NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. EAR-9809585 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Science Foundation.

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Cover: Spatial scales relevant to Earth science processes. Lower middle: scanning electron photomicrograph of Streptomyces sp. growing on a polished hornblende surface, showing 400 to 600 nm-wide hyphae. SOURCE: H. Buss, Pennsylvania State University. Bottom: mid-crustal exposure of an early Paleozoic subduction zone in northwestern Norway. SOURCE: L. Royden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Top left: synthetic aperture radar image showing the postseismic displacement (10 mm interval) of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, California. SOURCE: data from the European Space Agency Satellite ERS-2 were acquired and processed by D. Sandwell, L. Sichoix, A. Jacobs, R. Scharroo, B. Minster, Y. Bock, P. Jameson, E. Price, and H. Zebker, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Upper middle: images of mountains and calderas on Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io taken by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft. SOURCE: Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

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