National Academies Press: OpenBook

Practices in Airport Emergency Plans (2021)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Practices in Airport Emergency Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26077.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Practices in Airport Emergency Plans A Synthesis of Airport Practice Stephanie Murphy Ashlee Herring Delventhal Crystal Kline Blanca Rand Tidal Basin GovernmenT ConsulTinG, llC Alexandria, VA 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Safety and Human Factors • Security and Emergencies A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 115

ACRP SYNTHESIS 115 Project 11-03, Topic S04-24 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-67376-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2021930156 © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo captions: (Top) Aircraft waits to be de-iced on a snowy night and (bottom) ARFF crews train on smoke simulator. Cover photo credit: Ashlee Herring Delventhal NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 115 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Tanya M. Zwahlen, Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Tupelo Regional Airport, Tupelo, MS (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation LLC, Melbourne, FL Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA David N. Edwards, Jr., Greenville–Spartanburg Airport Commission, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Newton, MA Patrick Magnotta, FAA Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S04-24 PANEL Christopher R. Bidwell, Airports Council International–North America, Washington, D.C. Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA Scott A. Corzine, Ankura Consulting, Inc., New York, NY Terrence Daley, Transportation Public Health Preparedness Consultants, LCC, Lithonia, GA Paul Khera, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Juneau, AK Meaghan Smalley, Jacksonville Aviation Authority, Jacksonville, FL Brandy Welch, IEM (formerly LAX, American Red Cross), Playa del Rey, CA Marc Tonnacliff , FAA Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S

ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Tanya M. Zwahlen Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The objective of ACRP Synthesis 115: Practices in Airport Emergency Plans was to gather informa- tion about the issues and challenges experienced by airport managers, with airport emergency plans as useful and actionable documents for supporting airports in defining roles and responsibilities of stakeholders during emergencies, identifying specific threats that could affect airports, and estab- lishing communication protocols for the airport community. The audience for this timely resource is the airport community and stakeholders. The report gathers relevant data specific to airport emer- gency plan practices that can be applied effectively to other airports, including general aviation air- ports, whether they are required to maintain an airport emergency plan. The information contained in this synthesis was obtained using four sources. First, a literature review compiled relevant existing research about the topic. Second, the consultant participated in an in-person plenary panel discussion with 175 attendees. Third, the consultant also surveyed 81 airport representatives from 62 airports. Fourth, the consultant conducted interviews with airport officials. Stephanie Murphy and team members Ashlee Herring Delventhal, Crystal Kline, and Blanca Rand of Tidal Basin Government Consulting, LLC, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an imme- diately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. 15719-00b_FM-3rdPgs.indd 5 1/28/21 3:32 PM

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Background 5 Study Methodology 5 Literature Review 7 Synthesis Organization 7 Selection of Airports and Data Collection 10 Chapter 2 History and Development of the Airport Emergency Plan 10 History of the Airport Emergency Plan 11 Requirements for Airport Emergency Plan Development 16 Chapter 3 Current Airport Emergency Plan Practices 16 AAAE International Airport Emergency Management Conference, Plenary Session 17 Online Survey (SurveyMonkey) 19 Is the AEP Seen as an Actionable and Sufficient Response Document? 22 Successful Practices in Developing and Updating the AEP 23 Challenges in Developing and Updating the AEP 25 Challenges in Using the AEP During an Incident 26 How Is the AEP Used? 27 How Can Airports Make the AEP Actionable and Relevant? 27 Metrics for Developing AEP Annexes 28 Development of Annexes, Plans, SOPs, or Checklists 30 Overcoming Challenges 32 Socializing the Plan 33 Other Partner Preparedness Plans 34 The Proof—Training, Testing, and Validation 35 Inspection Feedback 35 Lessons Learned 36 What Would Airport Respondents Change About the AEP? 37 Chapter 4 Case Examples 37 Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) 38 AEP Practices and Processes 40 Successful Practices 40 Lessons Learned 40 Summary 41 George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH) 41 AEP Practices and Processes 43 Successful Practices 43 Lessons Learned 43 Summary 44 Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) 44 AEP Practices and Processes 46 Successful Practices C O N T E N T S

47 Lessons Learned 47 Summary 47 McCarran International Airport (LAS) 49 AEP Practices and Processes 49 Future Planning and AEP Practice Refinement 49 Innovative Solutions Developed 50 Other Successful Practices 50 Lessons Learned 51 Summary 51 Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA) 52 AEP Practices and Processes 53 Successful Practices 53 Lessons Learned 54 Summary 54 Boulder City Municipal Airport (BVU) 55 AEP Practices and Processes 55 AEP Status and Use 56 Challenges Experienced in Developing and Implementing an AEP in a General Aviation Airport 56 Successful Practices in AEP Development at a GA Airport 56 Considerations for Other GA Airports Considering Developing an AEP 57 Summary 57 Centennial Airport (APA) 58 AEP Practices and Processes 58 AEP Use 59 Challenges Experienced 59 Successful Practices 60 Summary 61 Chapter 5 Salient Findings 61 Successful Practices 63 Lessons Learned 63 Enduring Challenges 65 Chapter 6 Conclusions 65 Major Conclusions 66 Further Research 67 Glossary of Terms 76 Acronyms and Abbreviations 78 Airport Codes 80 Appendix A References and Bibliography 83 Appendix B Annotated Bibliography 90 Appendix C SurveyMonkey (Online) Survey Questions and Responses 136 Appendix D Phone Interview Questions 137 Appendix E McCarran International Airport EAP Reference Guide Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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An airport emergency plan (AEP) is meant to support airports in defining roles and responsibilities of stakeholders during emergencies, identifying specific threats that could affect airports, and establishing communication protocols for the airport community.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 115: Practices in Airport Emergency Plans gathers relevant data specific to AEP practices that can effectively be applied to other airports, including general aviation airports, whether required to maintain an AEP or not.

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