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APPENDIX TABLE C1. Behavioral Science Enrollments in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control, 1960-871t Total Undergraduate and Graduate Enrollment Fiscal Year Total Public Prh~ate Estimated Undergraduate Enrollment 2/ Total Publlc Private Graduate Enrollment 3/ Total Public Pr~ate 1960 172,976 n/a nfa 160,228 n/a n/a t 2,748 n/a n/a 1961 194,799 n/a n/a 179,839 n/a rVa 14,960 nia n/a 1962 225,475 n/a rVa 210,099 n/a n/a 15,376 n/a n/a 1963 257,638 n/a n/a 241,032 n~a n/a 16,606 rla n/a 1964 304,375 n/a n/a 285,593 rVa n/a 18,782 n/a rJa 1965 316,575 nia n/a 295,626 n/a rJa 20,949 nJa n/a 1966 382,904 n/a rla 358,840 n/a n/a 24,064 n/a n/a 1967 431,820 n/a n/a 406,763 n/a n/a 25,057 n/a n/a 1968 495,958 nta n/a 466,075 nla n/a 29,883 n/a n/a 1969 565,8t7 nla n/a 531,814 n/a n/a 34,003 n/a n/a t 970 637,063 nla n/a 600,555 rVa n/a 36,508 n/a n/a 1971 706,924 n/a nia 666,568 496,429 170,139 40,356 n/a n/a 1972 750,453 563,722 186,731 705,746 533,011 172,735 44,707 30,711 13,996 1973 743,829 561,782 182,047 695,613 528,419 167,194 48,216 33,363 14,853 1974 724,277 550,163 174,114 672,565 514,787 157,778 51,712 35,376 16,336 1975 723,479 554,594 168,885 668,096 517,270 150,826 55,383 37,324 18,059 1976 730,900 564,051 166,849 671,844 524,078 147,766 59,056 39,973 19,083 1977 72t,816 n/a n/a. 663,527 n/a n/a 58,289 38,676 19,613 1978 712,713 n/a n/a 648,933 rJa n/a 63,780 43,153 20,627 1979 676,603 n/a n/a 612,802 nla rVa 63,801 42,710 21,091 1980 668,593 nfa nla 604,773 rVa nla 63,820 42,264 21,556 1981 658,407 nJa rVa 593,627 n/a nJa 64,780 41,993 22,787 1982 654,146 n/a n/a 589,815 n/a n/a 64,331 41,701 22,630 1983 637,570 n/a n/a 574,462 n/a n/a 63,108 40,965 22,143 1984 647,413 n/a nla 583,700 n/a n~a 63,713 41,406 22,307 1985 n/a nJa nla nla n/a n/a 65,640 43,300 22,341 1986 n/a n/a n/a r`Ja nfa n/a 65,269 42,813 22,459 1987 n/a rJa n/a n/a n/a nla 65,100 42,879 22,221 11 Behavioral sciences include psychology, sociology, anthropology, anci speech pathology/audiology. Flgures are h~gher than those presented Tn the 1983 Report because speech pathology/audiology is now included in the taxonomy. 2/ Sum of estimated undergraduate enrollments in psychology, sociology, anthropology, and speech pathology/audiology. See Appendix Tables C4~ and C8 for supporting data. 3/ Figures for 1960-77 were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education (1959-79). Figures for 1978-87 were obtained from the National Science Foundation (1 973~8a) except for the 1979 figure, which was interpolated. Due to differences in taxonomy, NSF numbers for 1978~7 may be slightly higher than numbers that would have been obtained from the Department of Education had data been collected for those years. For the year 1977, NSF reported 62,699 graduate students enrolled in the behavioral sciences; in comparison, the Depa~nent of Education reported a somewhat lower figure of 58,289 (as shown in this table). The 1989 Report of the Committee on B'omed~cal and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 52

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APPENDIX TABLE C2. Graduate Enrollment in Clinical Psychology, Nonclinical Psychology, and Other Behavioral Sciences, and Ratio of Clinical Psychology Ph.D.s to Total Psychology Ph.D.s, bY Tv~e of Institutional Control. 1 96n-~a Rado of Clin~al Graduate Enrollment 11 Psychology Ph.D.s to Total Psychology Clin~al Psychology 2t Nonclinica~hology 2/ Other Behavioral Sc~ences 3t Ph.D.s 4J . . .. _ F7sca1 Year Total Public Prh~ate Total Public Prh~ate ToW Pubilc Private Total . .. . . . . . . . _ . . 