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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress APPENDIXES
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress A BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS JAMES J. O’DONNELL, Chair, combines expertise in managing a large university computing facility with his academic credentials as a scholar of classical studies. He provides a unique perspective that incorporates an understanding of the collections and mission of the Library of Congress with real-world experience as the vice-provost for information systems and computing at the University of Pennsylvania. He is well recognized as an innovator in the use of information technology in education, a pioneer in electronic publishing, and a strong promoter of the use of computers and networks to support all aspects of the university environment. He chaired the University of Pennsylvania’s Task Force to Restructure Computing, which brought about major operational changes in the way computing services were made available on campus. As the vice-provost for information systems and computing, he is responsible for providing the university’s technology infrastructure, data administration, systems security, and services to users, as well as developing hardware and software standards for the university. Dr. O’Donnell is the coeditor of NewJour, an online index of new electronic journals, and the author of many articles on electronic publishing and teaching with technology; these include “Cost and Value in Electronic Publishing,” “Thinking Strategically About Electronic Publishing,” “Teaching with Technology and with Students,” and “New Tools for Teaching.” His book Avatars of the Word: From Papyrus to Cyberspace was published in 1998. Dr. O’Donnell received his B.A. from Princeton University in 1972 and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1975. He received a National Endowment for the Humanities
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress Fellowship in 1989 and a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1990. Dr. O’Donnell also is the author of articles and several books on the classics and continues to teach classical studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Before his tenure at the University of Pennsylvania, he was on the faculty of Cornell University, Catholic University of America, and Bryn Mawr College. JAMES BLACKABY has developed collections management programs for the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Historic Hudson Valley, the National Museum of African Art, the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, the Wolfsonian Foundation, and several smaller sites. Mr. Blackaby has worked on a number of extensive imaging projects, including databases for photographic archives at the Smithsonian’s African Art Museum and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (which offer online access to imagery). Mr. Blackaby has also worked on collections systems that are connected to image databases such as the joint project developed by the Walker Art Center and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts called ArtsConnectEd. He has worked on such Web-based education projects as the Wexner Learning Center of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and a children’s program for the National Institute of Conservation’s Save Outdoor Sculpture program, as well as Internet projects at the Holocaust Museum, the Walker Art Center, and other institutions. Mr. Blackaby’s work with the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) over the past 8 years has included projects intended to provide Internet access to the SPNEA’s historic properties with walk-through tours, the ability to view details in rooms, a way to compare historic views with modern interpretations, and a mechanism to deliver oral histories. In part, the SPNEA project is spurred by an interest in making its properties accessible to the handicapped through alternative delivery systems. Following through on work at WGBH and working with Microsoft’s Accessibility office, Mr. Blackaby has been exploring the use of technology with physically disabled audiences. He completed his B.A. and attended graduate school at the University of Oregon. He serves currently as director of Internet strategies and information services at Mystic Seaport Museum. ROSS E. BROWN joined Analog Devices on May 10, 1993, as vice president for human resources. He reports to Jerry Fishman, the president and chief executive officer, and is accountable for the management of Analog’s worldwide human resources organization. Before joining Analog Devices, Mr. Brown was employed by the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for 11 years. During his career at DEC, he held several positions of progressive responsibility within the human resources organization. In
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress his last position at DEC, Mr. Brown functioned as the director of human resources for the United States. Before joining DEC in 1982, he held various positions within the human resources organizations at Siemens-Allis, Inc., Allis Chalmers Corporation, the Miller Brewing Company, and the General Motors Corporation. He holds a B.S. in political science from Lincoln University of Missouri and a J.D. from the Detroit College of Law at Michigan State University. GINNIE COOPER has been the director of libraries for the Multnomah County Library in Portland, Oregon, since April 1990. She is the former director of Alameda County Library in Fremont, California, and, earlier, the Kenosha Public Library in Kenosha, Wisconsin. Ms. Cooper has also held positions with the University of Minnesota Medical School, the Washington County Library in Minnesota, the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the St. Paul Public Schools. She has 28 years of experience in the library profession. She is a former president of the Public Library Association, a division of the American Library Association, and served as an elected member of the governing council of the American Library Association and on the Board of the Urban Library Council. A graduate of South Dakota State University (English and speech education), Ms. Cooper holds an M.A. in Library Science from the University of Minnesota. DALE FLECKER, associate director for planning and systems at the Harvard University Library, has contributed and/or participated in several research projects and library-related committees. He has been active in the Digital Library Federation and now serves as chairman of the federation’s Architecture Committee. Mr. Flecker received a Ph.B. with a concentration in history from Wayne State University in 1965. In 1978, he received an M.A. in library science from the University of Michigan. At the Harvard University Library, Mr. Flecker is responsible for leadership and planning for library-wide information systems. He is extensively involved in planning and implementing information technology campus-wide. The department (21 full-time employees and a $3.7-million budget in FY98) is responsible for the development and operation of automated systems for the Harvard libraries. Mr. Flecker initiated, planned, and managed successive phases of development of the HOLLIS system, a basic tool in most areas of library operations. He is a member of the administrative council of the Harvard University Library and represents Harvard at national meetings (Association of Research Libraries, Center for Research Libraries, Council on Library Resources, OCLC research libraries, Coalition for Networked Information, Digital Library Federation).
