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Index

A

Abecedarian Project, 150, 152

ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act

Adams, Marilyn, 174-175

Adult education, 9

Adults, 9, 98

child-adult discourse, 148, 167, 19, 321, 323

listening/reading comprehension, 4-65

see also Parents; Teachers

African Americans, 27, 31, 155-156, 42, 243, 316

dialect speakers, 156, 239-242, 246, 41

first grade, 205

NAEP, 97

poverty, 155-156

Alliteration, 53, 149, 187

Alphabetic principle, 3, 4, 15, 22, 23, 48, 315-316

bilingualism, 157

deaf children, 164

early childhood development, 42, 44, 47, 51, 56

first grade, 207

first-third grades, 6, 7, 321

kindergarten, 80, 179, 183, 184-189

phonemic awareness and, 47, 153- 154, 248, 285, 314

preventive interventions, 278

second grade, 212

second-language speakers, 157, 324

teacher education, 285, 288, 294- 295, 296, 330

tutoring, 259, 261

see also Letter identification and mapping; Print media; Word recognition

American Federation of Teachers, 317

America Reads/Reading Excellence Challenge, 305

Americans with Disabilities Act, 18

Assessment, see Evaluation

Attention, 80, 211

Attention deficits, 103, 105

Attitude, see Motivation and attitude

Audiovisual presentations

for children, 59, 69

for parents, 9, 319

school-based factors, 130

teacher-assistance vs, 214



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Page 406 Index A Abecedarian Project, 150, 152 ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act Adams, Marilyn, 174-175 Adult education, 9 Adults, 9, 98 child-adult discourse, 148, 167, 19, 321, 323 listening/reading comprehension, 4-65 see also Parents; Teachers African Americans, 27, 31, 155-156, 42, 243, 316 dialect speakers, 156, 239-242, 246, 41 first grade, 205 NAEP, 97 poverty, 155-156 Alliteration, 53, 149, 187 Alphabetic principle, 3, 4, 15, 22, 23, 48, 315-316 bilingualism, 157 deaf children, 164 early childhood development, 42, 44, 47, 51, 56 first grade, 207 first-third grades, 6, 7, 321 kindergarten, 80, 179, 183, 184-189 phonemic awareness and, 47, 153- 154, 248, 285, 314 preventive interventions, 278 second grade, 212 second-language speakers, 157, 324 teacher education, 285, 288, 294- 295, 296, 330 tutoring, 259, 261 see also Letter identification and mapping; Print media; Word recognition American Federation of Teachers, 317 America Reads/Reading Excellence Challenge, 305 Americans with Disabilities Act, 18 Assessment, see Evaluation Attention, 80, 211 Attention deficits, 103, 105 Attitude, see Motivation and attitude Audiovisual presentations for children, 59, 69 for parents, 9, 319 school-based factors, 130 teacher-assistance vs, 214

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Page 407 teacher education, 289-290 third grade, 83 see also Computer-assisted instruction; Pictures; Television Auditory impairments, see Hearing impairments Australia, 186 Automaticity, 23, 33, 90, 343 computer-assisted instruction, 252-253 early childhood development, 67, 75, 79 second-third grades, 210 teacher education, 285 tutoring, 259 word recognition, 75, 79, 90, 252-253; see also Sight words Awards and prizes students, 130 teachers, 306 B Basal reading, 173, 334, 344 curricular design, 173, 189-194, 206-207 first grade, 198, 206-207, 208-210 kindergarten, 189-194 school restructuring, 231 second grade, 212, 215 third-fourth grades, 214 Basic skills, 175-176 Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print, 174-175 Beliefs, see Motivation and attitude Bermuda Day Care Study, 148 Big books defined, 181 first grade, 196, 200, 203, 204 kindergarten, 181, 188, 189 school restructuring, 231-232 Bilingual education, 28-29, 136, 157, 234, 236, 324-325, 340 federal funding, 18 teacher education on, 285, 288, 297-298, 330 Black persons, see African Americans Book Buddies, 259 Book reading early childhood development, 49, 58, 139, 148, 149, 170 family environment, 121, 139, 145, 263 kindergarten, 9, 80, 189, 323 language-impaired children, 165-166 poverty and, 148 predictable books, 182 second grade, 211 small-group instruction, 263 tutoring, 255, 257, 259, 261 see also Big books; Rebus books; Storybooks; Textbooks Birth weight, 104, 162 Blindness, see Visual impairments Bridge, 240-241 C California, 295-296, 301, 302 California Achievement Test, 169 Canada, 90, 235 Capitalization, letters first grade, 80, 81, 198 kindergarten, 80 CARE, 155 Categorical models of risk, 88-91, 102 CD-ROM, 59, 264 Certification, see Teacher certification Chall, Jeanne, 173-174 Chapter I, see Elementary and Secondary Education Act Chinese, 22 Choral reading, see Group reading Classificatory analysis, 117 Class size, 11, 26, 130, 226, 229-230, 257, 327, 328 kindergarten, 178-179 poverty, 229 see also Student-teacher ratios

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Page 408 Cognitive deficits, 24, 90, 103-104, 132, 137, 315, 317, 319 see also Special education Cognitive skills, general, 43, 60, 106 minority cultures, 244 parental involvement, 142 preschool, 9, 148, 280 teacher education, 280, 282 third grade, 219 Community-based factors, see terms beginning ''Local . . ." Comprehension, 4, 6-7, 62-65, 210-211 listening, 64-65, 280, 332 see also Reading comprehension Comprehensive Child Development Program, 155 Computer-assisted instruction, 188, 248, 252-253, 264-266, 334, 342-343 automaticity, 252-253 CD-ROMs, 59, 264 cost factors, 266 minority/poor persons, 266 phonological awareness, 265 storybooks, 264 word recognition, 252-253 writing, 265 Concept Oriented Reading Instruction, 219-220 Conceptual knowledge, 3, 41-42, 217, 219-220, 317 early childhood development, 62, 280, 332 first grade, 195 first-third grades, 6, 323 space, concepts of, 280, 332 third grade, 219-220 Concurrent instruction, 136 Conferences, 2, 32 Connecticut, 88, 90 Consonants, 23 African American dialect, 239 alliteration, 53, 149, 187 first grade, 198, 202-203 invented spelling, 59 kindergarten, 188 silent, 23 syllable defined, 22 tutoring, 259 Contractions, 241 Conventional reading, see "Real reading" Cooperative Research Program in First Grade Reading Instruction, 173 Correlational studies, general, 39, 101-103, 135, 178 Cost factors, 272, 337 computer-assisted instruction, 266 publishers, 308 risk factor assessment, 102, 132, 133 tutoring, 255, 258, 260 Counting, see Numeracy skills Criterion-referenced testing, 95-96 see also National Assessment of Educational Progress Cultural factors, 25, 33, 58, 147, 272 literacy as societal goal, 1, 17-20, 29-30, 33-34, 156, 170, 292, 324-325 preschool education, 148 preventive interventions, 136, 148 school-based factors, 68, 226, 227, 242-245 second-language speakers, 29, 123, 340 teacher education, 299 see also Dialects; English as a second language; Minority groups; Socioeconomic status Curricular design, general, 100, 226, 323, 325, 336 basal reading, 173, 189-194, 206-207 curriculum casualties, 25-26 first grade, 195 first-third grades, 7, 323 Hawaiian natives, 244 ideological entrenchment, 225 local action, 304-305 parent education, 143-144 publishers and, 307-308 second-third grades, 210 small-group instruction, 263

