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2021 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 219 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation â¢ Vehicles and Equipment Guidebook for Deploying Zero-Emission Transit Buses Meredith Linscott Amy Posner Center for transportation and the environment Atlanta, GA
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 219 Project J-11/Task 33 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-67374-7 Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Commission. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Center for Transportation and the Environment thanks the external reviewers who have made substantial contributions to this Guidebook: Judah Aber, Principal, EB START Consulting Erik Bigelow, Senior Engineering Consultant, Director of Midwest Operations, CTE Matt Boothe, Engineering Consultant, Propulsion Systems Specialist, CTE Steve Clermont, Senior Managing Consultant, Director of Planning and Deployment, CTE Andrew Daga, Chairman and CEO, Momentum Dynamics Joel Donham, Engineering Consultant, Aviation Applications Specialist, CTE Patrick Fiedler, President, Fiedler Group Jason Hanlin, Senior Engineering Consultant, Director of Tech- nology Development, CTE Alexis Hedges, Associate, CTE Nathaniel Horadam, Managing Consultant, Automated Vehicle Specialist, CTE Jaimie Levin, Senior Managing Consultant, Director of West Coast Operations, CTE Kylie McCord, Senior Engineering Consultant, CTE Wendy Morgan, Managing Consultant, Director of Grants, CTE Alison Smyth, Engineering Consultant, Electric Utility Specialist, CTE Stuart Thompson, Principal, Transworld Associates Joel Torr, Managing Director, North America, ViriCiti Mike Tosca, Senior Engineering Consultant, Director of Hydrogen Infrastructure, CTE Blake Whitson, former Engineering Consultant, CTE CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 219 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT J-11/TASK 33 PANEL Field of Special Projects Carrie O. Butler, Transit Authority of LFUCG, Lexington, KY (Chair) Kirt Conrad, Stark Area Regional Transit Authority, Canton, OH Geoffrey Hobin, Transit Authority of River City (TARC), Louisville, KY Danny Ilioiu, King County Metro Transit, Seattle, WA Victoria Learn, IndyGo, Indianapolis, IN Salvador Llamas, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), Oakland, CA Marc Manning, Los Angeles Metro, Los Angeles, CA Peter C. Martin, CDM Smith, San Francisco, CA Hongyan (Lily) H. Oliver, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Boston, MA James Pachan, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA David C. Warren, New Flyer, Mercer Island, WA Sergio M. Coronado, FTA Liaison Sean Ricketson, FTA Liaison Lisa Callaghan Jerram, APTA Liaison
This guidebook provides public transit agencies with best practices, case studies, and lessons learned from previous deployments of battery electric buses, fuel cell electric buses, and related fueling infrastructure. The guidebook is a snapshot of current plan- ning practices and deployment approaches. The target audiences are transit systems of all sizes and their stakeholders, including policymakers, transit board members, elected officials, and public transit agency managers who are seeking to improve their decision- making and business practices for planning, implementing, and operating zero-emission buses (ZEBs). The objective of this research was to produce a guidebook for use by public transit agencies planning to deploy or expand zero-emission transit vehicle fleets, including battery electric buses and fuel cell electric buses. TCRP Research Report 219: Guidebook for Deploying Zero-Emission Transit Buses presents information and lessons learned from previous deployments of zero-emission bus technologies by public transit agencies, as well as the experience of non-profit organizations, consultants, and manufacturers serving the industry. The guidebook is organized into nine key deployment phases, providing information and guidance for assessing needs and requirements, selecting and specifying technology, determining capital costs and funding opportunities, developing and deploying fueling infrastructure, accepting and validating buses to ensure they meet specifications, training program considerations, establishing operations and maintenance practices, and moni- toring and evaluating deployment performance. Each phase includes a 2-page overview and specifies roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, followed by examples of deployments of ZEBs, best practices, key take-aways, and additional resources. The guide concludes with an emerging opportunities phase that highlights potential advancements and emerging research areas for the zero-emission transit market and includes several useful appendices. The guidebook can serve as a reference that will provide transit agencies with the context and knowledge needed to understand the complexity of each phase of a ZEB deployment. It supports decision making and emphasizes the importance of building and maintaining successful relationships with technology providers, utility companies, fuel suppliers, contractors, and others as public transit agencies consider conversion of all or part of their vehicle fleet to zero-emission technology. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Introduction 6 ZEB Technology Overview 21 Phase 1 Assess Your Needs and Requirements 21 1.1 Overview 22 1.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 23 1.3 Start Planning for ZEBs 26 1.3.1 Technological Advancements 26 1.4 Stakeholder Engagement 26 1.4.1 Transit Agency Staff 28 1.4.2 External Stakeholders 30 1.5 Data Collection 31 1.6 Fleet Transition Considerations 32 1.7 Additional Resources 33 Phase 2 Technology Selection and Specifications 33 2.1 Overview 34 2.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 35 2.3 Bus Performance Evaluation 35 2.3.1 Bus Modeling and Simulation Considerations 36 2.3.2 Bus Modeling and Route Simulation Approach 40 2.4 Technology Selection 41 2.5 Procurement Considerations 41 2.5.1 Technical Specifications 49 2.5.2 Acceptance Criteria 50 2.5.3 Major Component Useful Life and Warranty Considerations 51 2.5.4 Documentation and Training 52 2.5.5 Contract Negotiation 53 2.6 Additional Resources 54 Phase 3 Capital Costs and Funding Opportunities 54 3.1 Overview 55 3.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 56 3.3 Capital Costs 62 3.4 ZEB Deployment Support 63 3.4.1 Planning Initiatives 63 3.4.2 Financial Support 65 3.5 Additional Resources C O N T E N T S
67 Phase 4 Fueling Infrastructure Strategy and Cost 67 4.1 Overview 68 4.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 69 4.3 Battery Electric Buses and Utility Rate Analysis 69 4.3.1 Understanding Your Electricity Bill 70 4.3.2 Electric Bill Charges 71 4.3.3 Fixed Costs 71 4.3.4 Energy Charges 71 4.3.5 Demand Charges 73 4.3.6 Other Charges 74 4.4 Typical Rate Structures 74 4.4.1 Tiered (or Step) Rate 74 4.4.2 Time of Use Rate 75 4.4.3 Critical Peak Pricing 75 4.5 Hydrogen Fuel Costs 76 4.5.1 Electricity Costs 77 4.5.2 Hydrogen Costs 77 4.6 Electricity Rate Modeling 79 4.6.1 BEB Charging Strategy 81 4.7 Utility Partnership 82 4.8 Resilience and Emergency Response Planning 82 4.8.1 Understanding Reliability of Your Operations 82 4.8.2 Providing Service During a Power Outage 82 4.8.3 Emergency Backup Systems 84 4.9 Additional Resources 85 Phase 5 Fueling Infrastructure Deployment 85 5.1 Overview 86 5.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 87 5.3 Fueling Infrastructure Deployment Overview 87 5.4 Stakeholder Engagement 88 5.5 Site Selection 89 5.5.1 Hydrogen Fueling Stations 89 5.5.2 Battery Charging Stations 91 5.6 Design 92 5.6.1 Hydrogen Fueling Station Design 93 5.6.2 BEB Charging Infrastructure Design 94 5.7 Permitting 94 5.8 Construction 95 5.9 Commissioning 96 5.10 Additional Resources 97 Phase 6 Acceptance, Validation, and Deployment 97 6.1 Overview 98 6.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 99 6.3 Vehicle Inspection 99 6.4 Bus Inspection Plan 99 6.4.1 Configuration Audit 100 6.4.2 First Article Inspection 100 6.4.3 Pre-Delivery Inspection 100 6.4.4 Post-Delivery Inspection
100 6.5 Acceptance and Validation Testing 101 6.5.1 Acceptance Testing Goals 101 6.5.2 Validation Testing Goals 101 6.5.3 Suggested Tests 103 6.6 Initial Deployment Strategy 104 6.7 Additional Resources 105 Phase 7 Personnel Training and Development 105 7.1 Overview 106 7.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 107 7.3 Staff Training 108 7.4 Operations Training 109 7.5 Fueling Processes Training 109 7.6 Maintenance Training 109 7.7 Safety Training 110 7.7.1 Hydrogen Properties 111 7.7.2 Hydrogen Fueling Station Safety 112 7.7.3 First Responder Training 112 7.8 Additional Resources 114 Phase 8 Operation and Maintenance 114 8.1 Overview 115 8.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 116 8.3 Operations 116 8.3.1 Driver Procedures 116 8.3.2 Monitoring Battery State of Health 117 8.4 Maintenance 117 8.4.1 Spare Parts Inventories 118 8.4.2 Bus Maintenance 120 8.4.3 Fueling Infrastructure Maintenance 121 8.5 Additional Resources 122 Phase 9 Data Monitoring and Evaluation 122 9.1 Overview 123 9.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 124 9.3 Data Collection and Reporting 132 9.4 Data Sources 133 9.5 Data Collection Procedures 133 9.6 Additional Resources 134 Phase 10 Emerging Opportunities 134 10.1 Overview 135 10.2 Key Stakeholder Considerations 136 10.3 Emerging Research Areas 136 10.3.1 Fleetwide Charge Management 136 10.3.2 MW+ Charging 137 10.3.3 Battery Improvements 137 10.3.4 Deployment Information 138 10.3.5 Decision Support for Dispatch 139 10.3.6 Automated Driving Systems 141 10.3.7 New Standards and Mandates 141 10.4 Additional Resources
A-1 Appendix A Available ZEB Models A-1 Appendix A.1 Available Transit FCEB Models A-2 Appendix A.2 Available Transit BEB Models B-1 Appendix B Altoona Testing Overview C-1 Appendix C Industry Standards Related to ZEB Technology D-1 Appendix D Glossary E-1 Appendix E Bibliography
AC Alternating Current ADS Automated Driving System AFV Alternative Fuel Vehicle API Application Programming Interface APTA American Public Transportation Association AVTA Antelope Valley Transit Authority BEB Battery Electric Bus BOP Balance of Plant BRT Bus Rapid Transit BRTC Bus Research and Testing Center BYD Build Your Dreams (Auto) Caltrans California Department of Transportation CARB California Air Resources Board CDOT Chicago Department of Transportation CEC California Energy Commission CEQA California Environmental Quality Act CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon Monoxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPP Critical Peak Pricing CTA Chicago Transit Authority CTE Center for Transportation and the Environment DC Direct Current DGE Diesel Gallons Equivalent DOE Department of Energy EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EIA Energy Information Administration EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESS Energy Storage System EV Electric Vehicle EVSE Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment FAST Act Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act FCEB Fuel Cell Electric Bus FTA Federal Transit Administration GH2 Gaseous Hydrogen GREET Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation Model GVWR Gross Vehicle Weight Rating H2FAST Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool H35 350 Bar for Dispensing Hydrogen H70 700 Bar for Dispensing Hydrogen HAZOP Hazard and Operability HD-UDDS Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule HDRSAM Heavy-Duty Refueling Station Analysis Model A C R O N Y M S A N D A B B R E V I A T I O N S
HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning HVIP Hybrid and Zero-Emission Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project ICT Innovative Clean Transit [Regulation] IDOT Illinois Department of Transportation IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IFB Invitation for Bid IT Information Technology kg Kilogram KPI Key Performance Indicator kVA Kilovolt-amperes kW Kilowatt kWh Kilowatt-hour LH2 Liquid Hydrogen Low-No Low or No (Low-No) Emission Vehicle Program MassDOT Massachusetts Department of Transportation MW+ Megawatt Plus [charging] MWh Megawatt-hour NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NFPA National Fire Protection Association NOx Nitrous Oxide NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NTP Notice to Proceed OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PDI Post-Delivery Inspection PEV Plug-in Electric Vehicle PF Power Factor PG&E Pacific Gas & Electric PIO Public Information Officer PM Particulate Matter PPA Power Purchase Agreement PRV/PRD Pressure Relief Valves/Pressure Relief Devices QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control RFI Request for Information RFP Request for Proposal RFQ Request for Quote RTA Regional Transportation Authority SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SCAQMD South Coast Air Quality Management District SMR Steam-Methane Reformation SOC State of Charge STAR Strategic Transit Automation Research TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TOU Time of use Rate TRB Transportation Research Board TSP Traffic signal prioritization UITP International Association of Public Transport VOC Volatile Organic Compounds VW Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust WEOL Warrantable End of Life ZEB Zero-Emission Bus ZEBRA Zero-Emission Bus Resource Alliance