tive advantage but also, and more importantly, the national competence that we need to achieve our own goals.

To maintain our level of achievement in supercomputing and its applications, as well as to keep us from falling behind relative to other nations and to our own needs, a renewed national effort is needed. That effort must have the following components:

  • Government leadership in maintaining a national planning activity that is sustained, ongoing, and coordinated and that drives investment decisions.

  • Continuing progress in creating hardware, software, and algorithmic technologies that enable the application of supercomputing to important domain-specific problems. Such progress will require continuing government investment.

  • International collaborations in all aspects of supercomputing except those that would demonstrably compromise national security.

Supercomputing has always been a specialized form of computing at the cutting edge of technology. As the computing field has grown and matured, computing has become broader and more diverse. From an economic perspective, there are large new markets that are distinct from supercomputing—for example, personal computing devices of various kinds, computers invisibly embedded in many kinds of artifacts, and applications that use large amounts of computing in relatively undemanding ways. As a consequence, potential providers of supercomputing systems and software and potential creators of future supercomputing technology are fewer in number than they once were. In the face of continuing need and the competing demands that weaken supply, the committee recommends that the following actions and policies be initiated.

Overall Recommendation: To meet the current and future needs of the United States, the government agencies that depend on supercomputing, together with the U.S. Congress, need to take primary responsibility for accelerating advances in supercomputing and ensuring that there are multiple strong domestic suppliers of both hardware and software.

The government is the primary user of supercomputing. Government-funded research that relies on supercomputing is pushing the frontiers of knowledge and bringing important societal benefits. Because supercomputing is essential to maintain U.S. military superiority, to achieve the goals of stockpile stewardship, and to maintain national security, the government must ensure that the U.S. supercomputing infrastructure advances sufficiently to support our needs in the coming years.

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