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Page 409 special education, 167-170, 269-270 specialists, 231 state-level action, 300-301, 302, 304 teacher education, 279-282, 294, 296, 330 tutoring, 255, 258, 259, 261 see also Instructional materials; Teaching methods D Day care, see Group care Deafness, see Hearing impairments Decoding, 111, 272, 320, 343 African American dialect speakers, 240 deaf children, 164 direct code instruction, 199, 202, 204, 205-206 early childhood development, 52, 57, 60, 65, 67, 70, 71, 76, 79, 81, 82 embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206 first grade, 173-174, 199, 206, 208, 209 kindergarten, 188, 191, 251 nonstandard dialects, 240 reading disabled children, 254 school restructuring, 232 second grade, 82 storybook reading, 143 tutoring, 258, 261 Demographic factors, 23, 27-31, 176; see also English as a second language; Families; Local factors; Minority groups; Rural areas; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas Denmark, 186 Department of Education, 1, 32, 89, 305-306, 318 Department of Health and Human Services, 1, 306 Developmental factors, see Early childhood development Dewey, John, 167 Diagnostics, see Screening and identification Dialects, 27-28, 119, 124, 127, 132, 330, 341 African American, 156, 239-242, 246, 341 decoding, 240 discrimination against, 124 grammar, 238, 241 phonology, 24 letter-sound relations, 27-28, 124, 238-239 poor persons, 124 school-based factors, 227, 238-242 teachers and, 124, 241-242 Dialogic reading, see Paired reading Dimensional models of risk, 91-93, 102 Direct code instruction, 199, 202, 204, 205-206 Direct Instruction Model, 176 Disabilities, general, 4, 24-25, 106, 330 familial factors, 119-120 phonics, 173-174 screening and identification, 9, 132-133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319 secondary symptoms, 103, 132 state policy, 282 see also Attention deficits; Cognitive deficits; Dyslexia; Early language impairments; Hearing impairments; Interventions; Learning disabilities; Speech impairments; Visual impairments Discrimination against dialects, 124 against minority groups, 123 DNA, 25 Dramatic play, 148, 281 Dropouts, 20-21, 234, 316 retention in grade and, 267 Dyadic reading, see Paired reading Dyslexia, 88-89, 91, 271, 282, 297, 313

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Page 410 E Early childhood development, 2, 41-84, 135-171 alphabetic principle, 42, 44, 47, 51, 56 automaticity, 67, 75, 79 book reading, 49, 58, 139, 148, 149, 170 conceptual knowledge, 62, 280, 332 decoding, 52, 57, 60, 65, 67, 70, 71, 76, 79, 81, 82 families, 57, 69, 139, 145-147, 171 fluency, 75-79 grammar, 48 infants, 155, 160 letter identification and mapping, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 70, 71-72, 116, 319 deaf children, 164 longitudinal studies, 72 media influences, 57 television, 57, 59, 278, 311-312 memorization, 71 memory, 63-64, 76, 77 monitoring, 63-64, 76, 77 morphology, 73-74, 110, 111, 319 phonology, 46-47, 51-57, 59, 60, 332 phonemic awareness, 47, 51-57, 60, 71-73, 80, 81 phonological awareness, 51-57, 60 poverty, 58 print awareness of, 59-60, 70-71, 80 concept of, 45, 69 reading comprehension, general, 60, 62-65, 75-78 semantics, 53, 77, 83 sentences, 48-49, 50, 108 sounds, 46-47, 51-57, 59, 332 spelling, 42, 43-44, 60, 66, 67, 70-71, 73 deaf children, 164 spoken words, 42, 46-47, 49, 50, 51, 320, 321, 324 storybooks, 62-63, 80 syntax, 48, 53, 74, 75, 318, 332 vocabulary, 47, 57, 63, 67, 75, 79, 107, 109 word recognition, 50, 53, 62, 65-67, 70-75, 79, 80, 111 writing, 42, 57, 59-60, 69-70, 142, 149 deaf children, 164 see alsoPreschool education Early childhood education, seeEmergent reading; First grade; Kindergarten; Preschool education; Primary grades; Second grade; Third grade; Early Childhood Environment Rating, 148 Early Intervention in Reading, 262 Early language impairments, 5, 103, 104-108, 132, 163 infants, 155, 160 preventive interventions, 137, 163, 165-166 Early Literacy Project, 269-270 Economic factors, 98 literacy as economic goal, 1, 17-19 see alsoCost factors; Employment and unemployment; Funding; Poverty Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305 Embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206 Emergent reading, 69, 81, 261 teacher education, 288, 296, 297, 331, 332 see alsoPretend reading Emergent writing, 42, 57, 59-60, 69-70, 81, 141, 149, 168, 171, 310 kindergarten, 183-184, 188, 189, 191 teacher education on, 288, 296, 297, 330, 331, 332 see alsoInvented spelling Employment and unemployment, 20, 316 criterion-referenced testing, 96 continued on next page

