9.2 6.0 5.8 6.2 8.3 5.0 5.4 4.4 10.4 1980 6.6 5.6 4.8 8.6 5.9 5.7 5.7 8.1 5.4 6.2 4.9 9.0 1981 6.5 6.4 5.2 11.0 6.8 6.6 6.5 9.8 5.5 6.8 4.7 9.2 1982 6.3 6.1 S.5 10.5 6.5 6.2 6.9 9.5 5.9 6.5 5.1 14.7 1983 6.0 5.7 5.5 10.3 6.2 5.8 6.5 10.1 5.5 5.9 5.2 7.2 1984 5.8 5.6 5.6 8.1 6.0 5.7 6.7 8.2 5.0 5.9 4.5 7.0 1985 5.4 5.2 4.6 9.1 5.6 5.3 5.5 9.3 4.7 4.9 4.5 7.4 1986 4.8 5.0 4.0 6.5 S.2 5.1 5.0 6.5 4.0 4.1 3.8 6.1 1987 4.3 4.4 3.6 5.3 4.4 4.5 3.9 4.7 4.0 4.3 3.8 7.2 1988 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Avg 1970-87 5.7 5.6 4.7 9.2 6.1 5.8 6.0 8.7 5.1 6.2 4.4 8.0 1/ Based on special analyses of the AAMC Medical School Faculty Roster as of March, 1988. Numbers represent percent of full-time faculty leaving the department each year for retirement, death or other reasons (permanent attrition). Analyses performed at NIHIOSPL/DPE/PPRB. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Plesearch Personnel, Volume 2 47

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Fiscal Year Tota M.D.s PhD.s Other Total M.D.s PhD.s Other . . . . . _ . APPENDIX TABLE B12-2. On+Year-Out Attrition Rates of U.S. Medical School Faculty, by Department and Degree Type, 197~88 1/ All Departments Clinical Departrnen~ Basic Science Departments Total M.D.s PhD.s Other 1970 6.2 6.6 4.6 7.9 6.9 6.8 7.1 7.3 5.0 7.3 3.6 5.4 1971 6.3 6.8 4.5 7.5 7.0 7.1 6.2 7.6 5.3 7.4 4.1 5.6 1972 7.5 7.5 6.2 10.3 7.8 7.7 7.S 9.2 6.7 8.0 6.1 6.1 1973 7.0 7.0 5.1 1 1.5 7.5 7.0 6.8 12.1 6.0 8.0 4.8 7.8 1974 6.4 6.4 4.9 9.5 6.8 6.6 6.6 8.6 5.5 7.3 4.5 6.5 1975 6.6 6.5 5.4 10.3 6.9 6.6 6.8 9.0 6.1 7.9 5.1 8.1 1976 7.3 7.3 5.8 lt.3 7.7 7.4 7.3 10.9 6.S 8.1 5.5 9.9 1977 7.5 7.6 6.0 10.5 7.9 7.8 7.7 9.5 6.2 8.2 5.0 9.7 1978 6.7 6.6 5.2 11.7 7.0 6.7 6.8 9.8 5.7 7.6 4.7 7.9 1979 6.4 6.5 5.3 9.7 6.8 6.6 6.9 8.6 5.4 5.9 4.8 10.7 1 g80 6.3 6.4 S.4 8.8 6.6 6.5 6.4 8.3 5.7 6.6 5.2 9.0 1981 7.1 7.1 5.7 11.2 7.5 7.3 7.1 9.9 5.8 7.1 5.1 9.3 1982 6.9 6.8 6.0 10.7 7.2 6.9 7.3 9.7 6.3 6.8 5.4 14.7 1983 6.6 6.4 S.9 10.4 6.9 6.5 7.0 10.2 5.7 6.2 5.4 7.2 1984 6.3 6.2 6.0 8.2 6.6 6.3 7.1 8.4 5.2 6.1 4.7 7.2 t 985 5.7 5.6 5.0 9.3 6.0 5.7 5.8 9.5 5.0 5.2 4.7 7.4 1986 5.1 5.2 4.2 6.6 5.4 5.4 5.0 6.7 4.1 4.3 3.9 6.1 1987 4.3 4.4 3.6 5.3 4.4 4.5 3.9 4.7 4.0 4.3 3.8 7.2 1988 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Avq 1970-87 6.5 6.5 5.3 9.5 6.8 6.6 6.6 8.9 5.6 6.8 4.8 8.1 _ . . . 1/ Based on special analyses of the AAMC, Medical School Faculty Roster as of March, 1988. Numbers represent percent of hJII-time faculty leaving me department for one vaster tar TV roamed tong chaos' et ottritt^~` Analyses performed at NII~UOSPUDPE/PPP`B. J ~ ~.. ~.. Ale. ~ ~....~_..~. The 1989 Report of tt~e Committee on Biomedical and Behaviorat Research Personnel, Volume 2 48