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress Mr. Flecker is also extensively involved in the regional and national development of automated library networks (NELINET, OCLC). NANCY FRISHBERG is the executive director of New Media Centers, a nonprofit consortium of higher education institutions and corporations promoting teaching and learning using new media products and solutions. Dr. Frishberg brings experience from information technology, higher education, and nonprofit organizations to the New Media Centers. At Apple Computer, she supported Newton OS licensing partners in their engineering efforts. At IBM, she held positions in academic marketing, applied research management, and user interface research. Her consulting clients have included government agencies and arts organizations as well as education and business organizations. She earned her doctorate in linguistics from the University of California at San Diego and has held academic appointments at the Rochester Institute of Technology (Rochester, New York), Hampshire College (Amherst, Massachusetts), and New York University (New York City). Dr. Frishberg has served on the technology team of the San Carlos Charter Learning Center, as cochair of demonstrations at CHI’98 (in Los Angeles), on the executive council of the Association of Computers and the Humanities, on the Board of the Association for Software Design, and on the Educational Standards Committee of the Conference of Interpreter Trainers. Over the past 3 years, she has produced and hosted seven video teleconferences focusing on uses of and support for new media technologies in training and education. Her research interests include user interfaces for interactive media, the linguistic structure of sign languages, and human-computer interfaces for sign languages and sign language users. JAMES GRAY is a specialist in database and transaction processing computer systems at Microsoft Corporation. His research focuses on scaleable computing: building superservers and workgroup systems from commodity software and hardware. Before joining Microsoft, he worked at Digital, Tandem, IBM, and AT&T on database and transaction processing systems, including RDB, ACMS, NonstopSQL, Pathway, System R, SQL/ DS, DB2, and IMS-Fast Path. He is editor of the Performance Handbook for Database and Transaction Processing Systems and coauthor of Transaction Processing Concepts and Techniques. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), a member of the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, a trustee of the VLDB Foundation, and editor of the Morgan Kaufmann series on data management. He has been a McKay Fellow at the University of California at Berkeley. His current activities include research on fault-tolerant, parallel, and distributed database sys-
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress tems. Dr. Gray received his Ph.D. in computer science (1969) from the University of California at Berkeley. He is a former member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), and he also served on the CSTB committee that produced Computing the Future in 1992. In 1998, Dr. Gray won the ACM’s Turing Award. MARGARET HEDSTROM is an associate professor in the School of Information at the University of Michigan, where she teaches in the areas of archives, electronic records management, and digital preservation. Before joining the faculty at Michigan in 1995, she worked for 10 years at the New York State Archives and Records Administration, where she was chief of state records advisory services and director of the Center for Electronic Records. Dr. Hedstrom earned master’s degrees in library science and history and a Ph.D. in history from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. She wrote a dissertation on the history of office automation in the 1950s and 1960s. She is a fellow of the Society of American Archivists and was the first recipient of the annual Award for Excellence in New York State Government Information Services. Dr. Hedstrom is widely published on various aspects of archival management, electronic records, and preservation in digital environments and has served as a consultant to many government archival programs. Her current research interests include digital preservation strategies, the impact of electronic communications on organizational memory and documentation, and remote access to archival materials. CARL LAGOZE is a digital library scientist in the Computer Science Department at Cornell University. In that capacity, he leads a number of digital library research efforts in the department and across the university, collaborating with the university library and the Office of Information Technology. Mr. Lagoze’s research is funded through a number of National Science Foundation and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency grants and, most notably, a major grant from the multiagency Digital Libraries Initiative Phase 2. In general, this research can be characterized as investigations into the technical and organizational issues in the development and administration of distributed digital libraries. The recent focus of this research is on policy: What are the policies that need to be asserted to ensure the reliability, security, and preservation of content and services in distributed digital libraries, and what are the mechanisms for enforcing those policies? Mr. Lagoze is the coinventor of Dienst, a widely deployed protocol and architecture for distributed document libraries. He is also the coauthor of the Warwick Framework, a modular metadata model for digital content, which is a conceptual basis for the Resource Description Framework (RDF), now a World Wide Web