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Page 411 continued from previous page teachers, 331 salaries, 280, 300, 302 England, 76 English as a second language alphabetic principle, 157, 324 cultural factors, 29, 123, 340 first grade, 236 immersion programs, 235-236, 236 kindergarten, 28, 181, 236 late-exit programs, 236 phonology, 11, 27-28, 324-325 poor persons, 28, 123, 155-156 preventive interventions, 137 reading comprehension, general, 236-237 recommendations, 10-11, 324-325, 328, 339-340 retention in grade, 267 risk factors associated with, 5, 18, 19, 27-30, 123, 131, 156-158 school-based factors, 227, 233-238, 246, 333 second grade, 236 socioeconomic status, 235 syntax, 11, 325, 340 teacher education, 296, 297-299, 330, 332 theoretical issues, 237-238 transfer of skills, 236-237 tutoring, 260 vocabulary development, 11, 325 word recognition, 236-237 see also Bilingual education; Spanish and Spanish speakers Erikson Institute, 281 Error detection by child, 51, 63, 81, 83, 169, 195, 213, 223, 237, 322, 323 nonstandard dialect students and, 124, 241-242 Ethnic groups, see Minority groups Etymology, 23 Evaluation, 336-337 performance-based, 199 school-based factors, 27 textbooks, 304 see also Research methodology; Screening and identification; Standards; Tests and testing Even Start Family Literacy Program, 146, 155 Explicit instruction, general, 11, 172-225 (passim), 322, 323 first grade, 198, 208 kindergarten, 177, 178-194, 250 teacher education on, 287 see also specific methods F Families, 100, 277 age factors affecting learning, 122, 128 book reading, 121, 139, 145, 263 early childhood development, 57, 69, 139, 145-147, 171 educational level of, 119 literacy environment, general, 121-122, 123, 138, 139, 142, 143 narrative comprehension, 139, 143 preschool education, 119-128 (passim) risk factors, 86, 100, 103, 119-128, 158, 159 siblings, 119 socioeconomic status, 31, 119, 121, 125-127 teacher education, 297 verbal interaction opportunities, 121, 122-123, 127, 139-141, 143, 171 see also Parents Federal government, 2, 18, 275, 277, 305-306 bilingual education, 18 Goals 2000, 228-229, 300 Office of Education, 173 poverty programs, 97-98, 228-230 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305 continued on next page

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Page 412 continued from previous page Head Start, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338 welfare reform, 320 teacher education, 284, 289, 294, 306 see also Legislation; terms beginning "Department . . ." Fetal alcohol syndrome, 104 Fingerpoint reading, 181, 188 First grade, 5, 33, 79, 195 accomplishments of successful learner, 81, 194-195 African Americans, 205 alphabetic principle, 207 basal reading, 198, 206-207, 208-210 big books, 196, 200, 203, 204 capitalization, 81, 198 class size, 230 conceptual knowledge, 195 consonants, 198, 202-203 decoding, 173-174, 199, 206, 208, 209 embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206 explicit instruction, general, 198, 208 fluency, 206, 209 frequency of reading, 195; rereading, 81, 195 frustration level, 195, 322 group reading, 196, 197, 200, 202 independent reading, 194, 196, 197, 198, 209, 322 instructional materials, 195-196 invented spelling, 81, 195 letter identification and mapping, 81, 198 letter-sound relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322 metalinguistic factors, 195, 204 minorities, 205 monitoring, reading comprehension, 81, 195 motivation, 172, 198, 206 oral reading, 81, 194, 206, 209 paired reading, 196, 197 phonology, 81, 195, 199, 200-204, 208, 262, 322 letter-sound relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322 phonemic awareness, 194, 195, 199, 206, 208 phonics, 174, 199, 201-204, 205, 209 poverty, 205 print media, 194, 322 reading comprehension, general, 81, 195, 206, 209 reciprocal teaching, 222 rereading, 81, 195 retention in grade, 267 school restructuring, 232 second-grade transition, teacher assessment of, 211 second-language speakers, 236 sight words, 194, 322 small-group instruction, 262-264 sounds, 81, 195, 199, 200-204, 208, 262, 322; letter-sound relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322 spelling, 81, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201-204, 206 syntax, 6, 321, 322, 343, 344 teachers, 196-199, 207 teaching methods, 172, 173, 177-178, 194-210 tutoring, 207, 260, 327 vocabulary, 81, 203 whole language instruction, 199-201, 205-206 word recognition, 194, 198, 204, 205-206, 262 writing, 81, 196, 197, 198, 200, 204, 207, 209 see also Primary grades, general Fluency, 4, 6, 7, 33, 223 early childhood development, 75-79 first grade, 206, 209 second grade, 82, 213, 214-216 special education, 270 third grade, 83, 213 tutoring, 253, 259, 261 continued on next page

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Page 413 continued from previous page see also Frustration level; Reading comprehension; Word recognition Follow Through, 175-177 Foreign countries, 234 see also specific countries Foreign language speakers, see English as a second language; Japanese Fourth grade basal reading, 214 reading level requirements, 207, 210, 211 slump, 78-79, 344 word recognition, 214 French immersion programs, 235 Frequency of reading, 3, 211, 314 first grade, 195 first-third grades, 7, 324 second grade, 211 third-fourth grades, 214 see also Practice; Rereading Frustration level first grade, 195, 322 first-third grades, 8, 324 second grade, 213 Funding, 18 parent-child reading programs, 144, 147 poor children, funding for, 227-230, 320; see also Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Head Start programs G Games, see Play-based instruction Gender differences, 91, 116 retention in grade, 267 Genetic factors, 24-25, 88, 91, 92, 119 Goals 2000, 228-229, 300 Government role, see Federal government; Local government; State government Grammar early childhood development, 48 nonstandard dialects, 238, 241 teacher education, 298 see also Syntax Group care, 8-9, 57, 148-149, 150, 161, 170, 277, 300 Group reading, 6 first grade, 196, 197, 200, 202 first-third grades, 6 kindergarten, 188-189 preschool, 148 reciprocal teaching, 221 special education, 270 see also Small-group instruction H Hawaiian children, 243-245 Head Start programs, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338 Health care professionals, 101, 158, 159 see also Pediatricians Health care services, 158-163 Hearing impairments, 5, 16, 55, 89, 103, 104, 132, 133, 315, 319 chronic otitis media, 103, 104, 161 developmental factors, 164 preventive interventions, 137, 159, 161, 163-165 High-risk children, see Risk factors High school, 20-21, 98, 316 preschool intervention and success in, 150, 343 socioeconomic status, 125 vocabulary size, 48 High School and Beyond, 20 High/Scope program, 167, 168-170 Hispanic persons, see Spanish and Spanish speakers Home environment, see Families; Parents Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters, 144 Homework first-third grades, 8, 324 parental assistance, 128