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APPENDIX TABLE B13. Postdoctoral Research Training of New Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools, by Department and Degree Type, 1982-87 1/ Base Science All Departments Clinical Departments Departments Fiscal Year M.l:).s Ph.Ds M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.s Ph.C).s 1 982 44.5 72.7 44.4 63.3 54.9 87.6 1983 43.6 73.4 41.6 61.2 ".6 89.9 1984 43.9 72 5 37.9 62.8 50.0 86.8 1985 4t.5 72.2 39.9 62.8 49.5 87.3 1986 46.4 74.3 27.2 62.6 50.5 88.5 1987 35.3 ~.7 19.2 60.1 46.7 85.1 Avg 1982-87 42.5 69.8 35.0 62.1 _ _ 50.0_ _ 87.5 1/ Based on special analyses of the AAMC Medical School Faculty Roster as of March, 1988. Numbers represent percent of new full-time faculty with any reported postdoctoral research training. Data collected under the current survey format are available only since 1982. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 49

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APPENDIX TABLE B14. Graduate School Attrition Rates in the Biomedical Sciences, 1963-74 Fiscal Year First-Year Number of FY 1962-87 i~h.D. Estimated of Graduate Graduate Enrollment Biomedical Sci. Ph.D.s Completion Graduate School School Entry in the Biomed. Sci. 1/ Entering Grad. School 21 Rated 3/ Attrition Rate (DO) 3/ Pre-1963 16,314 Post-1974 - 23 904 1963 7,137 2,583 36.2 63.8 1964 8,542 3,096 36.2 63.8 1965 10,430 3,454 33.1 66.9 1966 12,034 3,814 31.7 68.3 1967 12,511 3,762 30.1 69.9 1968 13,301 3,591 27.0 73.0 1969 13,343 ~ 3,430 25.7 74.3 1970 14,835 3,551 23.9 -76.1 1971 16,845 3,625 =.9 77.1 1972 16,722 3,633 21.7 78.3 1973 17,51 1 3,822 21 .8 78.2 1974 17,538 3,737 21.3 78.7 1/From the U.S. Department of Education (1959-79). 2/From the National Research CounciFs Doctorate Records File (1958-88). 3/The Ph.D. completion rate represents the percentage of flrst-year graduate students in a given year who Gamed a Ph.D. between 1962 and 1987 (column 2/column 1~. The attrition rate is obtained by subtracting the Ph.D. completion rate for a given year from 1 00.0%. The rates for 1960-64 are relatively constant (see 1g85 Report), indicating that most individuals entering graduate school during that ' - riod had either received a Ph.D. or dropped out of graduate school by 1987. For later years, the Ph.D. completion rates decline With each year. The attr tion rates for these years undoubtedly Include students who are still enrolled In graduate school but who had not earned a Ph.D. by 1987, as well as those who had actually dropped out of graduate school. The median elapsed time from baccalaureate to bioscience doctorate degree in 1987 was 8.1 years; it Is therefore probable that many of the graduate students entering in years after 1980 are still working toward a doctorate degree. Completion and attrition rates have not been calculated for the later years. The Ph.D. completion rates will most likely increase and the attrition rates decrease once 1988 Ph.D.s are added to the calculations, and shouW continue to do so with the inclusion of each additional year of Ph.D.s. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research PemonneI, Volume 2 50

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APPENDIX TABLE B15. Percent of the Postdoctoral Population in the Biomedical Sciences Who Had Earned Their Doctorates More Than 2, 3, or 4 Years Earlier, 1973-87 1/ Number of Years Since Ph.D. > 2 Years >3 Years >4 Years fiscal Total Year Postdocs N % N % N 1973 2,623 1,123 42.8 577 22.0 343 13.1 1975 4,316 2,239 51.9 1,334 30.9 843 19.5 1977 5,142 2,7B2 54.1 1,716 33.4 1,051 20.4 1979 6,106 3,530 57.8 2,345 38.4 1,532 25.1 1981 6,759 3,695 54.7 2,369 35.0 1,544 22.8 1983 6,579 3,503 53.2 2,309 35.1 1,432 21.8 1985 7,034 4,210 59.9 2,934 41.7 1,831 26.0 1987 6,872 3,847 56.0 2,445 35.6 1,578 23.0 l/Based on special analyses by National Research Council staff of Me Survey of Doctorate Recipients (1973-1988~. .. Tine 1989 Report of the Committee on Blomedlca/and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 51