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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 2 Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 PANEL MEMBERS Ralph K. Cavin III, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Chair Lori S. Nye, MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc., Vice Chair Robert A. Buhrman, Cornell University Jack H. Corley, Advanced Technology Institute Jerome J. Cuomo, North Carolina State University Russell D. Dupuis, University of Texas at Austin Thomas J. Gramila, Ohio State University Waguih Ishak, Agilent Laboratories Donald B. Keck, Corning, Inc. Tingye Li, AT&T Research (retired) Solomon Max, LTX Corporation Robert C. McDonald, Intel Corporation (retired) Bruce Melson, GE Aircraft Engines Alton D. Patton, Associated Power Analysts, Inc. Ghery S. Pettit, Intel Corporation Robert E. Rottmayer, Seagate Technologies Robert E. Schwall, American Superconductor Corporation Carlton E. Speck, Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems Dennis E. Speliotis, ADE Technologies, Inc. Peter W. Staecker, Consultant, Lexington, Massachusetts John A. Wehrmeyer, Eastman Kodak Company Donald L. Wollesen, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (retired) Submitted for the panel by its Chair, Ralph K. Cavin III, and its Vice Chair, Lori S. Nye, this assessment of the fiscal year 2000 activities of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory is based on site visits by individual panel members, a formal meeting of the panel on February 17-18, 2000, in Boulder, Colorado, and documents provided by the laboratory.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 LABORATORY-LEVEL REVIEW Laboratory Mission According to laboratory documentation, the mission of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (EEEL) is to promote U.S. economic growth by providing measurement capability of high impact focused primarily on the critical needs of the U.S. electronics and electrical industries and their customers and suppliers. This mission is consistent with the mission of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and provides an appropriate expression of the laboratory's goals; the programs under way are consistent with this mission. The EEEL continues to emphasize cross-disciplinary programs to better meet the complex needs of its customers. In today 's environment, the measurement capabilities required by the electronics industry often cannot be achieved without combining the technical expertise traditionally found in electrical engineering, physics, and chemistry. To meet current and future metrology needs, NIST will require programs that cross the historical boundaries of laboratory disciplines. It is unfortunate that funding has not yet come through for the Office of Optoelectronics Programs; this lack of support will limit EEEL's ability to coordinate work across NIST to aggressively address the metrology challenges faced by the rapidly growing optoelectronics industry. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work The EEEL contains a broad array of projects relevant to the needs of the U.S. electronics and electrical technology industries. Overall, the panel is impressed that the laboratory staff continue to engage in projects at a high level of technical excellence. In the Electricity Division, the work to provide standards and to develop innovative new measurement techniques is first class; examples include the effective utilization of the calculable capacitor to realize the SI (International System of Units) farad and ohm and the research on the use of single electron tunneling to measure current in collaboration with the Electromagnetic Technology Division. In the Radio-Frequency Technology Division, the advances in statistical electromagnetic modeling of field distributions in reverberation chambers are allowing staff to validate the use of these chambers as an alternative method of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing; the new approach will help keep test times reasonable over an increasing range of frequencies. In the Optoelectronics Division, the work on multimode differential mode delay (DMD) measurements for multigigabit local area networks (LANs) is a timely response to an industry working group request. These are but a few examples of the many important activities under way in EEEL that support the scientific and technological base needed for effective and relevant metrology. More detailed discussions of laboratory projects of high technical merit are provided in the divisional assessments. Impact of Programs The EEEL employs many mechanisms to disseminate technical results of the laboratory programs to relevant scientific and industrial communities. Staff members publish in refereed journals, attend conferences, organize workshops, host guest researchers, participate in roadmap development, and are active in international standards activities. The laboratory's programs on the development and production of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) and the EEEL's performance of calibration services are thriving; these efforts have an immediate impact on the U.S. economy through the value provided to the laboratory's industrial customers. One example of the effects of EEEL's projects is the approximately
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 $58 million of direct and indirect benefits estimated to be due to the Semiconductor Electronics Division's work on insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modeling and characterization for power semiconductor devices. The value of the laboratory's measurement development work can be seen in the recent licensing of the energy-dispersive microcalorimeter x-ray detector from the Electromagnetic Technology Division to two outside companies. This advanced method for materials detection and analysis should soon be available to and utilized by industry. Many other projects make important contributions to EEEL's support of U.S. industry; examples are provided in the divisional assessments. The panel was impressed by the series of “gold books” put out by each division and office detailing its programs, activities, and accomplishments. These publications provide a concise, informative, and extraordinarily useful summary of the goals and achievements of ongoing laboratory projects. The documents were quite helpful to the panel in the course of this assessment and, when posted on the World Wide Web, will be an important cornerstone for laboratory outreach activities. Already, EEEL is increasing its use of the Internet as a tool for information dissemination. For example, the Semiconductor Electronics Division recently established a very good Web site on Hall measurement techniques and practices. Laboratory Resources Funding sources for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory are shown in Table 2.1. As of January 2000, staffing for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory included 259 TABLE 2.1 Sources of Funding for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (in millions of dollars), FY 1997 to FY 2000 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1997 (actual) Fiscal Year 1998 (actual) Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 31.5 31.5 33.2 33.3 Competence 1.7 2.2 1.9 2.1 ATP 1.3 2.1 1.9 0.9 Measurement Services (SRM production) 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 OA/NFG/CRADA 10.7 10.2 10.9 13.3 Other Reimbursable 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.5 Total 48.4 49.0 50.7 52.2 Full-time permanent staff (total)a 324 270 270 259 NOTE: Funding for the NIST Measurement and Standards Laboratories comes from a variety of sources. The laboratories receive appropriations from Congress, known as Scientific and Technical Research and Services (STRS) funding. Competence funding also comes from NIST's congressional appropriations but is allocated by the NIST director's office in multiyear grants for projects that advance NIST's capabilities in new and emerging areas of measurement science. Advanced Technology Program (ATP) funding reflects support from NIST's ATP for work done at the NIST laboratories in collaboration with or in support of ATP projects. Funding to support production of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) is tied to the use of such products and is classified as Measurement Services. NIST laboratories also receive funding through grants or contracts from other government agencies (OA), from nonfederal government (NFG) agencies, and from industry in the form of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs). All other laboratory funding, including that for Calibration Services, is grouped under “Other Reimbursable.” a The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 full-time permanent positions, of which 217 were for technical professionals. There were also 32 nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and part-time workers. The electrical and electronics industries served by EEEL are characterized by rapid changes in technologies combined with a broadening impact on many sectors of the economy. This fast-paced evolution drives the need for commensurately rapid advances in a broad array of measurement technologies, and it is NIST's task to provide the technical innovations that support the metrology requirements of the affected sectors of U.S. industry. However, the EEEL budget has remained flat in real dollars and has not covered the mandatory cost-of-living salary increases. This lack of growth