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress metadata standard. Mr. Lagoze’s professional activities include serving on the advisory committee of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, serving on the program committee of U.S. and international digital library conferences, and giving numerous talks here and abroad on his research on metadata and digital library architecture. LAWRENCE H. LANDWEBER is the John P. Morgridge Professor of Computer Science at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He has served as chair of the University of Wisconsin Computer Science Department, as chairman of the board, president, and vice president of education of the Internet Society, as chair of the Internet2 Advisory Committee, and as a member of board of the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development. He has also been on the board of the Computer Research Association and is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). For 20 years, Dr. Landweber has contributed to the development of the global Internet. His networking activities included TheoryNet (1977), an early electronic mail system; CSNET (1980-1985), a network for U.S. computer research groups that served as an early test of the Internet concept; the Gigabit Project (1990-1995), a high-speed network testbed for experimenting with new protocols; and projects that helped establish the first Internet gateways between the United States and countries in Europe and Asia in the 1980s. He was an advisor to the National Science Foundation during the development of the NSFNET, the first national Internet backbone. He received a B.S. in mathematics from Brooklyn College and a Ph.D. in computer science from Purdue University. DAVID M. LEVY is a visiting professor at the University of Washington. Previously, Dr. Levy was a research scientist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), where he conducted research on document design, use and reuse, structure, systems, and standards, beginning in 1984. During his tenure there, he served as assistant laboratory manager in the Systems Sciences Laboratory and as area manager for the Foundations of Documents Area. Before PARC, Dr. Levy was a software designer and manager at Symantec Corporation and a computer consultant. A graduate of Dartmouth College (1971), he earned his M.S. (1972) and Ph.D. (1979) in computer science at Stanford University and also holds the Diploma in Calligraphy and Bookbinding (1982) from the Roehampton Institute. Dr. Levy’s professional activities include service as the conference chair for the Digital Libraries 1995 conference and on the program committee for the past five Digital Libraries conferences. His current book (in preparation) is entitled Scrolling Forward: Making Sense of Documents in a Digital Age.
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress ANN OKERSON has served as an associate university librarian at Yale University since September 1995. She came to Yale with an extensive background in academic library and management experience, especially in collections development and serials. She has also served as senior program officer for the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). There, she was director of the Office of Scientific and Academic Publishing, where her responsibilities included coordinating the association’s activities in monitoring scholarly communications and scholarly publishing. Her publications include the synopsis chapter for the Andrew W. Mellon Study of University Libraries and Scholarly Communication (11/92); five editions of the standard Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists (1991-1995); and four electronic networked publishing symposia organized on behalf of the ARL and the Association of American University Presses (for which she also edited three volumes of proceedings). In 1997, with funding from the Council on Library Resources/Commission on Preservation and Access, Ms. Okerson and other Yale library staff mounted an online educational resource about library licensing of electronic content in a project called Liblicense. Its extensive annotations and links are complemented by Liblicense-l, a moderated online discussion list frequented by over 2,000 librarians, publishers, and attorneys. DOUG ROWAN has served as chief executive officer of interLane Media, a company providing a new publishing medium to supermarkets and other retail venues, since August 1998. Since June 1997, he has also served as the president and chief executive officer of Imaging Solutions, Inc., a consulting services company. From April 1994 until June 1997, he was the president and chief executive officer of Corbis, a company owned by Bill Gates. At Corbis, Rowan oversaw the acquisition of the Bettmann Archive, established the Corbis brand, and migrated the Corbis business from off-line CD-ROMs to the current Corbis Web site. He also led the building of one of the world’s largest and most comprehensive digital libraries. Previously, he held senior management positions at Ungermann-Bass, Ampex, AXS, and MASSCOMP. Rowan started his career in 1962 and spent 22 years at IBM. He earned his undergraduate degree in electrical engineering from Cornell University, where he also received an M.B.A. in business administration. JEROME H. SALTZER received the degrees of S.B. (1961), S.M. (1963), and Sc.D. (1966) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), all in electrical engineering. Since 1966, he has been a faculty member of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, where he helped formulate the undergraduate curriculum in computer
