has become resistant and colonized the furanone panel. Also controlled by signals is the detachment event, in which these biofilm microcolonies simply dissolve and mobilize. We can now control these two activities, and a great deal of this work comes from the ONR program and from the NSF's concentration of resources in an engineering research center staffed by four-fifths engineers and one-fifth microbiologists in the Center for Biofilm Engineering (CBE). Together, these two groups are responsible for a very important discovery in medical, environmental, and industrial microbiology.

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Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. 1999 Bacterial biofilms: A common cause of persistent infections. Science 284:13218-13220.

Davies DG, Parsek MR, Pearson JP, Iglewski BH, Costerton JW, Greenberg EP. 1998 The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science 280:295-298.

de Nys R, Steinberg PD, Willemsen P, Dworjanyn SA, Gabelish CL, King RJ. 1995 Broad spectrum effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra in antifouling assays. Biofouling 8:259-271.

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