impedes the laboratory's ability to address its mission of serving the industrial community. The limited available resources likely will force laboratory management to make difficult programmatic decisions that will impact important sectors of the economy. The challenge of determining which work is of the highest priority is complicated by the need to take on a number of high-risk projects with significant potential impact in order to ensure that NIST will be ready to support whatever new technologies industry adopts in the future. Since January 1999, the number of full-time permanent technical professionals in EEEL has dropped by 12. The relatively flat budgets have had an effect on morale because the staff are feeling increasing pressure to obtain funding from outside agencies to support part of their salaries. The externally supported work is not always in line with the divisional and laboratory missions, and these projects, as well as the time and effort required to secure outside funding, divert the staff's energy from projects central to the NIST mission and create an environment of uncertainty about programs' futures. However, despite these concerns, there is an overwhelmingly positive attitude about working at NIST, due mainly to the significant and challenging nature of the projects under way and the strong relationships between the technical personnel. The staff survey conducted by NIST in 1999, which in fact confirmed that 85 percent of responding employees were proud to work at NIST, was an excellent vehicle for determining what problems are most critical at the laboratory and division levels. The panel believes that management's effort to develop action plans to respond to the more important concerns is appropriate. There have been a number of changes in the leadership of EEEL recently. In December 1998, the long-time director of the laboratory retired. In July 1999, his successor also retired, and the chief of the Electricity Division is now serving as acting director of the EEEL. Although rapid turnover is not to be encouraged, the panel is pleased to report that the high level of technical quality observed in the past appears to have been maintained throughout this time of transition. In addition, the laboratory-level strategic planning process continues to improve, and the impact of this process on the portfolio of projects can now be seen. The level of implementation of strategic planning is not uniform across all of the divisions, but every group appears to be taking the process seriously. The panel was particularly impressed by the clear definition of quantifiable objectives and deliverables in the Semiconductor Electronics Division. The quality of EEEL facilities is of continuing concern to the panel. The buildings need basic maintenance, particularly in Boulder. Although the new Advanced Measurement Laboratory (AML) should substantially enhance the EEEL facilities in Gaithersburg, this building will not be completed for about 4 years, and an interim facility improvement plan is necessary to allow the laboratory to continue to meet its mission. The new microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication facility in the Electromagnetic Technology Division in Boulder is a timely enhancement of EEEL capabilities, but it is equally important that adequate resources be set aside to meet the costs of operating and maintaining the new facility.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 The status of the EEEL's laboratory equipment, while improving, is still significantly below the industry standard (let alone the state of the art) in some areas. Outdated equipment severely impedes the staff's ability to produce the high-quality work expected from the EEEL. The panel suggests that when making requests for funding for capital equipment purchases, staff explicitly spell out the benefits to U.S. industry that would accrue if the laboratory had this hardware as well as the consequences if it did not. In addition to upgrading or replacing current equipment, the laboratory will most likely have to purchase modern equipment for the new Boulder clean room and the AML. DIVISIONAL REVIEWS Electricity Division Division Mission According to division documentation, the mission of the Electricity Division is to provide the world's most technically advanced and fundamentally sound basis for all electrical measurements in the United States by realizing the SI electrical units, developing improved measurement methods and calibration services, and supporting the measurement and standards infrastructure needed by U.S. industry to develop new products, ensure quality, and compete economically in the world's markets. The mission statement of the Electricity Division is appropriately focused and defines in concise terms the diverse roles and responsibilities of the division. Programs are conducted in a manner consistent with this mission, and it appears to the panel that over the past few years the division has become increasingly focused on the principal elements listed in the mission. This year, the Electricity Division published a booklet that succinctly describes its goals and accomplishments. 1 This summary documents the division's planning, and the defined objectives and milestones provide a quantifiable measure for evaluation. This information is also a valuable resource to facilitate development of potential cross-laboratory collaborations. The development of a sabbatical program is another promising approach toward promoting cross-disciplinary and cross-divisional efforts. Management needs to pay careful attention to resulting interactions, because varied perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of collaborating with other divisions exist among the staff. Greater cooperation between divisions has the potential to provide considerable benefits both to the groups within NIST and to industry. Division management has maintained a sensible and balanced approach within difficult budget constraints. It is sensitive to the need to balance the role of existing activities, the technical challenges facing industry and NIST, and the importance of selected development efforts. An example of this last category is the Electronic Kilogram Program. This effort has received the support necessary for development to proceed at a reasonable pace, and the results represent an important achievement for the division. At the same time, long-term expectations for the system's performance are based on sensible estimates of its ultimate accuracy. Innovation necessarily involves taking risks but also requires that management be willing to terminate unsatisfactory projects. The division has demonstrated that it is able to maintain focus and fulfill its mission effectively in these difficult times. As is demonstrated by the wording of the mission statement, the Electricity Division clearly recognizes that NIST's support of industry should be directed toward U.S. organizations. However, many 1 U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Electricity Division: Programs, Activities, and Accomplishments, NISTIR 6431, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., January 2000.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 companies that utilize the division's services are becoming multinational. Division management is sensitive to the issues raised by the globalization of U.S. industry but also is aware that no simple solution to the implied conflict exists. As noted in last year's assessment, NIST is well situated to approach complex, multitechnology projects from a systems perspective. Electronic products are becoming more and more complex (e.g., rising gate and component counts, increasing lines of code), forcing industry to go to a higher level of abstraction. Many products also incorporate multiple disciplines—for example, almost every electrical product has mechanical, embedded software and firmware components that heavily impact design, manufacture, and use. The EEEL possesses staff with the diverse expertise needed to meet the challenge of investigating systems-level problems, but a structure is not in place to manage such cross-disciplinary activities. An organization such as an Office for Systems Projects is one possible approach. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work As in the past, the technical quality of the Electricity Division projects is of uniformly high caliber. All of the projects reviewed by the panel are advancing the state of the art in their respective areas and are consistent with the mission of the division. This excellence spans the range of work under way, from established calibration programs to efforts on the development of new measurement techniques. The division has been very successful at balancing its portfolio of programs by continuing support of established activities while making investments in new approaches and technologies. In established areas, the Electricity Division continues to provide more than 25 percent of the calibrations done at NIST and to improve its capabilities to deliver these services —for example, with the development of a new wideband waveform measurement technique. On the other hand, examples of ongoing projects that aim to develop entirely new techniques include the work on the electronic kilogram and on single electron tunneling (SET). The former project is at an intermediate stage. The soundness of the underlying physical approach has been established, and efforts are currently focused on the technical improvements needed to enable this system to serve as a new standard for mass. The SET effort is at an earlier stage. In this project, the technical challenge is how to use new technologies to update and enhance fundamental electrical metrology. Measurement development efforts such as these have the potential for significant impact and widespread benefit, which have been realized by earlier development work that resulted in new standards for the volt and ohm and hence strengthened the basic foundation of the division. A combination of innovative new work and improvements in established methods is crucial to maintaining the division's position as a world leader in electrical metrology. A factor that contributes to the value and merit of Electricity Division programs is the emphasis on quality. NIST has always been concerned about ensuring the quality of its measurement services processes and results, but this focus takes on added importance in light of the need to comply with the terms of the mutual recognition agreement (MRA) with the International Committee for Weights and Measures. In the Electricity Division, considerable effort has been spent on determining the best approach to achieve quality assurance, and a system has been developed. This new approach includes a regular review by NIST management of three key elements: (1) technical descriptions of the measurement facility, system, or methods; procedures for conducting the measurements; analysis of the uncertainty of measurement results; and procedures for the statistical control of the measurement process; (2) the competence of the staff; and (3) procedures relating to discrepant results. Owing to the high level of expertise in the Electricity Division, as well as the unique nature of the work conducted at a national measurement institute (NMI), this approach to quality assurance appears to be more efficacious than the more typical systems that could have been imposed on the division. In the opinion of the panel, the
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 emphasis on elements such as the competence of the staff and intercomparisons with other world-class laboratories will maximize the benefits of the quality system, whereas a less-customized approach might have required large quantities of paperwork not useful in day-to-day laboratory operations. The Electricity Division projects are grouped into five categories: Core Metrology, Systems, Industry-specific, Electronic Design and Manufacturing, and Internal. This year, the panel reviewed 10 of the 17 projects currently under way; comments on each of these efforts follows. In the area of core metrology, the panel reviewed three projects. The Realization of the SI Farad and Ohm project is distinguished by the effective utilization of the calculable capacitor, an outstanding example of the application of innovative techniques to metrology. This work goes to the core of the division and NIST missions. The project on single electron tunneling (SET) is exciting and challenging because of the many possible applications and potential benefits of this new technology; yet some fundamental barriers remain to be overcome. If the materials problems can be solved, this method appears to be the best possible approach for measuring current. The panel expects work to continue until the currently observed instability is eliminated or until the problem is determined to be fundamentally unsolvable. The array of activities included in the division's work on the Metrology for Electric Power Systems project are of high technical merit, and noteworthy efforts included the development of an optical current transducer in collaboration with industry, new and improved metrology in support of electric utility deregulation, investigation of power quality and safety issues relating to surge protective devices, development of fundamental data for plasma processing, and development of documentary standards. These projects are appropriate and carefully selected, so the panel felt that focus on strategic planning should now be encouraged. In the systems area, the Measurement for Complex Electronic Systems project focuses on modeling calibration and measurement functions for different instruments. This project is a very good utilization of NIST resources, because little work along these lines is currently being done elsewhere. The group working on the Waveform Acquisition Devices and Standards project has developed a wideband waveform measurement technique that has advanced the state of the art for measurement of sinusoidal waveforms. The technique is currently being modified for higher-accuracy use with lower-frequency waveforms. The techniques used in the Waveform Synthesis and Impedance Metrology project provide a novel approach to AC metrology. This approach is an alternative to the usual AC/DC transfer standards approach, and the new technique may lead to a faster method for making AC measurements. In parallel to this work, other projects also have the potential to improve the speed of making AC measurements while reducing the associated uncertainty of the results. By attacking the problem on multiple fronts, NIST is ensuring that the best solution is found in an area of great importance to industry. In the group of industry-specific projects, the work on the Flat Panel Display Metrology project is a world-class effort to understand the specifications of flat panel displays. NIST is making a major contribution to the advancement of computer display interfaces, and the plans to increase the precision of the measurements are appropriate. The effort represented by the Plasma Processing and Gaseous Dielectrics project is much needed by the semiconductor industry, and the Electricity Division is an appropriate location for work on characterizing low-temperature discharges in order to facilitate real-time control and predictive modeling of etching and deposition processes. In the area of electronic design and manufacturing, staff are working with industry to define, demonstrate, and evaluate the information infrastructure standards needed to enable the use of electronic commerce in the design and manufacture of electronic products. The need for and potential payoff from such efforts are evident in the trends and challenges that the electronics industry confronts—increasing complexity of electronics (gate count, number of components, etc.), outsourcing of key facets of design and manufacturing, and decreasing product life spans and associated development cycles. Industry
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 spends a great deal of money on the identification and procurement of components—both for purchasing and for documentation of component properties—and much of the cost of electronic assemblies is related to the component overhead costs. Although the electronic design and manufacturing effort differs from other efforts within the Electricity Division in that it is not metrology-based, the push for standards development will help to make electronic commerce feasible. The division 's work in this area is pushing the state of the art and making good use of virtual collaboration technologies, particularly in the effort on manufacturing. The work on prototypes demonstrates the projects ' utility while forcing the detailed scrutiny of issues related to implementation that is needed to attain tangible results. The specific focus of NIST work is the delivery of electronic component information for the design of electronic subsystems and printed circuit assemblies. Currently, much of the accumulated data is on the information needed to select components; the panel believes that future efforts should be expanded to include the information needed to analyze designs that incorporate the components. The use of extensible markup language (XML) to define the interchange of information ensures that table-based information can be exchanged easily. This effort should be extended to make it possible for other standards-based information to be included as a named (including standard and version) subelement of the information definition. Possible types of information include electronic design interchange format (EDIF) schematics, three-dimensional standards for the exchange of product model data (STEP) descriptions, and very-high-speed integrated-circuit hardware description language (VHDL) behavioral descriptions. The division's work is fairly narrowly focused, and the panel recognizes that this approach is necessary to give the project a realistic chance for success. However, many electronics testing needs may be accommodated by the same information used in the design analysis stage. Since testing is a key issue in electronics product development, it might be appropriate to extend the perspective of the NIST work. The program now includes investigation of information and activity models for manufacturing electronic commerce, and the panel commends the staff for capitalizing on existing models rather than investing crucial resources in developing new models. This approach could be expanded to include additional industrial models. The final activity in the Electricity Division is the work on the Information System to Support Calibrations (ISSC), an internal NIST project. This system is designed to standardize and automatically track the many calibration jobs under way in NIST laboratories. In fiscal year 2000, all of the divisions at NIST that perform calibrations will implement the ISSC for their work. This system uses state-of-the-art techniques to automate the transfer of information, which makes NIST