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress science and developed the core subject on the engineering of computer systems. At the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, he developed RUNOFF, the ancestor of most typesetting formatters. It, together with the context editor TYPSET, constituted one of the first widely used word-processing systems. He participated in the refinement of the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) and was involved in all aspects of the design and implementation of the Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (Multics), including the design of the first kernel thread package, the first time-of-century clock, and, in the early 1970s, a project to develop what would today be known as a microkernel. Together with David Clark and David Reed, he articulated the end-to-end argument, a key organizing principle of the Internet. More recently, his research activities have involved designing a token-passing ring local area network, networking personal computers, and designing the electronic library of the future. From 1984 through 1988, he was technical director of MIT’s Project Athena, a system for undergraduate education comprising networked engineering workstations and probably the first successful implementation of the network computer. Throughout this work, he has had a particular interest in the impact of computer systems on society, especially on privacy and the risks of depending on fragile technology. In September 1995, Professor Saltzer retired from the full-time faculty. He continues to write and teach about computer systems part-time from his MIT office. Professor Saltzer also dabbles in art history, particularly nineteenth century art of the western United States. He is preparing a catalog of the paintings of Frederick Ferdinand Schafer and is always happy to receive information about either the artist or his paintings. Professor Saltzer is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Sigma Xi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Tau Beta Pi, a former member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council, and a member of the Mayor’s Telecommunications Advisory Board for the city of Newton, Massachusetts. HOWARD TURTLE has extensive experience with information retrieval system design, evaluation, and operation. He is currently the president of CogiTech Group in Jackson, Wyoming, a technical consulting firm that specializes in information retrieval system design and evaluation, technology assessment, and intellectual property protection. From 1990 to 1998, Dr. Turtle was chief scientist and principal research scientist at West Publishing Co., where he conducted and directed research in support of new information retrieval, text management, and text classification tech-
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress nologies and managed the transfer of technology from research into new products. Before that, he was at the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) for 10 years as a research scientist, senior research scientist, director of technical planning, and, for his last 2 years, chief scientist. Dr. Turtle designed and implemented retrieval software and served as the technical lead of the effort to redesign the entire OCLC system. During this period, he remained active in research in such areas as analyzing user behavior with interactive systems and supporting electronic delivery of full-text journal articles in their original typeset form. Dr. Turtle also represented OCLC in several technical standards groups. Earlier in his career, he was a research scientist at Battelle Columbus Laboratories, where he designed and implemented software for the BASIS information retrieval system. He received his B.A. from the University of Wisconsin in 1971, his M.S. in computer science from the University of Wisconsin in 1975, and his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Massachusetts in 1991. He is the author of a number of articles on text retrieval and holds several patents on retrieval techniques. He is the vice chair of SIGIR and served as a member of the board of directors of the National Information Standards Organization (under the Platform for Privacy Preferences Initiative). MARY ELLEN ZURKO is a security software architect at Iris Associates, currently in charge of security for active content. Previously, she was a member of the small team that designed and developed the first freeware reference implementation of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Public Key Infrastructure X.509 (PKIX) standards, called Jonah. As a senior research fellow at the Open Group Research Institute, she led several innovative security initiatives in authorization policies, languages, and mechanisms that incorporate user-centered design elements. The Authorization for Distributed Applications and Groups (Adage) project produced a modular, distributed, user-centered authorization solution that became a DARPA deployment follow-on project, Pledge. With one other teammate, she designed and developed DCE Web, which provided DCE confidentiality, authentication, and authorization to Web transactions through unmodified Web browsers. Ms. Zurko received her S.B. and S.M. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has published papers on all her work, including an award-winning paper on an (A1-target) secure virtual machine monitor and influential papers on user-centered security and separation of duty in role-based environments. She is an associate editor of Cipher (the electronic newsletter of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society’s Technical Committee on Security and Privacy) and a regular contributor. She is a member of the International World Wide Web Conference Com-
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LC 21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress mittee (IW3C2), which organizes the premier international World Wide Web conference series, and is currently serving as general chair of New Security Paradigms Workshop. She is active in the Agent Systems/Mobile Agents Symposium, the Symposium on Applications and the Internet, and was previously chair of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) working group for privacy preferences language under the Platform for Privacy Preferences Initiative.
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