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Page 414 Hyperactivity disorder, see Attention deficits Hypertension as analogy for reading difficulty, 92-93 I Identification of problems, see Screening and identification IEP (Individualized educational program), see Tutors and tutoring Immersion programs, 235-236 Improving America's School Act, 228-229 Income, see Poverty; Socioeconomic status Independent reading, 218 first grade, 194, 196, 197, 198, 209, 322 first-third grades, 6, 8, 322, 323, 324 oral reading, impact on, 219 reciprocal teaching, 221 second grade, 82, 211, 213, 214, 322-323 teacher education, 296 third grade, 213 tutoring, Reading Recovery, 255 see also Homework; Oral reading Individual instruction, see Tutors and tutoring Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 89, 269-269, 305 Infant Health Development Program, 155 Infants, 155, 160 Inference, 7 first grade, 195 second-third grade, 222 Instructional materials, 2-3, 6, 11, 175, 272, 300, 307, 333-334, 344 basal reading, 189 case-based teacher education, 289-290 family environment, 121, 128 first grade, 195-196 lack of, 26 nonstandard dialects, 239-241 school-based risk factors, 129 see also Audiovisual presentations; Book reading; Curricular design; Pictures; Publishers; Textbooks Instructional methods, see Teaching methods Intelligence quotient, 24, 88, 94-95, 106-107, 109, 116, 118, 150, 318 reading disabilities, defined, 268-269 International dimension, see Foreign countries; specific countries International Reading Association, 317 Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, 295 Interventions, 101, 247-274, 343-344 controversial, 271 defined, 247 older children, 247-248 teacher education on, 287 see also Preventive interventions; Remedial interventions; Special education Invented spelling, 7-8, 59, 70, 80, 168, 272, 323 first grade, 81, 195 tutoring, 259-260 Iowa, 88 IQ, see Intelligence quotient J Japanese, 21 K Kamehameha Early Education Project, 244-245 Kentucky, 301

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Page 415 Kindergarten, 111, 116-118, 136, 277 accomplishments of successful learner, 80, 179 alphabetic principle, 80, 179, 183, 184-189 basal reading, 189-194 book reading, 9, 80, 189, 323 big books, 181, 188, 189 capitalization, 80 class size, 178-179; student-teacher ratios, 9, 133, 318-319 consonants, 188 decoding, 188, 191, 251 emergent writing, 183-184, 188, 189, 191 explicit instruction, general, 177, 178-194, 250 group reading, 188-189 instructional strategies, 177, 178-194, 250 lack of, 79 letter identification, 9, 80, 113-115, 180, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249-250, 322 motivation, 179 multiple risk factors, 116-117 oral reading, 80, 179-181, 188-189, 191 phonology, letter-sound relations, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251 phonemic awareness, 80, 179, 187, 189, 191, 193 phonological awareness, 54, 112, 151, 185-189, 192-193, 248-252 predicting, reading comprehension, 80, 180-181 print media, 179, 180, 181, 188, 189, 191, 322 real reading, 68 recall, 80, 108-109, 118 recommendations, 6, 9, 321-324 retention/prekindergarten, 149, 266, 341-342 rhymes and rhyming, 80, 182, 187, 191 risk factor analysis, 102, 113-118, 151 screening, 9, 133, 318-319 school-based factors, 130 second-language speakers, 28, 181, 236 semantics, 111 sentences, 80, 111, 116, 118 sight words, 182, 189 sounds, 9; letter-sound relations, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251 spelling, 80, 187-188, 189 spoken words, 80, 179, 186-187, 188 state role, 190, 194 storybooks, 179-180, 183, 188 student-teacher ratios, 9, 133, 318-319 syllables, 182, 185 syntax, 111 teachers, 180-181, 192 verbal memory, 108-110, 323 vocabulary skills, 80, 109 word recognition, 180, 181-182, 188, 189, 249, 251, 322 writing, 183-184, 188, 189, 191 Kinesiology, 271 L Language development, general, 45, 46-50, 73, 75-76, 82, 106-108, 319 impairments, 5, 103, 104-108, 163, 165-166 preventive interventions, 137, 163, 165-166 parental involvement, 142, 145 speech impairments, 105, 165, 315 teacher qualifications involving, 282 see also Early childhood development; Early language Continued on next page

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Page 416 Continued from previous page impairments; Metalinguistic factors Language-minority children, see English as a second language Language-rich environments, 69, 100, 142, 199 Language skills, general, 108-110, 132, 315, 317, 319, 323 first grade, 195 K-3, 176, 191, 284, 285 preschool, 9, 108-109, 111, 116, 137, 147-148, 282 teacher education, 282, 284, 285, 330 see also specific skills Lead poisoning, 104 Learning disabilities, 3, 18, 88-91 attention deficits, 103, 105 decoding, 254 reading disabilities defined, 268 statistics on, 89 see also Cognitive deficits; Dyslexia; Special education Learning to Read/Reading to Learn, 306 Learning to Read: The Great Debate, 173-174 LEAs, see Local government Legislation Americans with Disabilities Act, 18 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 227-229, 263-264, 305 Improving America's School Act, 228-229 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 89, 268-269, 305 state action, 302 Letter identification and mapping, 44, 101, 110, 113, 137, 215 age factors, general, 71 capitalization, letters, 80, 81, 198 early childhood development, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 70, 71-72, 116, 319 deaf children, 164 first grade, 81, 198 first-third grades, 6, 7, 321 sound-letter relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322 kindergarten, 9, 113-115, 180, 249-250, 322 sound-letter relations, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251 parental behavior, 142 second grade, 82 sound-letter relations, 7, 22-23, 44, 71-72, 80, 81, 82, 112, 115, 152-153, 154, 223, 316 first grade, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322 kindergarten, 80, 183, 185, 187, 188, 191, 249, 250, 251 nonstandard dialects, 27-28, 124, 238-239 school restructuring, 232 second grade, 82, 212, 322-323 teacher education, 285, 294-295 third grade, 83 tutoring, 259, 261 testing for, 115 tutoring, 255, 259, 261 see also Alphabetic principle; Capitalization, letters Libraries and librarians, 8, 324, 327 school, 11, 130 state-level action, 300 Limited-proficiency English, see English as a second language Listening comprehension, 64-65, 280, 332 see also Oral reading Literacy, general ability range, 41-42 deaf children, 164 defined, 42 economic goals, 1, 17-19 enjoyment, source of, 33, 138, 139, 142, 143, 171 family environment, 121-122, 123, 138, 139, 142, 143 minority groups' views on, 29-30 continued on next page