1g60 3,788 1,962 1,826 5,169 2,677 2,492 3,791 1,977 1,814 0.4067 1961 4,403 2,301 2,102 6,274 3,279 2,995 4,283 2,40t 1,882 0.4646 1962 4,978 2,633 2,340 5,773 3,060 2,713 4,625 2,595 2,030 0.4229 1963 4,733 2,655 2,078 6,611 3,708 2,903 5,262 3,093 2,169 0.4124 1964 4,867 n/a nla 7,760 n/a rJa 6,155 rVa n/a 0.4630 1965 5,610 rVa rla 8,123 rJa rJa 7,216 n/a n/a 0.4172 1966 6,511 n/a nJa 9,040 n/a n/a 8,513 nla n/a 0.3854 t 967 5,949 rVa rVa g,736 n/a rJa 9,372 n/a n/a 0.4085 1968 7,139 n/a rJa 11,925 n/a nJa 10,8t9 n/a n/a 0.4187 t969 8,625 n/a nta 13,118 n/a n/a 12,360 n/a n/a 0.3793 t970 9,160 rVa n/a 13,566 nfa n/a 13,782 nfa n/a 0.3745 1971 10,877 nfa nla 14,465 n/a n/a 15,014 n/a n/a 0.3939 1972 10,909 7,147 3,743 15,803 10,649 5,173 17,995 12,915 5,080 0 4031 1973 12,125 8,505 3,656 17,032 11,164 5,832 19,059 t3,694 5,365 0.4292 1974 13,858 9,006 4,845 17,041 11,210 5,838 20,813 15,160 5,653 0.4084 1975 t4,840 9,625 5,224 17,954 11,285 6,660 22,589 16,414 6,175 0.4158 1976 16,925 10,48t 6,437 18,393 11,588 6,812 23,738 t7,9a4 5,834 0.4485 1977 17,264 10,2g5 6,979 18,09g 11,098 6,991 22,926 t7,283 5,643 0.4525 1978 19,713 12,070 7,606 18,915 12,002 6,950 2S,754 18,217 5,537 0.4792 1979 20,351 11,764 8,509 18,866 12,266 6,668 23,277 17,886 5,391 0.4882 1980 21,178 12,545 8,613 18,608 t 1,443 7,185 22,798 17,553 5,245 0.5103 1981 21,651 11,958 9,708 18,985 11,823 7,147 22,93B 17,490 5,448 0.5191 1982 21,744 12,484 9,295 18,947 11,381 7,531 22,530 17,202 5,328 0.5323 1983 21,921 12~407 9,579 18,177 10,985 7,127 21,877 16,935 4,942 0.5328 1984 22,834 12,753 10,169 18,254 11,392 6,;'74 21,425 16,651 4,774 0.5344 1985 24,585 14,650 9,947 19,616 12,181 7,423 20,350 15,908 4,442 0.5467 1986 r`/a n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a 20,362 1 S,589 4,774 0.5557 1987 n/a nJa nJa n/a n/a n/a 20,380 t 5,780 4,600 0.5562 1988 nfa n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a 20,395 15,774 4,621 nfa 1/ F~ures for 196~77 were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education (1959-79). Figures for 1978-88 were obtained from the National Sclence Foundation (1 973-88a) except for the t 979 figure, which was interpolated. NSF numbers tor 1978-88 may be slightly h~her ~an numbers ~at wouW have been obtained from the Department of Education had data been collected for those years. 2/ Total graduate enrollment in clinical psychology was estimated by the formula CGi=(CPi+2tTPI+2)Ei, where CGI = clinical psychology graduate enrollment in year i; CPh2 ~ cilnical psychology Ph.D. degrQes awarded in year 1+2; TPi+2 - total psychology Ph.D. degrees awarded in year h2; El - psychology graduate enrollment in year i. Public and private estimates were based on enrollment ratios. Noncilnicai psychology graduate enrollment represents the dHference between tot~l ncv~h~v :~nr~ ~~Ini^~! nev~h^~u graduate enrollments. See Appendix Tables C4 and C10 for supporting data. - r—~ -- ~ ~~~ ~~ r~ ~~ ~~ 3/ Includes sociology and anthropology for all years; includes speech pathology/audiology beginning In 1972. See Appendix Tables C5, C6, and C8 hr supporting data. 4/ SQQ Appendix Tabte C10 for nu~er of Ph.~.s. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research PeJsonnel, \/olume 2 53

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APPENDIX TABLE C3. First-Year Graduate Enrollment in the Behavioral Sciences, 1960-88 1/ Total first-Year Graduate Enrollment 2/ Fiscal All Spch.Path) Year Behav. Sci. Psych. Sociol. An~ro. Audlology First YQar FulFtIme Graduate Enrollment in Doctorate~randng Inst tu~dons 31 Al1 Behav. Scl. Psych. Sociol. SocioV Spch.Path] An~ro. Anthro. Audiology 1960 6,188 4,366 1,486 336 n/a n/a rVa n/a nla nta n/a 1961 7,732 5,470 1,805 457 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nfa 1962 8,038 5,655 1,861 522 n/a n/a n/a n/a nia n/a n/a 1963 8,739 6,169 2,020 550 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nfa 1964 9,288 5,928 2,625 735 n/a n/a n/a rJa n/a n/a rJa 1965 11,832 7,673 3,137 1,022 n/a n/a . n/a n/a n~a n/a rla t966 13,659 8,765 3,645 1,249 n/a n/a rVa nla n/a n/a n/a 1967 13,659 8,459 3,793 1,407 n/a n/a nJa n/a n/a n/a nla 1968 15,966 