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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE—NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

Phosphorus (mg/d)

Magnesium (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)a ,b

Fluoride (mg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

210*

100*

30*

5*

0.01*

0.2*

7–12 mo

270*

275*

75*

5*

0.5*

0.3*

Children

1–3 y

500*

460

80

5*

0.7*

0.5

4–8 y

800*

500

130

5*

1*

0.6

Males

9–13 y

1,300*

1,250

240

5*

2*

0.9

14–18 y

1,300*

1,250

410

5*

3*

1.2

19–30 y

1,000*

700

400

5*

4*

1.2

31–50 y

1,000*

700

420

5*

4*

1.2

51–70 y

1,200*

700

420

10*

4*

1.2

> 70 y

1,200*

700

420

15*

4*

1.2

Females

9–13 y

1,300*

1,250

240

5*

2*

0.9

14–18 y

1,300*

1,250

360

5*

3*

1.0

19–30 y

1,000*

700

310

5*

3*

1.1

31–50 y

1,000*

700

320

5*

3*

1.1

51–70 y

1,200*

700

320

10*

3*

1.1

> 70 y

1,200*

700

320

15*

3*

1.1

Pregnancy

≤ 18 y

1,300*

1,250

400

5*

3*

1.4

19–30 y

1,000*

700

350

5*

3*

1.4

31–50 y

1,000*

700

360

5*

3*

1.4

Lactation

≤ 18 y

1,300*

1,250

360

5*

3*

1.4

19–30 y

1,000*

700

310

5*

3*

1.4

31–50 y

1,000*

700

320

5*

3*

1.4

NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

a As calciferol. 1 μg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

b In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.

c As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).



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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE—NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS Life Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Vitamin D (μg/d)a ,b Fluoride (mg/d) Thiamin (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 210* 100* 30* 5* 0.01* 0.2* 7–12 mo 270* 275* 75* 5* 0.5* 0.3* Children 1–3 y 500* 460 80 5* 0.7* 0.5 4–8 y 800* 500 130 5* 1* 0.6 Males 9–13 y 1,300* 1,250 240 5* 2* 0.9 14–18 y 1,300* 1,250 410 5* 3* 1.2 19–30 y 1,000* 700 400 5* 4* 1.2 31–50 y 1,000* 700 420 5* 4* 1.2 51–70 y 1,200* 700 420 10* 4* 1.2 > 70 y 1,200* 700 420 15* 4* 1.2 Females 9–13 y 1,300* 1,250 240 5* 2* 0.9 14–18 y 1,300* 1,250 360 5* 3* 1.0 19–30 y 1,000* 700 310 5* 3* 1.1 31–50 y 1,000* 700 320 5* 3* 1.1 51–70 y 1,200* 700 320 10* 3* 1.1 > 70 y 1,200* 700 320 15* 3* 1.1 Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 1,300* 1,250 400 5* 3* 1.4 19–30 y 1,000* 700 350 5* 3* 1.4 31–50 y 1,000* 700 360 5* 3* 1.4 Lactation ≤ 18 y 1,300* 1,250 360 5* 3* 1.4 19–30 y 1,000* 700 310 5* 3* 1.4 31–50 y 1,000* 700 320 5* 3* 1.4 NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. a As calciferol. 1 μg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. b In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight. c As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)c Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (μg/d)d Vitamin B12 (μg/d) Pantothenic Acid (mg/d) Biotin (μg/d) 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 8* 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4g 5* 30* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4g 5* 30* 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 1.0 14 1.2 400h 2.4 5* 25* 1.1 14 1.3 400h 2.4 5* 30* 1.1 14 1.3 400h 2.4 5* 30* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4g 5* 30* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4g 5* 30* 1.4 18 1.9 600i 2.6 6* 30* 1.4 18 1.9 600i 2.6 6* 30* 1.4 18 1.9 600i 2.6 6* 30* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* d As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. e Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages. f As α-tocopherol, α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment Cholinee (mg/d) Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin Ef (mg/d) Selenium (μg/d) Life Stage Group   Infants 125* 40* 4* 15* 0–6 mo 150* 50* 5* 20* 7–12 mo   Children 200* 15 6 20 1–3 y 250* 25 7 30 4–8 y   Males 375* 45 11 40 9–13 y 550* 75 15 55 14–18 y 550* 90 15 55 19–30 y 550* 90 15 55 31–50 y 550* 90 15 55 51–70 y 550* 90 15 55 > 70 y   Females 375* 45 11 40 9–13 y 400* 65 15 55 14–18 y 425* 75 15 55 19–30 y 425* 75 15 55 31–50 y 425* 75 15 55 51–70 y 425* 75 15 55 > 70 y   Pregnancy 450* 80 15 60 ≤ 18 y 450* 85 15 60 19–30 y 450* 85 15 60 31–50 y   Lactation 550* 115 19 70 ≤ 18 y 550* 120 19 70 19–30 y 550* 120 19 70 31–50 y g Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. h In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. i It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.