staff more effective and productive. As security systems in use on the Internet improve, NIST calibration customers will be able to use the Internet to access data on the status and results of their job. The ISSC is therefore an excellent mechanism for improving the interactions between NIST and its customers. EEEL and the Electricity Division are to be commended for developing and implementing this capability. However, now that the ISSC is well established, perhaps maintenance of the system should be handed off to a NIST-level group. In general, given the limited resources available to the Electricity Division, attention should always be focused on determining the optimal time to transfer projects to other units or institutions. The accelerating rate of technological advances and the continuing constraints on budget and personnel will force the division to reject a growing number of worthy projects. Partnerships with industry, other government and academic laboratories, and other NMIs would be one way to meet the demand for division services and research activities. Strategic plans for how to hand off services, where practical, are also important. To ease these sorts of transitions, division management might begin to investigate the elasticity of prices charged to NIST customers. Information about the economic returns might encourage private industry to take over some of the calibration functions. Characterization of the time-accuracy trade-off involved in each NIST measurement activity and a tabulation of how NIST measurement
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 capabilities compare with those of international providers of similar services would also help management make decisions about services and provide important background information to companies considering taking over the services. Impact of Programs The impact of the Electricity Division is illustrated by the continuing use of its calibration services (which account for more than 25 percent of NIST calibrations), by the solid levels of outside support for its programs, and by anecdotal comments from industry representatives regarding the need for NIST contributions, such as the standards developed by the Infrastructure for Integrated Electronic Design Program. In addition, the value of U.S. representation on the groups that formulate international standards is significant, and standards committee activities should not be neglected even under the severe budgetary constraints currently experienced in EEEL. The Electricity Division's results are disseminated through a variety of mechanisms, including an impressive number of publications by staff across the division. The ways in which the actual and potential impact of the results will be felt vary from project to project; below, the panel discusses several examples of how the division's work will affect industry. In the projects under core metrology, the focus is on meeting industry 's measurement and standards requirements. The group working on the Realization of the SI Farad and Ohm project is filling industry' s need for an internationally recognized and reproducible standard for the measurement of passive components. The SET project, if successful, could radically change the current definition of the ampere and significantly enhance the ability of the laboratory to support industry. The technical work being done on the Metrology for Electric Power Systems project has the potential to benefit both industry and society, and the staff are continually interacting and cooperating with companies to lay the groundwork for future impact. Also, the development of international and national documentary standards may play a role in enabling open and fair international trade. In the systems area, the Measurement for Complex Electronic Systems Group has run workshops to disseminate its methods throughout the electronics industry. The effort could have significant impact if adequately supported. NIST appears to have a policy of not funding the participation in standards writing groups of retired employees who have been rehired as consultants, and the panel believes that this rule is impeding the progress of work in this area. The services provided by the Waveform Acquisition Devices and Standards Group are utilized by other government agencies and are vital for comparing the performance of various instruments developed by industry. The focus of the Waveform Synthesis and Impedance Metrology Group is on speeding up existing measurements by developing new and innovative techniques. The advances at NIST satisfy industry's desire to make appropriately precise measurements as quickly as possible. In the industry-specific projects, the Flat Panel Display Metrology Group has published a document describing the appropriate procedures for testing flat panel displays. The work done so far has had significant industrial impact; perhaps the group could now reach out for funding from industry. The staff involved in the Plasma Processing and Gaseous Dielectrics project have made an effort to interact with appropriate representatives and organizations to ensure that important benefits are realized from this activity. Although the focus of this group is unique within the Electricity Division, there are strong connections with relevant semiconductor scientists within and outside NIST. In the electronic design and manufacturing area, there is extensive use of partnerships with standards development organizations, industry, and academia. The clear progress that has been made in standards for electronic exchange of information likely would not have occurred without NIST's
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 involvement. The Infrastructure for Integrated Electronic Design project is encountering competing standards efforts for the definition of component information. The ability to translate between these competing standards has been demonstrated using XML, and it is important for NIST to continue to accommodate all perspectives. The cooperative agreements with the Silicon Integration Initiative for work on electronic component information exchange and with the Institute of Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC), as well as the substantial involvement in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 93 (Design Automation), are an important part of the effort and help to ensure industry involvement. The division should consider entering into more agreements of this type; work on standards such as VHDL, EDIF, and STEP could be very useful, and interactions with the associated standards organizations could be quite productive. In the Infrastructure for Integrated Electronic Manufacturing project, cooperative agreements with the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative and the IPC Generic Computer-Aided Manufacturing (GenCAM) project provide a good foundation for interactions with industry. Also, the cooperative efforts with NIST's Information Technology Laboratory, Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory, and Manufacturing Extension Partnership extend the reach of the project. The open standards architecture approach is important because both interface and framework standards are needed to pave the way for commercial realization of electronic commerce for electronics manufacturing. NIST's plans include development of a roadmap for standards development activities. The panel believes that if it is coordinated with companies throughout the U.S. electronics industry, the roadmap could be of significant value. Division Resources Funding sources for the Electricity Division are shown in Table 2.2. As of January 2000, staffing for the Electricity Division included 63 full-time permanent positions, of which 57 were for technical professionals. There were also 11 nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and part-time workers. The most serious problem the laboratory faces is a level of financial support that is shrinking if inflation is taken into account. This reduction could compromise the quality and impact of the work done in the Electricity Division, since the organization is already operating at the minimally acceptable TABLE 2.2 Sources of Funding for the Electricity Division (in millions of dollars), FY 1997 to FY 2000 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1997 (actual) Fiscal Year 1998 (actual) Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 7.4 7.8 7.8 7.7 Competence 0.7 1.1 0.9 0.5 ATP 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 OA/NFG/CRADA 1.5 1.5 1.3 2.4 Other Reimbursable 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.1 Total 11.3 11.8 11.5 11.8 Full-time permanent staff (total)a 76 70 65 63 NOTE: Sources of funding are as described in the note accompanying Table 2.1. a The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 occurring where appropriate. The division's program is balanced and delivers calibrations and standards to industry while initiating new activities in emerging technology areas. In the Sources and Detectors Group, the laser radiometry projects continue to provide well-established calibration services to industry for laser power and energy meters and detectors, as well as optical fiber power meters and detectors. Many of this group's capabilities are unique. NIST is the only place in the world that has low-level pulsed laser radiometry, detector frequency response greater than 40 GHz, high-power continuous-wave measurements (500 W at 1.06 nm), optical fiber power measurement with six wavelength and all