10,190 4,2gO 1,486 n/a n/a n/a nfa rVa n/a n/a 1969 16,831 10,645 4,584 1,602 nJa n/a n/a nla n/a n/a nla 1970 19,501 12,200 5,456 1,845 nla n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1971 22,709 14,262 6,033 2,414 n/a n/a rJa rJa n/a nfa n/a 1972 24,607 14,754 5,484 2,366 2,003 nla n/a n/a n/a n/a n~a 1973 26,269 15,678 5,642 2,525 2,424 n/a n/a n/a nla n/a n/a 1974 27,636 16,219 5,404 2,515 3,498 nfa nla n/a n/a nla rVa 1975 29,376 17,270 5,257 2,554 4,295 12,028 5,872 1,930 1,368 338 2,520 1976 31,545 18,510 5,012 2,748 5,275 11,821 5,737 1,852 1,276 398 2,558 1977 29,778 17,565 4,461 2,525 5,227 11,606 5,983 1,706 1,335 259 2,323 t 978 n/a nfa nla r~la n/a 1 t ,695 6,063 1,678 1,326 273 2,355 1979 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 10,390 5,569 1,371 1,141 218 2,091 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 nfa rJa nla n/a n/a n/a n/a nla n/a rJa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nla nJa n/a nJa rVa n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a 1985 nJa n/a n/a rJa n/a 1986 n/a n/a nJa n/a n/a 1987 n/a rVa n/a nfa n/a 1988 n/a n/a nla nla nla 9,938 5,468 1,286 1,110 227 1,847 10,227 5,697 1,314 966 203 2,047 9,846 5,564 1,229 928 153 1,972 9,650 5,474 1,130 896 200 1,950 9,408 5,405 1,129 830 159 1,885 9,477 5,441 1,094 869 139 1,934 9,872 5,743 1,073 949 179 1,928 9,555 5,560 1,070 911 182 1,832 9,698 5,656 1,231 964 180 1,667 1/ Figures are higher than those presented in ~e t983 Report because speech pathology/audhlogy is now included in the taxonomy. 2/ From the U.S. Department of Education (1959-79). 3/ From the National Science Foundation (1973-8Ba). \ The 1989 Report of the Commiftee on Biomedical and Behaworal Research Pemonnel, Volume 2 54

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APPENDIX TABLE C7. Graduate Enrollment in Sociology/Anthropology (Interdisciplinary), by Type of Institutional Control, 1978-88 1/ Fiscal Year Total Pubilc Private 1978 t,398 864 534 1979 1 ,3 1 7 794 523 1980 1 ,236 723 513 1981 1,206 722 484 1982 1,110 634 476 1983 1,133 638 495 1984 1 ,200 610 - 590 1 985 1 ,090 561 529 1986 1,064 543 521 1987 1,062 571 491 1988 1,000 572 428 . 1/ FrOm the National Science Foundation (1 973~8a). The figures tOr 1979 Were ante polated. The NSF taxonomy Includes me Inter- d;SCIPI;nDrY fluid Of SOC;OIOgY/anthrOPOIOgY as Well as the separate fie~SOf SOCIOIOgY and anthrOPOIO9Y. SOC;OIO9Y/anthrOPOIO9Y IS inCIUdQd In the total graduate enrOIIm~nt data Presented In Appendix Table C1. It IS not Included In Appendix Tables C5 and C6 which present graduate enrOIImentS In sociology and anthropology. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 61

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APPENDIX TABLE C13. ~Ph.D.s Employed in ’linical Psychology, 1973-87 ;~/ Total Total Academ~ Fiscal Labor (excludi~?g Postdoc. - Hosp talsl Non- ., Selt- (Jnemployed Year Force posidocs.) Apptb. Business Gov t. 2/ CllnIcs Prof t Employed Other and Seeking , . . 1973 1 1 ,574 4,341 125 101 1 ,641 2,4t7 497 1,520 821 1 1 1 1974 nfa nia n/a ~ n/a . n/a. n/a n/a rJa n/a n/a 1975 14,846 5,140 156 165 1,252. 4,425 363 2,292 . 995 58 1976 rVa n/a ~ n/a n/a n/a n/a nla n/a n/a n/a 1977 17,578 5,438 357 409 1,216 5,102 662 3,201 1,111 82 .' 'J 1978 n/a n/a n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a - rVa nJa n/a 1979 21,268 5,790 302 417 1,671 5,702 1,093 4,785 t,372 136 1980 nfa nla n/a n/a . rVa nJa n/a n/a n/a n/a 1981 23,775 6,172 262 880 1,653 5,937. 1,032 6,264 1,367 208 1982 n/a nJa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nla n/a ., .; 1983 26,285 6,370 466 1,004 1,854 5,737 1,165 7,999 1,529 161 1984 ~ n/a n/a n/a . nfa. n/a . nta rVa n/a n/a n/a 1985 30,926 7,495 774 1,007 1,873 6,166 1,194 10,401 1,898 1 t7 1986 n/a n~a ~ n/a n/a ~ n/a; , n/a n/a n/a , n/a n/a 1987 33,599 7,997 ' " 421 410 1 ,858 6,950 1,447 - 12,440 1,865 - 209 . . . . . . 11 Clinical psychology includes clin~i and school psychology, ,couns,eilr~, and gu~an~e. Figures are based on the :, , most recent data available from the Nationai Research Counc~s SUr9QY of Doctorate Rec~ients (1973~8). Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. inst tutions are included. 21 Includes FFROC laboratories. The 1989 Report of the Commmee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Pemonnel, Volume 2 . . . . 70