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Page 422 Predictors of reading difficulties, see also Risk factors Predictors of successful reading achievement, 100 Preschool education, 19, 33, 42-84, 108-119, 137-171, 277, 317-321, 338 cognitive skills, general, 9, 148, 280 cultural factors, 148 deaf children, 164 family environment, 119-128 (passim) group reading, 148 Head Start, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338 high school, preschool interventions and success in, 150, 343 lack of, 4, 5, 79 language skills, general, 9, 108-109, 111, 116, 137, 147-148, 282 literacy, general, 282 longitudinal studies, 146, 156 motivation, 8, 138, 139, 142, 143, 146, 147 narrative comprehension, 149 paired reading, 142-143, 144-145, 148, 171 phonemic awareness, 152-154 phonological awareness, 151-155 poverty, 8-9, 147, 150, 154, 155, 282, 320 Head Start programs, 145, 148, 150, 155, 156, 157, 175, 281, 305, 338 print awareness of, 139, 164, 165, 170 concepts of, 139, 145, 149, 164, 165 recommendations, 5-6, 8-9, 317-321, 338 retention in grade, prevention, 149, 150 risk factors, 8, 108-119, 317-320 screening, 9, 318-319 social development, 150, 168 special education, 150, 166-170 spoken language, 108 state-level action, 277, 282, 300 teacher education, 10, 279-283, 331-332 verbal memory, 108-109 vocabulary, 107, 109-111, 148, 170, 280, 318, 319, 320, 321 see also Early childhood development; Families; Head Start programs; Parents; Preventive interventions Pretend reading, 33, 58, 59, 69, 81 Preventive interventions, 2, 6, 16, 85, 135-171, 277-278, 316, 317-321, 338 alphabetic principle, 278 cultural factors, 136, 148 defined, 16, 159, 316 early language impairments, 137, 163, 165-166 Head Start, 145, 157 hearing impaired children, 137, 159, 161, 163-165 metacognition, 278 minority groups, 30, 136 multicomponent, 135 parental, 138-147 phonological awareness, 151, 249-251 research methodology, 135-136 retention in grade, prevention, 149, 150 school-based factors, 136, 137 second-language speakers, 137 socioeconomic status and, 136, 137 special education, 150, 166-170 state action, 302 teacher education, 10, 287, 332 writing, 278 Primary grades, general, 6-7, 19, 32 alphabetic principle, 6, 7, 321 comprehension skills, 6-7, 210-211 conceptual knowledge, 6, 323 curricular design, 7, 323 frequency of reading, 7, 324 frustration level, 8, 324 group reading, 6 homework, 8, 324 independent reading, 6, 8, 322, 323, 324 continued on next page

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Page 423 continued from previous page language skills, 176, 191, 284, 285 letter identification and mapping, 6, 7, 321 sound-letter relations, 81, 199, 200-204, 208, 322 listening/reading skills, 64-65 oral reading, 6, 83 paired reading, 6, 322 predicting, reading comprehension, 6, 7, 322, 333 preschool and outcomes in, 149 reading comprehension, 6-7, 81, 82, 83, 322, 323 recommendations for, 6-8, 10-11, 321-324 rereading, 7, 8, 81, 324 rhetorical structures, 6, 322, 324 second-language speakers, 28 spelling, 6, 7-8, 321, 323-324, 343 state-level action, 300 summarizing, reading comprehension, 6, 7, 322, 323 syntax, 6, 321, 322, 343, 344 teacher education, 10, 283-299, 329-331 vocabulary size, 6, 48, 321, 322, 344 writing, 6, 7, 285, 321-322 see also First grade; Kindergarten; Second grade; Third grade Primary prevention, see Preventive interventions Principals, 130 Print media, 3, 139, 218-219 awareness of, 9, 318, 321 early childhood development, 59-60, 70-71, 80 kindergarten, 179, 180, 181, 188, 191, 322 preschool education, 139, 164, 165, 170 concepts of, 259, 315, 318, 319-321, 322, 323, 332 deaf children, 164 early childhood development, 45, 69 preschool education, 139, 145, 149, 164, 165 risk factors regarding, 110, 115, 116 second/third grades, 218, 223 first grade, 194, 322 language-impaired children, 165-166 parental behavior, 139, 142, 145 reading for meaning, 81, 314 small-group instruction, 263 teacher education on, 288, 332 see also Letter identification and mapping Prizes, see Awards and prizes Problem identification, see Screening and identification Problem-solving activities for children, 142, 166, 169 for teachers, 290 Professional education and development, 9-10 day care providers, 149 principals' involvement, 130 see also Teacher education Professionals, 1-2, 32 day care providers, 149 see also Health care professionals; Libraries and librarians; Principals; Publishers; Specialists; Teachers Project Read, 270 Prospects study, 97-98, 228 Psychological factors, 174 controversial interventions, 271 deaf children, 165 severe pathologies, 104 teacher education, 285, 286, 287, 288, 292 see also Motivation and attitude Public education, 310-312, 318, 319 see also Pediatricians; Social workers; Speech-language therapists Publishers, 1, 2, 32, 275, 306-310, 333-334 standards, 300 see also Instructional materials; Textbooks Punctuation, 81

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Page 424 R Race-ethnicity, see Minority groups Reach Out and Read, 159, 162 Readiness, see Reading readiness Reading aloud, see Oral reading Reading comprehension, general, 3, 4, 173, 315 adults, 64-65 conceptual knowledge and, 219-220 early childhood development, 60, 62-65, 75-78 first grade, 81, 195, 206, 209 first-third grades, 6-7, 81, 82, 83, 322, 323 kindergarten, 80, 180-181 listening comprehension and, 64-65 metacognition and, 64, 76, 220-223 models of, 62-63, 71 neuroscience on, 24 print exposure and, 218-219 reciprocal teaching, 221-222 school restructuring, 232 second grade, 82, 213, 214-215, 222 second-language speakers, 236-237 state action, 302 teacher education, general, 296, 330 third grade, 83, 213, 219-220, 222 tutoring, Reading Recovery, 258 vocabulary and, 63, 67, 216-219, 220 see also Fluency; Monitoring; Narrative comprehension; Predicting, reading comprehension; Recall; Summarizing Reading for meaning, 81, 314, 320, 324 Reading level first-third grades, 7, 21 high school graduation and, 21 reading disabilities, defined, 268-269 second grade, 211-212 special education, results, 270 Reading lists, see Summer reading lists Reading One-One, 260-262 Reading readiness, 113, 116, 261 Reading Recovery program, 250, 253, 255-258 Reading specialists, 12, 248, 296, 298, 327, 333 "Real reading," 15-16, 42, 68, 81, 181, 232 Rebus books, 182, 204 Recall, 82, 132, 319 kindergarten, 80, 108-109, 118 phonological awareness, 112 second grade, 82, 213 third grade, 213 see also Frustration level Reciprocal teaching, 139, 221-222 Remedial interventions, 2, 3, 12, 24, 278 defined, 16 dyslexia, 271, 313 minority groups, 30 nonstandard dialects, 240 teacher education on, 287, 298 Title I, 228 see also Special education; Tutors and tutoring Repeating (grade level), see Retention in grade Rereading, 214 first grade, 81, 195 first-third grades, 7, 8, 81, 324 second grade, 82 third-fourth grades, 214 tutoring, Reading Recovery, 255 Research methodology, 33, 34-39, 176, 256-257 classificatory analysis, 117 correlational studies, general, 39, 101-103, 135, 178 error of measurement, 115 prevention efforts, 135-136 prospective analyses, 37-38, 90 systematic replication, 34-35 see also Models and modeling Retardation, see Cognitive deficits; Special education Retention in grade, 248, 266-267, 341-342 first grade, 267 kindergarten, 149, 266, 341-342 minority groups/poor persons, 267 preschool prevention, 149, 150