connector types, and pulsed excimer power measurement at 248 and 193 nm. The work is divided into three areas: continuous-wave laser radiometry, pulsed laser radiometry, and high-speed measurements. The panel was particularly pleased to learn that demand for the 248-nm power measurement calibrations has risen by a factor of 2, due in part to the increased accuracy of NIST measurements. Recently, staff improved the measurement accuracy at 193 nm to ±1.2 percent via enhancements in beam quality. Another important effort is the push to extend NIST 's capabilities into the even deeper ultraviolet (UV) at 157 nm; this project is noteworthy because the outcome will affect the future of the photolithography community. NIST is the only laboratory working on these UV standards, and the division is following a well-defined plan for advancing from 248 to 193 nm and, eventually, to 157 nm, first with power measurements and later adding birefringence and beam-quality measurements. Good progress also continues to be made in the work on high-speed measurements. The nose-to-nose process for calibrating oscilloscopes is vital as communication systems increase bandwidth to 40 and 80 gigabits per second. This group is striving to stay ahead of industry needs by extending last year's work on the 1,319-nm heterodyne system from 50 to 110 GHz, and NIST will be able to deliver both frequency response and phase information. Work on optical amplifier measurements of noise figure and relative intensity noise had to be delayed due to budget constraints. The panel continues to believe that work in this area will be important to industry and encourages the group to communicate with the companies in the Telecommunications Industries Association and the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA) about the need for and timing of these types of measurements. As optical networks begin to be deployed over the next few years, the need for interoperability of amplifiers and other components will cause the demand for such measurement standards to rise. In the Fiber and Integrated Optics Group, the program outputs of the Optical Fiber Metrology project continue to be world-class; staff have added a significant number of new capabilities this year. The ongoing expansion of the fiber-optic industry is enabled by the critical tools provided by this group, including valuable SRMs for optical fiber coating diameter, fiber cladding diameter, pin gauge standard for ferrules, optical fiber ferrule geometry, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), and chromatic dispersion standards. The group's work on fiber-mode field diameter is extremely timely for the industry and has recently produced a new SRM. The panel was also pleased to hear about the effort on PMD and the preparation for release of an SRM in this area. Efforts are continuing on improving PMD measurement precision using a modulation phase-shift technique. The goal for the coming year is to increase the resolution from 150 to 30 fs. This measurement is very important for the division's support of the optical components industry. In the project investigating a nondestructive technique for measuring the zero-dispersion wavelength, staff are using an innovative technique based on four-wave mixing. Although the group is also pursuing work on a technique to measure the slope of the dispersion curve, as suggested in last year's assessment, the panel is not optimistic that the current approach will be successful. The efforts on measurements of erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain and noise have been put on hold since input from industry indicated that no problems currently exist. This issue needs to be continually revisited as
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 optical networking becomes more prevalent, because interoperability of networks will require these measurement standards. In response to the Gigabit Ethernet Working Group, NIST staff are working on multimode differential mode delay to help identify cross-industry issues regarding laser launch and fiber profiles. This year, NIST 's work on a unique DMD frequency domain technique was extended to define an “encircled flux” methodology that may provide a more stable evaluation of multimode bandwidth. However, the staff also continue to extract information from existing DMD measurements, which—when coupled with measurements of the source angular and spatial output distribution —could allow accurate prediction of multimode bandwidth. It is not clear to the panel that a workable industrial standard will be possible, but the information being gathered certainly highlights the issues. The panel continues to be enthusiastic about the Integrated Optics Metrology project, also in the Fiber and Integrated Optics Group. This year, the staff's measurement of the refractive index profile for planar optical devices showed that polishing the sample had a dramatic effect on the quality of the measurement. This work should continue with the goal of taking the accuracy from the current level of 4 × 10−5 down to the 10−6 level. It might also be useful to explore measurements for other types of materials, such as polymer planar structures. Efforts toward establishing a planar optics mode field measurement have been suspended, owing to the limited human resources available in the division. In principle, the panel supports the prioritization of activities and the resulting termination of projects but notes that the forced conclusion of work in an area that will become increasingly important highlights the potential negative consequences of NIST's tight budgets. In the Optical Components Group, the Fiber and Discrete Components project has made an important contribution by establishing wavelength standards for the 1.55-µm window. With the growing number number of wavelength division-multiplexing optical communication systems, such standards are critical for the effective installation and interoperability of these systems. Significant sales continue of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) SRM for the 1.55-µm window, and the panel was pleased that fabrication of these units has been transferred to an outside organization. Recent efforts have focused successfully on increasing the resolution for this SRM and on developing SRMs for other wavelength bands of interest to industry. In the former effort, gas pressure in the HCN cell has been reduced in order to produce a narrower linewidth; the standard is now capable of 0.1-pm accuracy. In the latter effort, two candidate materials, hydrogen iodide and carbon monoxide, have been identified for use in calibration of the L-band, and staff are currently working with users to define the SRM. Further, a hybrid fiber grating artifact has been developed that can potentially translate the wavelength standards currently available to adjacent regions with an expected uncertainty of less than 1 pm. In the first demonstration of this technique, translation from about 1,549 to 1,303 nm was obtained. This technique could provide a simple fiber-based artifact wavelength standard. This work is complemented by an effort to find other calibration gas standards for the 1,300-nm region (rubidium is the current candidate). This collection of projects on wavelength standards has been extremely well done and is meeting the needs of the optical components industry in a timely manner. The industry will also welcome the group's work on polarization-dependent loss. Development of a self-wavelength calibrated technique has progressed well, and staff recently obtained sufficient data on a segment of polarizing fiber to allow the belief that an SRM for polarization-dependent loss will be available sometime in 2000. In the Interferometry and Polarimetry (formerly the Optical Fiber Sensors) project, commendable work continues on optical low-coherence interferometry, which is used to characterize many of today's devices. Applications range from component dispersion metrology to UV retardance measurements. The progress toward fast component dispersion measurements has been excellent; procedures take just a few seconds versus hours for alternative methods, and the accuracy has been improved by about an