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APPENDIX TABLE C14. Ph.D.s Employed in Nonclinical Psychology, 1973-87 :1/ Total Total Academia Fiscal Labor (excluding Posadoc. . Hospitalst Non- Self-. Unemployed Year Force - =locs] Appts. Business Gov't 21 Cltnics Pront . E~loyed Ot~her and Seeking 1973 13,340 9,452 259 999 1 ,083 269 562 323 212 181 1974 rJa nfa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a rVa 1975 15,387 10,863 398 1,218 1,170 470 560 401 129 178 1976 n/a n/a n/a n/a nfa n/a n/a n/a n/a nJa 1977 16,102 10,905 394 1,344 1,404 447 519 443 255 391 1978 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a rt/a nta n/a n/a 1979 16,688 11,538 527 1,355 1,164 401 574 321 434 374 1980 r,'/a rVa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a r'J.a n/a 1981 18,791 12,586 51 1 1 ,827 1,235 507 631 905 295 294 1982 n/a nJa nla nta n/a n/a nta rVa n/a n/a 1983 19,431 12,404 302 2,258 1,320 629 451 1,328 333 406 1984 nta n/a nta n/a nta n/a nta n/a nJa n/a 1985 20,070 13,221 593 1,924 1,189 585 667 1,270 245 376 1986 n/a n,la nJa n/a n/a nta n/a rJa n/a nla 1987 20,755 13,058 666 1,745 1,724 555 858 1,655 249 246 lt Noncilnical psychohgy includes all psychology fields except clinical and school psychology, counseling, and guidance. F~ures are based on the most recent data available from ~e National Research CounciPs Survey of Doctorate Recipients (1973-88~. Foneign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institudons are Included. 2/ Includes FFRDC laboratories. The 1989 Report of the Commmee on Biomedical and Behavioral fiesearch Personnel, Volume 2 71

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APPENDIX TABLE C15. Ph.D.s Employed in Other Behavioral Sciences, 1973-87 1/ TotaJ Total Academia FTscal Labor (excluding Pos~oc. HospRalsl t~lom Setf- Unernployed Year Force postdocs.) Appts. B - iness Gov1. 2/ Cllnics ProfN Employed O~er and Seeking 1973 6,785 6,135 98 42 121 12 187 52 42 96 1974 n/a rVa nta n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a rVa 1975 8,504 7,621 151 2t 2tO 41 238 55 14 153 1976 nla n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nJa nfa 1977 10,603 9,239 246 40 311 46 306 81 53 281 1978 n/a n/a n/a nfa n/a n/a nfa n/a n/a n/a 1979 1 1,366 9,568 282 129 453 54 497 103 4.1 239 1980 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nla nla nfa 1981 11,249 9,477 199 57 463 37 457 183 146 230 1982 rVa n/a rVa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1983 13,095 1 1 ,002 271 128 385 218 249 380 1 16 346 1984 n/a n/a n/a nfa n/a n/a n/a nfa nJa n/a 1985 13,264 11,009 256 193 218 373 304 466 126 318 1986 n/a n/a n/a nla n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1987 13,365 10,767 192 229 379 408 346 455 152 438 1/ O,ther behavioral sciences include sociol~y, anthropology, ar~d speech pa~ology/audiology. FIgures are based on the most recent data avaUable from the Nadonal Research Councirs Survey of Doctorate Recipients (1973~8). Foreign nationals who received doctorate. from U.S. inst~ons are included. 2/ Includes FFRDC laborator es. The 1989 Report of the Committee on BiomedicaJ and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 72