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Page 425 Retrospective studies, general, 37 Rhetorical structures first grade, 195 first-third grades, 6, 322, 324 teacher education, 280, 285, 288 Rhymes and rhyming, 51, 53, 143, 149, 151, 278, 320, 321 first grade, 203 kindergarten, 80, 182, 187, 191 Riddles, 223 Rime, see Onset-rime Risk factors, 1, 2, 4-5, 11, 16, 85-86, 100-133, 317-319 categorical models of, 88-91, 102 cost of assessment, 102, 132, 133 dimensional models, 91-93, 102 familial, 86, 100, 103, 119-128, 158, 159 parents with reading difficulties, 5, 119-121, 127, 132, 137, 315, 318 kindergarten, 102, 113-118, 151 local factors, 1-3, 100, 128-130, 304-305 longitudinal studies, 87-88, 90, 97-98, 103, 105, 113, 118, 121-122 media information about, 310 models of, 87-96, 98-99, 102, 310 multiple, 116-119, 123, 125, 127, 131, 230, 313-314 nature of, general, 85-86 parents with reading difficulties, 5, 119-121, 127, 132, 137, 315, 318 preschool, 8, 9, 108-119, 317-320 print, concepts of, 110, 115, 116 second-language speakers, 5, 18, 19, 27-30, 123, 131, 156-158 syntax, 107, 110 teacher education, poor training, 26, 289, 291 see also Interventions; School-based factors; Screening and identification; specific risk factors Rural areas, 98, 290, 315 S School-based factors, 11, 25-27, 86, 100, 103, 128-130, 131, 226-246, 304-305, 315, 337-338 African Americans, 227, 238-242 audiovisual presentations, 130 basal reading, 231 big books, 231-232 cultural factors, 68, 226, 227, 242-245 curriculum casualties, 25-26 decoding, 232 dialects, nonstandard, 227, 238-242 libraries, 11, 130 Hispanics, 123 institutional accreditation, 293-295, 300, 301-302 kindergarten, 130 outlier schools, 128-129, 130 paired reading, 232 poverty, 26, 227-230 preventive interventions, 136, 137 principals, 130 school-wide restructuring, 11, 230-233, 272, 325-326, 338 second-language speakers, 227, 233-238, 246, 333 socioeconomic status, 126, 128-129 specialists, use of, 333 teacher education vs, 288 time-on-task rates, see Time-on-task rates university partnerships, 293 vocabulary development, 231, 232 see also Class size; Student-teacher ratios; Teachers Screening and identification, 2, 85, 101-133, 159, 278 cost of, 102, 132, 133 deaf children, 164-165 disabilities, 9, 132-133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319 error detection by child's monitor, 72-73, 76, 213 kindergarten, 9, 133, 318-319 miscue analysis, 73 continued on next page

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Page 426 continued from previous page models of, 87-96, 98-99 pediatricians, 9, 133, 158, 159, 162-163, 318, 319 preschool/kindergarten, 9, 318-319 prevalence, general, 96-99 research agenda, 336, 342, 344 secondary symptoms, 103, 132 second grade, 211-212 state action, 302 teacher education for, 279, 290, 296, 297, 298, 330, 332 see also Risk factors Secondary education, see High school Secondary prevention, see Remedial interventions Secondary symptoms, 103, 132 Second grade, 82, 210-211 accomplishments required, 82, 210-211 alphabetic principle, 212 automaticity, 210 basal reading, 212, 215 book reading, 211 decoding, 82 direct code instruction, 205-206 fluency, 82, 213, 214-216 frequency of reading, 211 frustration level, 213 independent reading, 82, 211, 213, 214, 322-323 letter identification, 82 letter-sound relations, 82, 212, 322-323 monitoring, 222 oral reading, 215-216 paired reading, 215 phonemic awareness, 212 phonics, 205-206 poverty, 205-206, 214-216 print, concepts of, 218, 223 reading comprehension, general, 82, 213, 214-215, 222 reciprocal teaching, 222 rereading, 82 school restructuring, 232 screening and identification, 211-212 second-language speakers, 236 socioeconomic status, 214-216 spelling, 82, 212 teachers, 211-212 teaching methods, 207-223 vocabulary, 215 vowels, 212 whole language instruction, 205-206 word recognition, 205-206, 212-213, 322-323 writing, 82 see also Primary grades, general Second-language speakers, see English as a second language Semantics, 321, 340, 343 age factors, 53, 77, 83 comprehension and word knowledge, 63, 77 deaf children, 164 defined, 46 kindergarten, 111 storybook reading, 143 teacher education on, 288 vocabulary development and, 48 word form changes, 73 Sentences, 7 early childhood development, 48-49, 50, 108 first grade, 81 kindergarten, 80, 111, 116, 118 small-group instruction, 263 tutoring, Reading Recovery, 255 verbal memory, 108-109, 132 see also Grammar; Syntax Serial naming, 109-111, 118 SES, see Socioeconomic status Sesame Street, 57, 59, 278, 311-312 Sex differences, see Gender differences Shared reading, see Group reading; Paired reading Siblings, 119 Sight words, 6 deaf children, 164 first grade, 194, 322 kindergarten, 182, 189 tutoring, 259

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Page 427 Small-group instruction, 12, 148, 192, 228, 231, 248, 262-264 phonological awareness, 250, 252 see also Group reading Social development, 9, 15, 43, 44, 158 first grade, 262-264 listening skills, 64-65 literacy as societal goal, 1, 17-20, 29-30, 33-34, 156, 170, 292, 324-325 preschool intervention, 150, 168 special education, 168 teacher education, 285, 286, 292 word recognition, 262, 263 see also Pragmatics Social workers, 9, 318 Socioeconomic status, 25, 27, 29-31, 94, 125-127 defined, 127 educational achievement and, 21 family factors and, 31, 119, 121, 125-127 phonics, 173 preventive interventions, 136, 137 school-based factors, 227 second grade, 214-216 second-language speakers, 235 vocabulary size and, 47 see also Poverty Sounds, see Phonology Space, concepts of, 280, 332 Spanish and Spanish speakers, 23, 27, 28-29, 123, 127, 156-158, 238, 316 first grade, 205 invented spelling, 59 kindergarten, 181 NAEP, 97 poor persons, 123, 155-156 Special education, 89-90, 166-170, 248, 268-271 curricular design, 167-170, 269-270 fluency, 270 group reading, 270 memory, 166, 169 models of, 89, 167 motivation, 167-170 paired reading, 270 preschool preventive measures, 150, 166-170 referral for, 27 social development, 168 storybooks, 168 teachers, 167-168, 196, 269, 296-299, 333 word recognition, 270 Specialists, 10, 248, 328 see also Pediatricians; Reading specialists; Speech-language therapists; Teachers Special Strategies studies, 98 Speech, see Listening comprehension; Oral reading; Phonology; Spoken words Speech impairments, 105, 165, 315 Speech-language therapists, 9, 158-159, 164, 165, 318, 333 see also Reading specialists Speech sounds, see Phonology Spelling, 223, 314 defined, 22 early childhood development, 42, 43-44, 60, 66, 67, 70-71, 73 deaf children, 164 first grade, 81, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201-204, 206 first-third grades, 6, 7-8, 321, 323-324, 343 kindergarten, 80, 187-188, 189 models of development, 44-45, 72 nonstandard dialects, 238, 341 phonological considerations, general, 3, 22-23, 80-83, 194, 195, 198, 298, 322, 330, 343 second grade, 82, 212 teacher education, 296, 298, 330 third grade, 83 tutoring, 259, 260 vocabulary, 6, 321, 322, 344 see also Invented spelling; Morphology; Phonics Spoken words, 2, 7, 315 early language development, 42, 46-47, 49, 50, 51, 320, 321, 324 kindergarten, 80, 179, 186-187, 188 school entry predictors, 108-109 continued on next page