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 order of magnitude. A round-robin was conducted in which the properties of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were evaluated for both filter bandwidth and dispersion. The faster and more accurate technique developed at NIST should help sort out the wide variation in values obtained and lead toward standard definition and measurement procedures. The panel encourages the group to use its technique to compare dispersion values of FBGs with those of other narrow-band filter components such as thin film filters and array-waveguide grating filters. The panel applauds the division's rapid progress in the area of optical data storage metrology, an initiative established a few years ago based on industry's input. Important ongoing activities include the round-robin measurements on disc retardance, identification of the sources of measurement errors, and the effort to develop a retardance SRM. The panel encourages NIST to continue work in this field, and as industry moves to short-wavelength sources, efforts should be expanded into other wavelength regimes. NIST should be proactive in accessing the timing of the implementation of high-density digital versatile disc (DVD) systems that employ nitride-based laser sources. It will be critical to the timely introduction of these systems and to the U.S. competitive position to have a standard media and performance knowledge base on which U.S. industries can draw since, at present, this work is being led by Japanese industries. The Optoelectronic Manufacturing Group is working in three areas: semiconductor growth and devices, optoelectronic materials metrology, and advanced fabrication and modeling. In the first areas, the effort to refine measurement techniques for determining the composition and thickness of compound semiconductor epitaxial layers is valuable, but staff need to be aware of the efforts of the commercial sector so as not to duplicate industrial projects. The work begun last year on measuring the purity of source materials is critical and has the potential to broadly impact compound semiconductor research and manufacturing. The recently initiated program to study and characterize the properties of III-V native oxides is also important and should be expanded to include collaborations with universities or industry and to use the advanced semiconductor analysis tools available in the Semiconductor Electronics Division. Initial work to measure the thickness and optical parameters of GaN-based materials is important and should be continued with close coupling to a university or industrial source of “device-like ” epitaxial films, including alloys of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN). It is important to provide “ materials standards” for the alloys since this system is highly strained and the standard techniques of photoluminescence and x-ray diffractometry have to be combined with information on the strain condition of the film. Efforts on tunable lasers and efficient detectors should be redirected to emphasize closer collaborations with university or industrial research organizations that can provide prototype devices for testing the emission characteristics of this approach. In all cases, this group should continue to make increased use of effective collaborations outside and inside NIST. Specifically, when materials needed for NIST programs can be obtained from collaborators or vendors, staff should take advantage of these opportunities. For example, obtaining GaN samples from university and industry collaborators would seem to be an effective plan for the near term. Impact of Programs The division continues to perform outstanding work and to have significant impact on the fiber optics and optoelectronics industries. Notable examples of important division activities include work on chromatic dispersion mapping, development of a polarization-mode dispersion artifact, development of a hybrid fiber grating artifact, production of the absorption cell artifact, and work to extend calibration standards to the L-band, and—of particular value—the multimode DMD measurements for multigigabit LANs. The work on techniques to measure polarization-dependent loss and the round-robin on charac
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 terizing the properties of FBGs are both very relevant for support of the developing lightwave component industry, and the panel commends the division for the importance and timeliness of these projects. The biannual Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, sponsored by NIST in cooperation with the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society and the Optical Society of America, continues to provide a forum for discussion of the latest research and serves as an excellent vehicle for communication of NIST results and issues of concern to industry. Source and detector measurement services are at the core of the division 's mission and are a very visible and effective part of the division 's activities. The establishment of a new service to calibrate 193-nm lasers and the improved accuracy of NIST's facility for this service will be extremely important to the photolithography community. Other notable activities that relate to measurement services include the index profiling of planar waveguides, the work on refractive indices of native oxides, the roundrobin on compound semiconductor composition, the round robin on optical disc retardance measurements, and the work on optical data storage metrology and standards. The effects of these NIST endeavors are beginning to be felt by the division 's industrial customer base. The panel encourages the division to connect with the optical networking community in order to become familiar with its vision for the future and the emerging needs in measurements and standards. Multivendor interoperability is critically dependent on specifications for the performance of optoelectronic components, and the interplay between systems requirements and standards issues is an appropriate area for NIST involvement. Division Resources Funding sources for the Optoelectronics Division are shown in Table 2.6. As of January 2000, staffing for the Optoelectronics Division included 37 full-time permanent positions, of which 32 were for technical professionals. There were also six nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and part-time workers. Overall, the number of projects per scientist in the division is on the high side. The division continues to make excellent use of contract and postdoctoral researchers to supplement permanent staff TABLE 2.6 Sources of Funding for the Optoelectronics Division (in millions of dollars), FY 1997 to FY 2000 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1997 (actual) Fiscal Year 1998 (actual) Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 5.7 5.6 5.6 6.0 Competence 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 ATP 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.2 Measurement Services (SRM production) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 OA/NFG/CRADA 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.6 Other Reimbursable 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Total 7.4 7.4 7.7 8.4 Full-time permanent staff (total)a 43 36 37 37 NOTE: Sources of funding are as described in the note accompanying Table 2.1. a The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 and maintain a portfolio of important programs. However, the panel is still concerned that the reliance on temporary employees could compromise the division's institutional memory in key areas of expertise. In the past year, the quality of the equipment available to the division improved significantly in many areas, although there were still some cases in which the instruments are below industrial standards. The panel encourages the division to continue its effort to improve the utilization of laboratory space, particularly by taking advantage of the space recently vacated by NOAA, to consolidate the Optoelectronics Division staff. The panel was deeply distressed to learn that official funding for the Office of Optoelectronics Programs was not provided by Congress in fiscal year 2000 and has not even been proposed in the President 's fiscal year 2001 budget. This new office is modeled after the Office of Microelectronics Programs and would supplement the work of the existing Optoelectronics Division by providing improved coordination of NIST-wide work in optoelectronics. The office could greatly aid NIST's ability to participate in relevant international standards efforts and might create the resources to enable NIST to respond to the rapid growth of U.S. industry in this field. Several years ago, NIST and the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA) held a joint metrology workshop at which industry's measurement needs were laid out, and the priorities for NIST's work in this area have been set based on input from companies in this emerging industry. Currently, NIST staff, in consultation with OIDA, are examining methods for ensuring that the future metrology needs of the optoelectronics industry are met. The Office of Optoelectronics Programs will be a key element of a successful strategy, but without formal fiscal support, the office is marginally operational. A first step toward crystallizing the work of the office might be organizing an industry-government roadmapping exercise to identify the areas of competence that NIST should pursue. Such an exercise should take into account the resources necessary to maintain each competence area. The panel acknowledges the division's responsiveness to suggestions made in past assessment reports. Examples of positive changes include the formation of the Office of Optoelectronics Programs and recent initiatives in the manufacturing metrology area. Office of Microelectronics Programs Office Mission According to laboratory documentation, the mission of the Office of Microelectronics Programs is to matrix-manage NIST technical activities in support of the silicon semiconductor industry and its infrastructure and to assist NIST management and staff to plan, execute, and deliver results of technical work to semiconductor industry participants. The panel considers this mission statement to be appropriate. The Office of Microelectronics Programs currently manages a broad portfolio of semiconductor metrology development projects in six NIST Measurements and Standards Laboratories: Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Chemical Science and Technology, Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, and Building and Fire Research. The office has successfully identified and funded key programs that can be appropriately and effectively supported by these NIST laboratories. The relationship between the office and the Semiconductor Electronics Division in EEEL is particularly close, and together these units are leading the NIST effort to meet the highest-priority measurement needs of the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In the ITRS, metrology is identified as a cross-cutting issue of critical importance. In 1994, the Office of Microelectronics Programs was organized as a cross-cutting function specifically to tackle