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APPEN1)IX TABLE C16. Behavioral Sciences Faculty/Student Ratios, 1964-87 1/ , . . . . All Behavioral Scionces Psychology (Clinical and Nonclinical) Other Behavioral Scionces [Sociology, Anthropology, Speech Pa~ologytAudlo.) 4-Yr. We~hted Ph.D. Faculty/ Fiscal FacuRy Avg. Enrollment Student Ratio Year (F) (VVS) (F/,NS) 4-Yr. Weighted Ph.D. Facutty/ FacuRy Avg. Enroliment Student Rado (F) (WS) (FANS) 4-Yr. WeightQd Ph.D. Facu ty/ Faculty Avg. Enrollment Student Ratio (F) (WS) (F/WS) 1964 8,143 244,233 0.0333 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1965 n/a 277,679 n/a n/a rVa n/a n/a nia rVa 1966 9,783 313,740 0.03t2 n/a nJa n/a n/a n/a nJa 1967 n/a 35S,859 n/a rVa n/a nla n/a nla n/a 1968 12,915 406,997 0.0317 n/a n/a n/a n/a rVa nia 1969 n/a 467,380 n/a n/a nla n/a n/a n/a rVa 1970 16,175 532,072 0.0304 n/a nfa n/a n/a n/a rVa 1971 n/a 601,440 n/a nia n/a rVa n/a n/a n~a 1972 n/a 667,374 n/a n/a nta nfa rVa n/a nfa 1973 19,928 715,941 0.0278 13,793 383,970 0.0359 6,135 325,774 0.0188 1974 n/a 736,628 n/a n/a 405,407 rJa rVa 328,122 rJa 1975 23,624 735,024 0.0321 16,003 416,229 0.0384 7,621 318,795 0.0239 1976 n/a 728,374 rVa n/a 422,571 nfa nia 305,803 n/a 1977 25,582 725,809 0.0352 16,343 427,619 0.0382 9,239 298,190 0.0310 1978 n/a 723,604 nla n/a 43t,288 nfa n/a 292,083 n/a 1979 26,896 712,760 0.0377 17,328 430,591 0.0402 g,568 281,484 0.0340 1980 n/a 694,840 n/a n/a 427,41 1 n/a n/a 266,318 n/a 1981 28,235 676,919 0.0417 18,758 426,0# 0.0440 9,477 249,580 0.0380 1982 nJa 664,125 rVa n/a 427,994 nJa n/a 234,912 n/a 1 983 29,776 65S,2t 2 0.0454 1 8,774 432,435 0.0434 11 ,002 221 ,61 0 0.0496 1984 n/a 648,209 n/a nfa 436,661 rVa n/a 210,402 n/a ~ 985 31,725 n/a n/a 20,71 6 n~a n/a 11,009 n/a n/a 1986 rla rVa nla n~a rla n/a nla n/a nta 1987 31,822 rVa n/a 21,056 rJa n/a 10,767 nla n/a 1J Faculty is defined as all Ph.D.s academically employed in the beha~oral scier~ce area (excluding postdoctoral appointments). Students are defined as a 4-year weighted average of enrollments, I.e., (WS)t = t/6(St + 2St-1 + 2St-2 + St-3), where S = total araduato and undergraduate enrollment In the beha~oral science area. See Appandix Tables C1, C4-6, and C8 for supporting data. The I g89 Report of the Commmee on BlomedJ=I and Be/,avioral Reseanch PemonneJ? Volume 2 73

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~n 3 - C~ cn - - o UJ - ~n ~: ·_ C~ - o ._ m s ._ - o Q ._ ~5 C~ ~ _ a, . C~ _ a, _ J O m_ ~ 3 ._ _ X ~ _ _ C] — z o ~ Q ~ ~ ~ ~ N ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N ~ ~ ~ 8 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ a, ~ a, 0 ~ CO CD 0 0 0 N , N ~ 10 1` ~ u~ r~ ~ _ co 0 ~ a~ co c~ _ 0 _ a~ c~ tD ~ C~ ~ U. a, ~ c~ U) _ ~ O U) U) CO O CO Ct) C~J CO CO ~ o ~ ~ O ~ — ~ C~ U. ~ CO _ _ _ ~ ~ 0 _ O c~ ~ a, ~ _ c~ U. ~ ~ (D _ U. ~ _ C~ CO U) ~ _ _ ~ O _ ~ cu ~ 9- _ 0 ~ ~D u~ r~ ~ ~ ~ a, u) - ~ - cn '` - ~ - - _ a~ c~ 0 u) u, ~ u) 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ - - ~ ~ ~ uD ~ ~ ~ c~ 0 ~ cx 0 a, ~ cx c~ a~ co - - ~ ~ 0 a, ~ ~ a, 0 _ tD ~ _ ~ a~ ~ (D CO CO c~ ~ c~ u, _ ~r - ~ - - 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ o o) co c~ ~ ~ _ r~ o o- cD - o - o - - - 4~ u, o o o cO O> u~ ~ u~ a - - - ~ - o - o - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ - - - c~ ~ a' _ 0 co a, c~ _ 0 ~ o- m In u~ 0 co ~ 0 Q~ r~ CO O 0) tD C~ co ) ~ u, - - ~ 0 r~ _ c~ o CO ~ ~ ~ IO ~ c a, 0 0 ~ r~ ~ c~ ~ `.D ~ _ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ -0 m O ~ cn cn .O _ ~ ~ O O O ~ ~ 0 ~ C ~ OS ~ a, o, ~ ~ ~ cn -< ~- ~ ~ C {\S ° Ol, ~ ~ E o ~ .= s ~ _ <15 _ ° a' ~ ~ ~ ~ W =-- fD `0 ~ C Ct ~ ~ O ~ ~ 3 c ° C C ° C c;' O (D 3 s—C [L. CtS ~ ~ ~, C . O ~ C' O (D C S ·O ~n ct _ ~ S — tn C) ~ CE u, ~r ~ c' 0 _ a' (D _ U, O ~ ~0 ~ O _ O O O ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ 0 CO Cr) C~ CO Ct) ~ q. N O ~0 ~ 0 ~ m U) U) C~ CU O O _ 0 CO N ~ N ~ O O O C~J _ _ _ C~l N N _ 0' <~ ~r CO _o _o _o o~ o~ o~ ~ et ~ . . . U) <8 0 o o _o o— o~ o~ N iO t~ C~J C`i O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O- ~ ~ ~ N l~ eo ~ ~ a u, ~r _ ~ a, ~ CO CO C~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~0 UO ~ U) _ ~ r~ _ N N N N ~ _ CO U) _ _ _ _ 74 CO OCR for page 52