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Page 428 continued from previous page speech impairments, 105 structure of, 3, 4, 314 teacher education on, 288 see also Alphabetic principle; Hearing impairments; Listening comprehension; Oral reading; Phonemic awareness; Phonological awareness; Phonology Standards criterion vsnorm referencing, 95-96 Head Start, 282 institutional accreditation, 293-295, 300, 301-302 national tests, 94; see also specific tests publishers, 300 research agenda, 334-335 state-level actions, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 300-304, 307 teacher education, 282, 291, 293-296, 302 see also Intelligence quotient State government, 2, 18, 275, 277, 299-304, 317-318 basal programs, 190 curricular design, 300-301, 302, 304 disabilities, 282 first-third grades, 300 kindergarten, 190, 194 legislation, 302 libraries, 300 phonics, 302 politics and, 299, 304 preschool education, 277, 282, 300 preventive interventions, general, 302 screening and identification, 302 standards, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 300-304, 307 teacher certification/standards, 282, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 301-302 textbooks, 300, 302-304, 307 Storybooks computer-assisted, 264 decoding, 143 early childhood development, general, 62-63, 80 kindergarten, 179-180, 183, 188 parent-child reading, 142-143, 145 phonological awareness, 112 special education, 168 see also Big books Storytelling, 200-201, 231, 232, 244, 246, 262, 280, 281, 318, 332 Student-teacher ratios, 11, 230, 231, 256, 282, 328 kindergarten, 178-179 see also Class size; Small-group instruction; Tutors and tutoring Success For All, 230-233 Summarizing first grade, 195 first-third grades, 6, 7, 322, 323 school restructuring, 232 third grade, 83 Summer reading lists, 8, 324 Sweden, 236 Syllables, 15, 21-22, 51, 54 African American dialect, 239 defined, 22 first grade, 81 kindergarten, 182, 185 onset-rime, 51, 185, 206, 259 rebus books, 182 Syntax early childhood development, 48, 53, 74, 75, 318, 332 first-third grades, 6, 321, 322, 343, 344 kindergarten, 111 school-entry predictors, 107, 110 second-language speakers, 11, 325, 340 teacher education, 280, 288, 332 T Talking books, 264 Teacher aids, 263

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Page 429 Teacher certification, 282, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 301-302 Teacher education, 9-10, 11, 273, 278-299, 327, 329-331 alphabetic principle, 285, 288, 294-295, 296, 330 audiovisual presentations, 289-290 automaticity, 285 bilingual education, 285, 288, 297-298, 330 case-based instruction, 289-290 cognitive skills, 280, 282 cultural factors, 299 curricular design, 279-282, 294, 296, 330 emergent literary skills, 288, 296, 297, 330, 331, 332 explicit instruction, 287 families, 297 federal action, 284, 289, 294, 306 grammar, 298 group education, 292-293 independent reading, 296 institutional accreditation, 293-295, 300, 301-302 K-3, 10, 283-299, 329-331 language skills, general, 282, 284, 285, 330 letter-sound relations, 285, 294-295 literacy, general, 282, 284 metacognition, 286 models of, 291-292 morphology, 330 phonology, 280, 298, 330, 332 letter-sound relations, 285, 294-295 phonemic awareness, 296, 298 phonics, 296 phonological awareness, 284, 288, 298, 330 poor training as risk factor, 26, 289, 291 poverty as risk factor, 296 pragmatics, 288 preschool teachers, 279-283, 331-332 preventive interventions, 10, 287, 332 principals' involvement, 130 print media, general, 288, 332 problem-solving activities, 290 psychological factors, about, 285, 286, 287, 288, 292 reading comprehension, general, 296, 330 remedial education, about, 287, 298 rhetorical structures, about, 280, 285, 288 screening and identification, about, 279, 290, 296, 297, 298, 330, 332 second-language speakers, teachers of, 296, 297-299, 330, 332 semantics, 288 social development, 285, 286, 292 special education, 269 spelling, 296, 298, 330 spoken words, 288 standards, 282, 291, 293-296, 302 syntax, 280, 288, 332 theoretical issues, 292, 298, 329 time-on-task rates, 291, 329 tutoring, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 273 verbal abilities, general, 285, 288 vocabulary, 280, 332 word recognition, 285, 330 writing, 280, 285, 296, 298 see also Teacher certification Teachers, 1, 2-3, 32, 101 attitudes of, 26, 124, 229, 288, 331, 332 awards for, 306 bilingual, 136 child-teacher interaction, 26, 124, 130, 177, 229, 230 employment issues, 331 salaries, 280, 300, 302 first grade, 196-199, 207 kindergarten, 180-181, 192 local government action, 305 nonstandard dialect students and, 124, 241-242 parent educators, 143 principals' involvement with, 130 publishers relations with, 307-309 continued on next page