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 issues of semiconductor metrology by taking advantage of NIST's capabilities in many disciplines. This has proven to be an effective organizational structure, although extra management skills and discipline are required to successfully administer work over so many units. The panel did see examples of projects (such as the work on measuring oxygen in silicon) that are meeting their objectives and being appropriately phased out so that resources can be redeployed. However, the panel also observed that a number of divisions participating in the office 's projects need to make major progress in defining specific program objectives and measurable outcomes; this issue is discussed further in the following section. The Office of Microelectronics Programs has established a working committee, known as the Gang of Five, to provide advice on determining which NIST programs will receive funding from the office. Formation of this committee is an excellent first step, but it could be enhanced by adding members from the customer community to provide a cross-check on priorities and comparative information about the best approaches. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work The Office of Microelectronics Programs portfolio currently contains 41 projects in six NIST laboratories. Projects are divided into seven areas: in order of descending size, they are wafer characterization and process metrology, interconnect and packaging, critical dimension and overlay, thin film defect characterization, two- and three-dimensional dopant profiling, lithography, and design and test. A number of projects involve personnel from more than one division, which is an excellent way to promote cross-division teamwork and also to utilize the multidisciplinary expertise of NIST to help solve industry's problems. All of the projects supported and managed by the Office of Microelectronics Programs are carried out in individual NIST divisions and hence are reviewed by the assessment panels that visit each NIST laboratory. However, the panel for the EEEL viewed selected projects specifically from the perspective of the larger goals of the office. Some of the projects are described in the review of the Semiconductor Electronics Division earlier in this chapter. Specific highlights of the Office of Microelectronics Programs portfolio not mentioned in that section include the following: Continued development of the very-high-resolution energy-dispersive microcalorimeter x-ray detector (in the Electromagnetic Technology Division of EEEL); Development of technologies for in situ temperature sensing for rapid thermal processing (in the Chemical Science and Technology and Physics Laboratories); Fundamental ultraviolet measurements for more accurate characterization of optical lithography lens materials (in the Physics Laboratory); Fundamental gas physics measurements designed to facilitate accurate calibration of mass flow controllers (in the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory); Support of industry and government efforts to eliminate the leaded solders used in most electronic products (in the Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory); Quantitative low-detection-limit IR spectroscopy measurement of oxygen in silicon wafers to address incoming material quality control (in the Semiconductor Electronics Division of the EEEL); Major progress on plasma process modeling and measurement to improve industry in situ process control and manufacturing yields (in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Chemical Science and Technology, and Physics Laboratories); and Use of grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, scattering, diffraction, and fluorescence techniques for state-of-the-art surface and thin film characterization (in the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory).
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 Each of these projects is well targeted at specific industry needs and does work that is appropriately carried out at NIST for the overall benefit of industry. There is a great deal of worthwhile, state-of-the-art activity occurring under the management of the Office of Microelectronics Programs, and the results produced are in line with ITRS needs. However, the panel did have several interrelated concerns: (1) the total number of projects is very large, (2) some projects appear to overlap with others, and (3) activities are not well coordinated across divisions (e.g., the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory's presentation of its overlay and CD metrology efforts). Overall, there seem to be too many projects for the Office of Microelectronics Programs to administer effectively and provide sufficient resources for each one. At least in the selected project reviews, there appeared to be a lack of quantified, objective program goals clearly correlated with the needs of end customers. In the near future, the office should review each of its projects with the goal of specifically requiring the definition of clear and quantifiable milestones and end results that are connected to the impacts expected if the project is successful. Progress milestones should be set to measure progress toward these goals as a function of time. Once all of the programs have clear statements of objectives and measurable deliverables, the Office of Microelectronics Programs can reprioritize its portfolio and focus on a few key areas in which NIST and the office can have the most effective and appropriate impact. Overlapping programs should be integrated into a single project to ease management burdens, to facilitate coordination within the NIST divisions involved, and to eliminate redundancy. An overall table summarizing the programs would be useful for easier management review and as a tool to communicate the value and range of the office's portfolio. This matrix would include a summary of the most critical deliverables, individual division responsibilities, staffing, progress to date, funding sources, and use of funding. Because of the current lack of clear deliverables in the project reviews, the panel was not able to determine if all the projects under way were appropriate activities for NIST. Some work appeared to be service work for specific companies: tasks that could be contracted out to commercial laboratories are not consistent with the NIST mission to meet general, high-level industrial needs. Other activities might be done more effectively in an industry pilot program or on a company 's research and development processing line (e.g., the copper metallization studies as currently configured). It is also important to reevaluate ongoing work continually to be sure that investigations of materials systems that are failing to meet mainstream industry needs are rapidly concluded. For example, as understanding of potential alternative gate dielectric materials increases, some alternatives may be eliminated. Despite the wide array of ongoing activities, the panel did notice one area in which NIST was not taking full advantage of its unique focus on metrology: the use of synchrotron radiation for state-of-the-art analytical measurements. The panel recommends that NIST investigate the use of facilities such as the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at Stanford University and the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that have successfully demonstrated the motivation and capabilities needed to work successfully with commercial semiconductor industry companies. Impact of Programs The overall effort of the Office of Microelectronics Programs to connect to industry, to comprehend industry needs, and to create measurement technologies responsive to industry's needs is commendable. Program selection and priorities are in line with the requirements forecast by the ITRS, and the cross-divisional activities established by the office effectively utilize the range of expertise and resources available at NIST. NIST staff, in addition to their technical work, participate in SRC, SIA, SEMATECH, industry consortia, and standards committees. These interactions with the semiconductor community