APPENDIX TABLE C18. Behavioral Science R and D Expenditures, by Type of Institutional Control, 1964-87 ($ millions) Current Dollars 1/ 1972 Dollars Implicit GNP - Fiscal Price Deflator 2/ Year Total Public Private Total Public Private (1972 = 100.0) 1964 46.6 n/a Ma 64.1 n/a n/a 72.70 1965 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a rVa 74.30 1966 60.1 Ma n/a 78.3 n/a n/a 76.80 1967 n/a n/a nla n/a Ma n/a 79.00 1968 97.9 n/a n/a 118.5 Ma n/a 82.60 1969 n/a Ma n/a n/a n/a n/a 86.70 1970 103.6 n/a Ma 113.3 n/a n/a 91.40 1971 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 96.00 1972 127.6 84.3 43.4 127.6 84.3 43.4 100.00 1973 135.3 92.6 42.7 127.9 87.5 40.4 105.80 1974 137.7 95.0 42.7 118.7 81.9 36.8 116.00 1975 149.1 103.4 45.7 117.2 81.3 35.9 127.20 1976 144.1 99.6 44.5 107.6 74.4 :33.2 133.90 1977 147.1 99.2 47.8 103.8 70.0 33.7 141.70 1978 156.6 107.3 49.3 103.0 70.6 32.4 152.05 1979 175.2 120.8 54.4 105.9 73.0 32.9 165.46 19B0 199.1 137.9 61.1 111.6 77.3 34.2 178.42 1981 223.2 155.4 67.8 114.4 79.6 34.7 195.14 1982 212.1 138.3 73.8 102.5 66.9 35.7 206.88 1983 215.3 144.7 70.6 99.8 67.1 32.7 215.63 1984 218.7 141.2 77.5 97.9 63.2 ~ 34.7 223.43 1985 235.3 154.4 80.9 101.9 66.9 35.1 230.80 1986 257.4 167.2 90.2 108.G 70.5 38.1 237.04 1987 275.7 174.8 100.9 112.6 71.4 41.2 244.86 1/ Figures for even years from 1964-70 and for all years from 1972~7 were obtained from the National Science Foundation (1975-88). The 1978 figures are NSF estimates. Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 21 From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1988a,b). The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 75

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APPENDIX TABLE C19. Average Behavioral Science R and D Expenditures per School in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control. 1972-87 (1972 $. thousands) Average R and D Expenditures Number of Schools Reporting 2/ Fiscal Year Total Public Private Total Public Pr vate . . . 1972 216 252 170 591 335 256 1973 216 261 158 591 335 256 1g74 t99 244 142 596 336 260 1975 219 252 169 536 323 213 1976 201 231 156 535 322 213 1977 194 217 158 536 3Z 214 1g78 183 213 140 562 331 231 1979 187 220 141 565 332 233 1980 198 233 148 563 332 231 1981 203 240 150 563 332 231 1982 t82 201 154 563 332 231 1983 178 203 142 562 331 231 1984 174 n/a n/a 561 nfa nla 1985 182 nJa n/a 561 n/a n/a t 986 194 n/a n/a 561 Ma Ma 1987 200 n/a n/a 562 n/a rVa 11 See Appendix Table C18 for supporting data. 2/ From the National Science Foundation. For 1978 the number of doctorate~randng instRutions was obtained from NSF; the number of mastefs~ranting inst~ons was estimated by the committee. Beginning in FY 1984, data were collected from a sample of 400 institutions and inflated to produce universe est mates. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 76

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~scal Year APPENDIX TABLE C20. Psychology R and D Expenditures in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control, 1964-87 Average R and D Expenditures Current Dollars (millions) 1/ 1972 Dollars (millions) 2/ per School (1972 $, ~ousands)3/ Total Public Private Total Public Prhate Total Pubilc t~964 31.904 n/a n~a 43.884 n~a n/a n/a nfa nJa t965 n~a n~a n/a rJa rVa nta n/a nJa n/a 1g66 40.143 n/a rVa 52.270 n/a n/a nla nfa n/a 1967 n/a n/a n/a nfa r,Ja nia n/a n/a n/a 1968 59.286 n/a n/a 71.775 nfa rJa nla n/a nfa 1969 nia nJa rVa nfa n/a n~a n/a n/a nfa 1970 59.250 n/a n~a 64.825 n/a nJa n/a nta n/a t971 rJa rla n/a n/a n/a n/a nJa r,Ja n/a 1 972 69.025 46.015 23.010 69.025 46.015 23.010 117 1 37 90 1 973 73.742 47.503 26.239 69.699 44.899 24.801 118 1 34 97 1974 74.236 48.920 25.316 63.g97 42.172 21.824 107 126 84 1975 80.322 55.416 24.906 63.146 43.566 19.580 118 135 92 1976 77.883 51.871 26.012 58.165 38.739 19.426 109 120 91 1977 85.129 55.011 30.118 60.077 38.822 21.25~; 112 121 99 1978 89.664 57.453 32.211 58.970 37.786 21.184 105 114 92 1979 100.531 63.984 36.547 60.758 38.670 22.088 108 116 95 1980 1 1 1 .084 71 .920 39.164 62.260 40.309 21 .950 1 1 1 121 95 1981 128.738 85.747 42.991 65.972 43.941 22.031 118 132 95 1982 132.272 86.374 45.898 63.937 41.751 22.186 115 126 96 1 983 1 36.850 90.538 46.312 63.465 41 .988 21 .478 113 1 27 93 1984 ~ 144.7t2 93.470 51.241 64.768 41.834 22.934 115 nla n/a 1985 157.652 104.589 53.062 68.307 45.316 22.990 122 nJa n/a 1986 169.543 1 1 1.541 58.002 71.525 47.056 24.469 127 rVa nta 1987 187 637 121.206 66.431 76.630 49.500 27.130 136 nla n/a 1/ Figures for even years from 1964-70 and for all years from 1972-87 were obtained from the National Science Founda~ion (1975-88). The 1978 figurQs are NSF estfmates. Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 2/ 1972 dollars were o~ained by using the Implicit GNP Price Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census ~ see Appendix Table A7). Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 3t See Appendlx Table C19 for number of schools report ng. 77'e 1989 Report of the Committee on BiomedicaJ and Behavioral PJesearch Personnel. Volume 2 77

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APPENDIX TABLE C21. Sociology R and D Expenditures in Colleges and Universities, by Type of Institutional Control, 1964-87 Current Dollars (millions) 11 _1972 Dollars (millions) 21 Average R&D Expenditures per School (1972 $, ~ousands) 3/ Ffscal Year Total Pubitc Private Total Public Pr~ate Total Public Prh~ate 1964 14.664 n/a nla 20.17t n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1965 n/a n/a nJa n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1966 20.000 n/a rVa 26.042 n/a rJa n/a n/a nia 1967 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a rVa - n/a 1968 38.587 n/a n/a 46.715 n/a n/a n/a rJa n/a 1969 n/a n/a rVa rla n/a rla rVa n/a n/a 1970 44.383 n/a n/a 48.559 rJa n/a n/a rJa n/a 1971 n/a rVa rVa n/a n/a rJa n/a r`/a n/a 1972 57.983 37.822 20.161 57.983 37.822 20.161 98 113 79 1 973 61.514 45.072 16.442 58.142 42.601 15.541 98 127 61 1974 63.447 46.054 17.393 54.696 39.702 14.994 92 118 58 1975 68.749 47.960 20.789 54.048 37.704 16.344 101 1 17 77 1976 66.239 47.720 18.519 49.469 35.639 13.830 92 111 65 1977 61.922 44.225 17.697 43.699 31 .210 12.489 82 97 58 1978 66.900 49.857 17.043 43.999 32.790 1 1.209 78 99 49 t 979 74.641 56.815 17.826 45.1 1 1 34.338 10.774 80 103 46 1980 87.g92 66.025 21.967 49.317 37.005 12.312 88 1 1 1 53 1981 94.414 69.609 24.805 48.383 35.671 12.711 86 107 55 t982 79.821 51.927 27.894 38.583 25.100 13.483 69 76 58 1983 78.440 54.179 24.26~1 36.377 25.126 11.251 65 76 4g 1984 74.030 47.754 26.276 33.133 21.373 11.760 59 nJa n/a 1985 77.633 49.780 27.854 33.636 21.568 12.068 60 n/a n/a t986 87.85J 55 665 32.192 37.064 23.483 13.581 66 n/a ; n/a t987 88.040 53.565 34.485 35.955 21.872 14.084 64 nfa nia 11 FIgures for even years from 1964-70 and for ail years from 1972-87 were obtained from the National ScTence Foundation (1975-88). The 1978 figures are NSF estimates. Items may not sum to totals dUe to rounding. 2/ 1972 dollars were obtained by using the Implicit GNP Price Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census--see Appendix Table A7). Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 3/ See Appendb~ Table C19 for number of schools reporting. The 1989 Report of the Commmee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 78

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APPENDIX TABLE C22. Graduate Enrollment in the Behavioral Sciences by Sex, 1967-88 (percent of field totat) 1/ Speech. Path) All Behavioral Sci. Psychology Sociology Anthropology SociodAnthro. 2/ Audio. Fiscal Year Male Female . Male Female Male Female 1967 68.4 31.6 70.2 29.8 66.8 33.2 62.3 37.7 1968 67.0 33.0 67.6 32.4 67.6 32.4 61.6 38.4 1969 64.9 35.t 66.2 33.8 64.4 35.6 58.6 41.4 1970 64.1 35.9 65.6 34.4 63.4 36.6 57.2 42.8 Male Female Male Female Male Female - 1971 62.6 37.4 63.S 36.5 62.6 37.4 57.8 42.2 1972 59.9 40.1 63.4 36.6 61.9 38.1 58.3 41.7 22.6 77.4 1973 58.0 42.0 61.6 38.4 60.4 39.6 56.9 43.1 21.3 78.7 1974 55.8 44.2 60.1 40.0 59.6 40.4 54.0 46.0 20.8 79.2 1975 52.4 47.6 57.4 42.6 58.0 42.0 52.9 47.1 1 6.8 ~.2 1976 50.3 49.7 55.2 44.8 56.4 43.6 52.9 47.1 15.6 84.4 1977 47.8 52.2 52.8 47.2 54.1 45.9 50.0 50.0 13.2 86.8 1978 49.4 50.6 53.1 46.9 54.5 45.5 50.3 49.7 64.4 35.6 23.0 77.0 1979 47.3 52.7 50.9 49.1 53.3 46.7 49.6 50.4 59.3 40.7 19.9 80.1 1980 45.2 54.8 48.8 51.2 52.0 48.0 48.9 51.1 53.6 46.4 16.9 83.1 1981 43.2 56.8 46.8 53.2 49.8 50.2 47.6 52.4 53.7 46.3 15.2 84.7 1982 40.7 59.3 44.0 56.0 48.4 51.6 45.6 54.4 49.0 51.0 13.8 86.2 1983 39.3 60.7 42.4 57.6 46.6 53.4 45.0 55.0 48.8 51.2 14.0 86.0 1984 38.0 62.0 40.6 59.4 47.0 53.0 43.2 56.8 48.8 51.2 13A 86.6 t985 37.2 62.8 38.8 61.2 46.5 53.5 43.7 56.3 46.2 53.8 14.8 85.2 1986 36.5 63.5 37.7 62.3 47.1 5Z.9 44.7 55.3 44.8 55.2 14.4 85.6 1987 35.2 64.8 36.6 63.3 45.5 54.5 42.6 57.4 43.4 56.6 12.5 87.5 1988 35.2 64.8 37.1 62.9 44.8 55.2 43.8 56.2 44.9 55.1 10.1 89.9 _ 1/ Percents for 1967-77 are based on figures from the U.S. Department of Education (195~79~. Those for 1978-88 based on figures from the National Science Foundation (1973-88~. See Appendix Tables C1 and C4-8 for supporting data. 2/ This interdisciplinary field Is reported separately from sociology and anthropology by the National Science Foundation. The 1989 Report of the Committoe on Biomedica/ and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 79

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APPENDIX TABLE C23. Graduate School Attrition Rates in the Behavioral Sciences, 1963-74 Fiscal Year FJrst-Year Number of FY 1962-87 Ph.D. Of Graduate Graduate Enrollment Behavioral Sci. Ph.D.s Completion Graduate School School Entry in the Behavl. ScL 1/ Entering Grad. School 2/ Rate (%) 31 Attrition Rate (DO) 3J Pre-1963 16,636 Post-1974 1 9,876 1963 8,739 2,457 28.1 71.9 1964 9,288 2,918 31.4 68 6 1965 11,832 3,358 28 4 71.6 1966 13,659 3,797 27.8 72.2 1967 13,669 4,060 29.7 70.3 1 968 1 5,966 4,01 7 25.2 74.8 1969 16,831 4,034 24.0 76.0 1970 19,501 4,551 23.3 76.7 1971 22,709 4,751 20.9 79.1 1972 24,607 4,797 19.5 80.5 1973 26,269 4,659 17.7 82.3 1974 27,636 4,356 15.8 84.2 1/From the U.S. Department of Education (1969-79). 2/From the National Research Councits Doctorate Records Ale (1968-88). 3JThe Ph.D. completion rate represents the percentage of flrst-year graduate students in a given year who earned a Ph.D. between 1962 and 1987 (column 2/column 1). The attrition rate is obtained by subtracting the Ph.D. completion rate for a gNen year from 100.0%. The rates for 1960-64 are relatively constant (see 1985 Report), it that most Individuals entering graduate school during that period had either received a Ph.D. or dropped out of graduate school by 1987. For later years, the Ph.D. completion rates decilne w th each year. The attrition rates for these years undoubtedly include students who are still enrolled In graduate school but who had not Gamed a Ph.D. by 1987, as wee as those who had actually dropped out of graduate school. The median elapses from baccalaureate to bioscience doctorate degree in 1987 was 8.1 years; it is therefore probable that many of ~ graduate students entering in years after 1980 are still working toward a doctorate degree. Completion and attrition rates have not been calculated for the later years. The Ph.D. completion rates will most likely increase and the a rates decrease once 1988 Ph.D.s are added to the calculations, and shouW continue to do so with the inclusion each additional year of Ph.D.s. The Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 80