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Page 430 continued from previous page school-based risk factors, 129-130 second grade, 211-212 special education, 167-168, 196, 269, 296-299, 333 state-level action, 282, 291, 292-293, 295-296, 299, 301-302 see also Student-teacher ratios; Tutors and tutoring Teaching materials, see Instructional materials Teaching methods, 2, 3, 25-27, 32-33, 100, 172-178, 285, 314-315 computer-assisted instruction, 59, 188, 248, 252-253, 264-266, 334, 342-343 concurrent instruction, 136 debate over, 18, 19 direct code instruction, 199, 202, 204, 205-206 embedded phonics instruction, 199, 201-202, 204-206 first grade, 172, 173, 177-178, 194-210 kindergarten, 177, 178-194, 250 metacognition, 220-223 modality teaching, 271 nonstandard dialects, 239-241 play-based instruction, 183-184, 188, 189-190, 191, 223, 306, 320, 321 reciprocal teaching, 139, 221-222 second and third grades, 207, 210-223 special education, 269 time-on-task rates, 129, 130 whole language instruction, 199-201, 205-206 see also Basal reading; Explicit instruction; Group reading; Homework; Preventive interventions; Small-group instruction; Teacher education; Tutors and tutoring Television, 57, 59, 143, 278, 310-312 Tests and testing, 2 criterion vsnorm referencing, 95-96 family environment, 122 letter-sound correspondence, 115 multiple risk factors, 118 performance-based, 199 Qualitative Reading Inventory, 216 research agenda, 336-337 Spanish-language, 123 speech discrimination vsphonological awareness, 55 standard measures inadequate, 90-91, 94 vocabulary, 109 see also High School and Beyond; Intelligence quotient; National Assessment of Educational Progress Texas, 304 Textbooks, 2, 334 local government, 304 political factors, 304 state-level action, 300, 302-304, 307 theoretical issues, 308 Theoretical issues, 34-39 controversial interventions, 271 parent-child reading, 144 phonological awareness, 52, 54, 248 research methodology, general, 33, 34-39, 176, 256-257 classificatory analysis, 117 correlational studies, general, 39, 101-103, 135, 178 prevention efforts, 135-136 prospective analyses, 37-38, 90 systematic replication, 34-35 second-language speakers, 237-238 teacher education, 292, 298, 329 textbooks, 308 vocabulary, 11, 325 word recognition, 236-237 Third grade, 83, 207, 210-223 accomplishments required, 83, 210-211 audiovisual presentations, 83 automaticity, 210 basal reading, 214 cognitive development, 219 conceptual knowledge, 219-220 continued on next page

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Page 431 continued from previous page fluency, 83, 213 frequency of reading, 214 independent reading, 213 letter-sound relations, 83 monitoring, 222 oral reading, 83 print, concepts of, 218, 223 reading comprehension, general, 83, 213, 219-220, 222 recall, 213 rereading, 214 spelling, 83 word recognition, 211, 214 writing, 83, 211 see also Primary grades, general Time-on-task rates, 129, 130, 177, 229, 230, 238, 272 teacher education, 291, 329 tutoring, 255-256, 257, 261 Title I, see Elementary and Secondary Education Act Toys, 59 Tutors and tutoring, 12, 207, 231, 248, 254-262, 326-327, 333 alphabetic principle, 259, 261 automaticity, 259 book reading, 255, 257, 259, 261 consonants, 259 cost of, 255, 258, 260 curricular design, 255, 258, 259, 261 decoding, 258, 261 experimental studies, 256, 257-258 first grade, 207, 260, 327 fluency, 253, 259, 261 independent reading, 255 invented spelling, 259-260 letter recognition, 255, 259, 261 metalinguistic factors, 258 phonology, 255, 259 letter-sound relations, 259, 261 phonemic awareness, 258, 259 phonics, 259, 260 poor children, 260 second-language speakers, 260 sentences, 255 sight words, 259 spelling, 259, 260 time-on-task, 255-256, 257, 261 training of, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 273 volunteer, 12, 162, 273, 328 vowels, 259 word recognition, 258, 261 writing, 259, 260 see alsoReading specialists U United Kingdom, 76, 88, 90 Urban areas, 30-31, 98, 229, 239, 290, 315, 327-328 V Verbal abilities, general, 108-110, 302, 318, 322 family interactions, 121, 122-123, 127, 139-141, 143, 171 memory, 108-110, 132, 323 teacher education, 285, 288 see also Oral reading; Spoken words; Vocabulary Videotapes, see Audiovisual presentations Visual impairments, 89, 105, 271 Visual skills, 116 Vocabulary, 4, 223 African Americans, 156 comprehension and word knowledge, 63, 67, 216-219, 220 defined, 46-48 early language development, 47, 57, 63, 67, 75, 79, 107, 109 first grade, 81, 203 first-third grades, 6, 48, 321, 322, 344 high school, 48 kindergarten, 80, 109 parental involvement, 139, 319 phonics and, 173 preschool, 107, 109-111, 148, 170, 280, 318, 319, 320, 321 continued on next page

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Page 432 continued from previous page reading comprehension and, general, 63, 67, 216-219, 220 school restructuring, 231, 232 second grade, 215 second-language speakers, 11, 325 semantics and, 48 socioeconomic status, 47 spelling and, 6, 321, 322, 344 teacher education, 280, 332 tests and testing, 109 theoretical issues, 11, 325 see also Naming; Sight words; Word games; Word recognition Voluntary reading, 81-83 Volunteer tutors, 12, 162, 273, 328 Vowels African American dialect, 239 first grade, 198 invented spelling, 59 second grade, 212 syllable defined, 22 tutoring, 259 W Welfare reform, 320 Whole language instruction, 199-201, 205-206 Word games, 143, 151-152, 187, 203, 204, 208 riddles, 223 see also Rhymes and rhyming Word recognition, 4, 6, 7, 15, 220, 272, 315-316, 322, 343 automaticity and, 75, 79, 90, 252-253; see also Sight words computer-based interventions, 252-253 curriculum casualties, 25-26 early childhood development, 50, 53, 62, 65-67, 70-75, 79, 80, 111 first grade, 194, 198, 204, 205-206, 262 fourth grade, 214 kindergarten, 180, 181-182, 188, 189, 249, 251, 322 models of, 214 morphemes and, 73-74, 153 neuroscience, 24 onset-rime, 51, 185, 206, 259 phonics and, 173, 259 reading disabled children, 252-254 rebus books, 182, 204 second grade, 205-206, 212-213, 322-323 second-language speakers, 236-237 small-group instruction, 262, 263 social development and, 262, 263 special education, 270 teacher education, 285, 330 theoretical issues, 236-237 third-fourth grades, 214 third grade, 211, 214 tutoring, 258, 261 see also Alphabetic principle; Automaticity; Frustration level; Semantics; Spoken words; Word games Writing, 272, 314, 323 computer-assisted instruction, 265 early childhood development, 42, 57, 59-60, 69-70, 142, 149 deaf children, 164 first grade, 81, 196, 197, 198, 200, 204, 207, 209 first-third grades, 6, 7, 285, 321-322 Head Start, 281 kindergarten, 183-184, 188, 189, 191 literacy defined, 42 preventive interventions, 278 second grade, 82 small-group instruction, 263 state action, 302 teacher education, 280, 285, 296, 298 third grade, 83, 211 tutoring, 259, 260 see also Alphabetic principle; Emergent writing; Spelling