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 provide valuable opportunities to disseminate information about NIST results, facilitate adoption of new technologies, and generate new and better methods to meet critical industry-wide needs. Office of Microelectronics Programs personnel, in addition to managing the portfolio of technical projects, take on key roles in SRC technical advisory boards and SIA roadmap technical working groups. The use of the Web to make Office of Microelectronics Programs activities and results available to a broader community could be increased. The Semiconductor Electronics Division's approach to setting program milestones and utilizing the Web could serve as a model for other divisions involved in office programs; the office's Web site should serve as a central reference point for the work spread across NIST. The new booklet containing information about the programs, activities, and accomplishments of the office is very impressive.8 If placed on the Web, it could provide at a single location much of the information that is needed to keep the semiconductor community informed about relevant NIST activities. The names of the divisions and laboratories responsible for each project should be added to individual project descriptions; although the matrix listing in the back of the book is useful, it should not require extra effort to determine where the work is occurring at NIST. The panel observed several specific examples of the impact of Office of Microelectronics Programs work. First, NIST staff recently demonstrated that the high-resolution microcalorimeter x-ray spectrometer could be used to identify particles via chemical bonding information. This capability is beyond the current state of the art, and rapid deployment to industry of this new tool for particle and defect analysis is very important. Second, in the project on thin film and surface characterization using grazing incidence x rays, NIST results are providing new information on films, interface, and surface structure, as well as allowing the development of new state-of-the-art metrology techniques. Office Resources The Office of Microelectronics Programs coordinates programs across NIST related to metrology for the semiconductor industry. Individual projects are funded from the STRS allotments of various NIST laboratories, and the total amount supporting the programs administered by the office is listed in Table 2.7. Internal funding is also provided for the operational expenses of the office. As of January 2000, the office had a paid staff of four, three of whom were technical professionals. There were also one part-time guest worker and one part-time support staffer. Funding administered and used by the Office of Microelectronics Programs is shown in Table 2.7. As discussed earlier in this review, the number of projects (41) connected to the Office of Microelectronics Programs is very high and may be too large to be effectively managed and supported by the limited number of people and funds within the office. The ultimate goal is funding of $25 million (twice current levels), but until that level of support is reached, the office may have to give up some important and valuable work. The metrology requirements of the semiconductor industry are very demanding, and technologies are advancing rapidly. If NIST is unable to provide the new measurement techniques needed by industry, metrology could become an impediment to the competitiveness of U.S. semiconductor companies. 8 U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Office of Microelectronics Programs: Programs, Activities, and Accomplishments, Draft NISTIR, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., January 2000.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 TABLE 2.7 Funding Administered by the Office of Microelectronics Programs (in millions of dollars), FY 1997 to FY 2000 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1997 (actual) Fiscal Year 1998 (actual) Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (estimated) Funding administered across NIST (STRS)a 10.3 10.3 12.2 12.0 Operational (STRS) 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.1 Full-time permanent staff (total)b 4 4 4 4 a STRS, Scientific and Technical Research and Services. b The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year. Office of Law Enforcement Standards According to laboratory documentation, the mission of the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) is to apply science and technology to the needs of the criminal justice community, including law enforcement, corrections, forensic science, and the fire service, and to develop standards, methods, and procedures and provide technical support and assistance. The panel believes that the current OLES projects—in Weapons and Protective Systems, Detection, Inspection and Enforcement Technologies, Chemical Systems and Materials, Forensic Sciences, and Public Safety Communications Standards9—are of excellent quality and are consistent with the above mission statement. Much OLES research is conducted within the NIST Measurement and Standards Laboratories. Examples include the work on terahertz-wave concealed weapons imaging and detection system development in the Electricity Division of EEEL and development of national DNA SRMs in the Biotechnology Division of the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory. Although these programs managed by OLES span NIST (like the projects under the Office of Microelectronics Programs), the office is housed administratively in the EEEL. The panel believes that this arrangement is working well. To achieve program goals that cannot be accomplished within the NIST laboratories, OLES arranges grants and contracts to private laboratories, universities, and other government agencies. OLES is entirely supported by outside agency funding. The primary source of funding is the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), and a small amount of additional money is provided by other agencies such as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. As of January 2000, the office had a paid staff of nine, six of whom were technical professionals. Funding sources for the Office of Law Enforcement Standards are shown in Table 2.8. Several newcomers to the OLES staff are in the process of acquiring the necessary skills to assist in operation of the program, and it appears that mechanisms are in place to ensure continuity of leadership. Much of OLES testing and research is performed in other NIST laboratories, at other government agencies, or through technical working group collaborations. The only facility operated by the OLES 9 U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Office of Law Enforcement Standards: Programs, Activities, and Accomplishments, NISTIR 6432, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., January 2000.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 TABLE 2.8 Sources of Funding for the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (in millions of dollars), FY 1997 to FY 2000 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1997 (actual) Fiscal Year 1998 (actual) Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (estimated) National Institute of Justice 2.1 4.9 5.4 8.4 Other agencies 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 Total 2.2 5.1 5.6 8.8 Full-time permanent staff (total)a 8 7 9 9 a The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year. staff is a ballistics research test facility located on a former NIKE (missile) site near the NIST campus in Gaithersburg. This ballistics test laboratory will eventually be closed as NIST's long range plans for the NIKE site are to return its ownership to the city of Gaithersburg. The panel believes that the loss of the existing facility will severely limit the ability of OLES to continue important programs in weapons and protective systems, such as work on standards for smart guns, gun locks, and the ballistic resistance of body armor, and that a replacement facility is badly needed. Developing contracts on an ongoing basis with other existing ranges is possible for OLES, but this approach could limit program flexibility and impede the office 's ability to respond promptly to the needs of its customers. The NIJ has offered to supplement the funds needed to construct a replacement test site on the NIST campus. Since this type of facility is critical for OLES activities, it is important that EEEL and NIST management quickly develop and implement a plan to ensure that OLES is able to operate or have relatively easy access to a replacement ballistics laboratory. MAJOR OBSERVATIONS The panel presents the following major observations: The panel is very impressed by the high quality of the technical work under way in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory. The push to be the best in the world is appropriate and is being realized. The gold books listing EEEL programs, activities, and accomplishments provide an excellent description of the laboratory's work for the panel and will be a useful tool for outreach to the scientific and industrial communities served by EEEL. The strategic planning process continues to improve, and the impact of the process on the laboratory's portfolio of programs is beginning to be seen. The process has not been uniformly adopted in all of the divisions, but the panel encourages the serious effort that is being made. The quality of facilities and equipment available to the EEEL is not yet at an acceptable level. There have been improvements in facilities over the past year, but interim plans are needed for Gaithersburg before the AML is complete, as are major building maintenance and improvements for Boulder. Poor environmental conditions and outdated equipment can impede laboratory staff's ability to carry out the NIST mission.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: Fiscal Year 2000 The flat budgets for the EEEL will force management to make difficult decisions about program priorities. The limited resources and the resulting pressure to secure external funding are already affecting morale. Nonetheless, EEEL staff are very enthusiastic about their work and positive about the technical environment at NIST. The Office of Optoelectronics Programs has not been funded. This office is necessary to provide NIST-wide coordination of activities that are important to support the rapidly growing optoelectronics industry.
Representative terms from entire chapter: