REFERENCES

Angell, J.K. , 1999 . Variation with height and latitude of radiosonde temperature trends in North America , 1975-94 . J. Climate 12 , 2551-2561 .

Angell, J.K. , 2000 . Tropospheric temperature variations adjusted for El Nino , 1958-1998 . J. Geophys. Res . 105 , 11841-11849.

Angell, J.K. , andJ. Korshover 1975 . Estimate of the global change in tropospheric temperature between 1958 and 1973 . Mon. Wea. Rev. 103 , 1007-1012.

Basist, A. , and M. Chelliah , 1997 . Comparison of tropospheric temperatures derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NCEP operational analysis, and the microwave sounding unit . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78 , 1431-1447.

Chanin, M.-L. , and V. Ramaswamy , 1999 . Trends in Stratospheric Temperatures, Ch. 5. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998 . World Meteorological Organization . Geneva, Switzerland . p. 5.1-5.59

Christy, J.R. , 1995 . Temperature above the surface layer . Clim. Change 31 , 455-474.

Christy, J.R. 2000 . Global Climate Change: Scientific and Social Impacts . Bridges 7 , 39-57 .

Christy, J.R. , R.W. Spencer , and E. Lobl , 1998 . Analysis of the merging procedure for the MSU daily temperature time series . J. Climate 11 , 2016-2041 .

Elliott, W.P. , and D.J. Gaffen , 1991 . On the utility of radiosonde humidity archives for climate studies . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 72 , 1507-1520 .

Elliott, W.P. , and R.J. Ross , 2000 . Estimated impacts of synoptic scheduling of radiosondes on climate records . J. Climate 13 , 2116-2120.

Gaffen, D.J. , 1993 . Historical changes in radiosonde instruments and practices, Instruments and Observing Methods , Report 50, WMO/TD-541 , World Meteorological Organization , Geneva , 123 pp.

Gaffen, D.J. , 1994 . Temporal inhomogeneities in radiosonde temperature records . J. Geophys. Res. 99 , 3667-3676 .

Gaffen, D.J. , 1996 . A digitized metadata set of global upper-air station histories , NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL-ARL 211 . Silver Spring , Maryland , 38 pp.

Gaffen, D.J. , M.A. Sargent , R.E. Habermann , and J.R. Lanzante , 2000 . Sensitivity of tropospheric and stratospheric temperature trends to radiosonde data quality . J. Climate 13 , 1776-1796 .

Hurrell, J.W. , and K.E. Trenberth , 1998 . Difficulties in obtaining reliable temperature trends: Reconciling the surface and satellite MSU 2R trends . J. Climate 11 , 945-967 .

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) , 1996 . Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change . J.T. Houghton , F.G. Meira Filho , B.A. Callander , N. Harris , A. Kattenberg , and K. Maskell (eds.) Cambridge Univ. Press , Cambridge, U.K. , 570 pp.

Karl, T.R. , V.E. Derr , D.R. Easterling , C.K. Folland , D.J. Hoffman , S. Levitus , N. Nicholls , D.E. Parker , and G.W., Withee . 1995 . Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring . Clim. Change 31 , 185-221 .

Keckhut, P. , F.J. Schmidlin , A. Hauchecorne , and M.L. Chanin , 1999 . Stratospheric and mesospheric cooling trend estimates from U.S. rocketsondes at low latitude stations (8oS-34oN) taking into account instrumental changes and natural variability . J. Atmos. and Solar-Terr. Phys. 61 , 447-459 .

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) , 1995 . NOAA Strategic Plan: A Vision for 2005 . Executive Summary . U.S. Department of Commerce , September .

NRC (National Research Council) , 1999 . Adequacy of Climate Observing Systems . National Academy Press , Washington, D.C. , 51 pp.



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Improving Atmospheric Temperature Monitoring Capabilities REFERENCES Angell, J.K. , 1999 . Variation with height and latitude of radiosonde temperature trends in North America , 1975-94 . J. Climate 12 , 2551-2561 . Angell, J.K. , 2000 . Tropospheric temperature variations adjusted for El Nino , 1958-1998 . J. Geophys. Res . 105 , 11841-11849. Angell, J.K. , andJ. Korshover 1975 . Estimate of the global change in tropospheric temperature between 1958 and 1973 . Mon. Wea. Rev. 103 , 1007-1012. Basist, A. , and M. Chelliah , 1997 . Comparison of tropospheric temperatures derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NCEP operational analysis, and the microwave sounding unit . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78 , 1431-1447. Chanin, M.-L. , and V. Ramaswamy , 1999 . Trends in Stratospheric Temperatures, Ch. 5. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998 . World Meteorological Organization . Geneva, Switzerland . p. 5.1-5.59 Christy, J.R. , 1995 . Temperature above the surface layer . Clim. Change 31 , 455-474. Christy, J.R. 2000 . Global Climate Change: Scientific and Social Impacts . Bridges 7 , 39-57 . Christy, J.R. , R.W. Spencer , and E. Lobl , 1998 . Analysis of the merging procedure for the MSU daily temperature time series . J. Climate 11 , 2016-2041 . Elliott, W.P. , and D.J. Gaffen , 1991 . On the utility of radiosonde humidity archives for climate studies . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 72 , 1507-1520 . Elliott, W.P. , and R.J. Ross , 2000 . Estimated impacts of synoptic scheduling of radiosondes on climate records . J. Climate 13 , 2116-2120. Gaffen, D.J. , 1993 . Historical changes in radiosonde instruments and practices, Instruments and Observing Methods , Report 50, WMO/TD-541 , World Meteorological Organization , Geneva , 123 pp. Gaffen, D.J. , 1994 . Temporal inhomogeneities in radiosonde temperature records . J. Geophys. Res. 99 , 3667-3676 . Gaffen, D.J. , 1996 . A digitized metadata set of global upper-air station histories , NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL-ARL 211 . Silver Spring , Maryland , 38 pp. Gaffen, D.J. , M.A. Sargent , R.E. Habermann , and J.R. Lanzante , 2000 . Sensitivity of tropospheric and stratospheric temperature trends to radiosonde data quality . J. Climate 13 , 1776-1796 . Hurrell, J.W. , and K.E. Trenberth , 1998 . Difficulties in obtaining reliable temperature trends: Reconciling the surface and satellite MSU 2R trends . J. Climate 11 , 945-967 . IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) , 1996 . Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change . J.T. Houghton , F.G. Meira Filho , B.A. Callander , N. Harris , A. Kattenberg , and K. Maskell (eds.) Cambridge Univ. Press , Cambridge, U.K. , 570 pp. Karl, T.R. , V.E. Derr , D.R. Easterling , C.K. Folland , D.J. Hoffman , S. Levitus , N. Nicholls , D.E. Parker , and G.W., Withee . 1995 . Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring . Clim. Change 31 , 185-221 . Keckhut, P. , F.J. Schmidlin , A. Hauchecorne , and M.L. Chanin , 1999 . Stratospheric and mesospheric cooling trend estimates from U.S. rocketsondes at low latitude stations (8oS-34oN) taking into account instrumental changes and natural variability . J. Atmos. and Solar-Terr. Phys. 61 , 447-459 . NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) , 1995 . NOAA Strategic Plan: A Vision for 2005 . Executive Summary . U.S. Department of Commerce , September . NRC (National Research Council) , 1999 . Adequacy of Climate Observing Systems . National Academy Press , Washington, D.C. , 51 pp.

OCR for page 11
Improving Atmospheric Temperature Monitoring Capabilities NRC , 2000a . Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change . National Academy Press , Washington, D.C. , 85 pp. NRC , 2000b . Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation . National Academy Press . (in press) NWS (National Weather Service) , 1999 . Specification NWS-J070-RS-SP005 for Global Positioning System Radiosonde and Signal Processing System .Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather Service, Engineering Design Branch,Nov. 8, 1999. (available athttp://www.rrs.nws.noaa.gov/specific.htm ) . Ramaswamy, V. , M.-L. Chanin , J. Angell , J. Barnett , D. Gaffen , M. Gelman , P. Keckhut , Y. Koshelkov , K. Labitzke , J.-J. R. Lin , A. O'Neill , J. Nash , W. Randel , R. Rood , K. Shine , M. Shiotani , and R. Swinbank , 2000 . Stratospheric temperature changes: Observations and model simulations . Rev. Geophys. (in press) Stendel, M. , J.R. Christy and L. Bengtsson , 2000 . Assessing levels of uncertainty in recent temperature time series . Climate Dyn. 16 , 587-601 . Trenberth, K. E. , 1995 . Atmospheric circulation climate changes . Clim. Change 31 , 427-453 . Trenberth , K. E., D. P. Stepaniak , J. W. Hurrell and M. Fiorino , 2000 . Quality of reanalyses in the tropics . J. Climate 13 . Waliser, D.E. , and W. Zhou , 1997 . Removing satellite equatorial crossing time biases from the OLR and HRC datasets . J. Climate 10 , 2125-2146 . Wentz, F.J. , and M. Schabel , 1998 . Effects of satellite orbital decay on MSU lower tropospheric temperature trends . Nature 394 , 361-364 . Wentz, F.J. , P. Ashcroft , and C. Gentemann (in press) . Post-Launch calibration of the TRMM Microwave Imager . IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing . WMO (World Meteorological Organization) , 2000 . Monitoring equipment used for upper-air observations . World Climate News 17 , 10-11 .